SM18 Program

Sessions, Panels, Posters, Plenaries, Committee Meetings, and Special Events

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Sessions & Panels

  • ALPhA Committee

      • ALPhA Committee

      • COM27
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Elizabeth George
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • SMarts Workshop: Harassment Resistance and Bystander Training

      • SMarts Workshop: Harassment Resistance and Bystander Training

      • SPEC15
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Sherry Marts
      • Type: Event
  • 30 Demos in 60 Minutes

      • 30 Demos in 60 Minutes

      • CM
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:30PM
      • by Wendy Adams
      • Type: Panel
      • Our panel of physics teachers will present at least 30 dynamic demonstrations that will engage students in the wonder of science. Presenters will share tips on the setup, materials, procedure, and underlying science concepts so the audience can integrate these demos into their own classrooms.
  • AAPT Fun Run/Walk

      • AAPT Fun Run/Walk

      • SPEC13
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00AM - 8:00AM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
      • Get up and get going! Lace up your shoes and enjoy the fresh air with yourcolleagues. Water and t-shirts will be provided. Specific details about the route will be emailed to all Fun Run/Walk participants.
  • AAPT Tweet-up

      • AAPT Tweet-up

      • SPEC02
      • Sun 07/29, 5:00PM - 6:00PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
  • APS Plenary Session

      • The Proton Radius Puzzle*

      • by Evangeline Downie,
      • Type: Invited
      • The Proton Radius Puzzle is the difference between the radius of the proton when measured with electrons, and that measured with muons. Its potential resolutions could be very exciting, include beyond-standard-model physics. The puzzle has resulted in several papers in Science and Nature, and much popular media interest. It began in 2010 with an ultra-precise radius measurement by the CREMA collaboration using muonic hydrogen, which produced a proton radius result roughly 7 standard deviations away from the accepted value. This caused a flurry of theory development, new experiments, and much thought and discussion. The radius puzzle remains unresolved to this day, with many new experiments proposed and under development and hotly debated theories. We will give an overview of the Puzzle, its potential implications and resolutions, and an overview of the ongoing experimental efforts to understand the discrepancy in a quantity of relevance for many areas of physics.
      • The Coming Quantum Revolution

      • by Steven Rolston,
      • Type: Invited
      • The Information Revolution was built on the insights of quantum physics --semiconductor properties, lasers, and magnetism. But these did not require considering the things about quantum mechanics that keep people up at night -- superposition, measurement, and entanglement. Through technological advances of the last 20 years, we can now trap individual atoms and ions, create superconducting circuits that act as single quantum bits, and create spins embedded in solid state materials with coherence times of seconds. Adding in the insights of information and computer science, we are poised for a second quantum revolution -- one where the "weird" features of quantum mechanics will be exploited. Potential applications include quantum computers and simulators, quantum-enhanced sensors, and quantum networks. Countries are beginning to invest billions, and companies large and small are starting quantum efforts. This talk will highlight the science, the technology, the hype, and the future of the quantum revolution to come.
  • APS Plenary Session - The Coming Quantum Revolution

      • APS Plenary Session - The Coming Quantum Revolution

      • PL09
      • Wed 08/01, 11:00AM - 12:30PM
      • by John Stewart
      • Type: Plenary
      • The Information Revolution was built on the insights of quantum physics - semiconductor properties, lasers, and magnetism. But these did not require considering the things about quantum mechanics that keep people up at night - superposition, measurement, and entanglement. Through technological advances of the last twenty years, we can now trap individual atoms and ions, create superconducting circuits that act as single quantum bits, and create spins embedded in solid state materials with coherence times of seconds. Adding in the insights of information and computer science, we are poised for a second quantum revolution - one where the "weird" features of quantum mechanics will be exploited. Potential applications include quantum computers and simulators, quantum-enhanced sensors, and quantum networks. Countries are beginning to invest billions, and companies large and small are starting quantum efforts. This talk will highlight the science, the technology, the hype, and the future of the quantum revolution to come.
  • APS Plenary Session - The Proton Radius Puzzle

      • APS Plenary Session - The Proton Radius Puzzle

      • PL08
      • Wed 08/01, 11:00AM - 12:30PM
      • by John Stewart
      • Type: Plenary
      • The Proton Radius Puzzle is the difference between the radius of the proton when measured with electrons, and that measured with muons. Its potential resolutions could be very exciting, include beyond-standard-model physics. The puzzle has resulted in several papers in Science and Nature, and much popular media interest. It began in 2010 with an ultra-precise radius measurement by the CREMA collaboration using muonic hydrogen, which produced a proton radius result roughly 7 standard deviations away from the accepted value. This caused a flurry of theory development, new experiments, and much thought and discussion. The radius puzzle remains unresolved to this day, with many new experiments proposed and under development and hotly debated theories. We will give an overview of the Puzzle, its potential implications and resolutions, and an overview of the ongoing experimental efforts. to understand the discrepancy in a quantity of relevance for many areas of Physics.
  • Articulations and Transfer between Two Year Colleges and Four Year Institutions

      • My Involvement with OK Course Equivalency Project and Articulation

      • EM(A)01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Karen Williams,
      • Type: Invited
      • In the past, I submitted course syllabi or revised the course description for a course to be accepted at another university. Courses accepted were then were placed on a matrix. Later, the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education set a goal for students to more easily transfer courses between colleges and universities in OK. If courses transferred easily, students would be more likely to finish their degree. I worked this fall on the OK Course Equivalency Project (CEP). Each school sent a representative to develop student learning outcomes for courses in their discipline. I will describe briefly the history of transfer in OK, the CEP, and the approach we used in to develop student learning outcomes. I will also describe an articulation agreement with a two-year college near ECU that was designed to increase our numbers of physics education majors by providing a clear path to ECU.
      • An Intracity Partnership to Build STEM Capacity

      • EM(A)02
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Andrew Ferstl,
      • Type: Invited
      • Winona State University's Physics Department created an articulation agreement with Minnesota State College Southeast in the spring of 2017. Insights will be shared on why it was done, the goals of the arrangement, and the challenges in doing it.
  • Assessment in Physics Teacher Preparation

      • The Physics Teacher Education Program Analysis (PTEPA) Rubric: Development and Insights

      • EL01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen, Rachel Scherr,, Jessica Alzen,, Monica Plisch,

      • Type: Invited
      • The Physics Teacher Education Program Analysis (PTEPA) Rubric(1) is a new instrument designed by PhysTEC to provide a specific, objective, and reliable guide for physics teacher education programs -- enabling self-reflection, measurement of program growth, and creating research opportunities. The PTEPA Rubric was developed to describe what "thriving" physics teacher education programs do (i.e., programs at large universities that typically graduate five or more highly-qualified physics teachers in a year). The PTEPA Rubric is informed by the PhysTEC Key Components(2), but offers more specific guidance about program practices and measurement of success. We will describe the process of PTEPA Rubric development, initial insights gained from the instrument, and future research.
      • National Report Card on Physics Teacher Education

      • EL02
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Monica Plisch Megan McRae, Renee Michelle Goertzen

      • Type: Invited
      • There is a severe national shortage of qualified high school physics teachers; a major contributing factor is that colleges and universities are failing to prepare sufficient numbers of new physics teachers. The National Report Card on Physics Teacher Education reports the number of new physics teachers educated by colleges and universities, based on an analysis of the U.S. Department of Education Title II data set. We found that over 70% of secondary education programs produced zero teachers with a physics or physics education degree in a recent three-year period. There are also a number of institutions of higher education that prepare substantial numbers of physics teachers, and these colleges and universities are recognized on an "honor roll" of the top 100 physics teacher educators. A state-by-state analysis found that nearly all states prepare less than 40% of the estimated number of new physics teachers needed to replace those who retire or leave the profession. An analysis by institution benchmarks the physics teacher education program relative to state and national averages. The National Report Card is a product of the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), a project of the American Physical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers, supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number 1707990.
      • Study of Development of Reflective Skills as Productive Teaching Habits

      • EL03
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Marianne Vanier, Eugenia Etkina,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide examples of science practices around which educators should center their teaching, little guidance is provided to help structure their implementation in the classroom. We report on the study that examines how pre-service physics teachers (PPTs) develop the skills necessary to center their teaching on science practices through the use of the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) framework. PPTs at Rutgers University teach laboratories and recitations in an ISLE-reformed introductory physics course as part of their teacher preparation program. This additional teaching experience is coupled with weekly reflections on a Google group page. The development of a coding scheme and an analysis of the reflections behold how the reflections of PPTs show their awareness of the role that science practices play in learning physics.
      • Assessing Practice and Experiment Design Using a Structured Laboratory Practical

      • EL04
      • Tue 07/31, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by James Moore,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Within the practice of science, the dimensions of content knowledge, science practice, and reasoning are linked. For example, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) explicitly recognizes this link, where students demonstrate understanding of a topic by showing they can practice science within that domain. This shift in science standards prompts the following question: how do you assess practices? In this talk, I will describe how we have used a structured scientific abilities rubric in combination with laboratory practical exams to assess experiment design. The rubrics used were developed by the Investigating Science Learning Environment (ISLE) project, and were utilized to assess middle-grades pre-service teachers' growth as science practitioners through the incorporation of experiments into summative assessments. I will describe two science practicums, one on periodic motion and the other on spring force, and discuss what indicators we looked for in student work.
      • When District-Level Teacher Evaluation and Support Structures Deter NGSS Implementation

      • EL05
      • Tue 07/31, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by William Lindsay, Julian Stenzel Martins,, Valerie Otero,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have potential to impact the way physics is taught and learned in high schools. To ensure successful implementation of the NGSS, districts, school leaders, and researchers need to provide structural supports for physics teachers attempting to reform their pedagogy. Through a long-term Research Practice Partnership with a STEM-focused charter network, physics education researchers collaborated with key district stakeholders to revise structures and resources, such as standards, curriculum, and professional development, that are intended to direct and assess instruction. To make claims about the effectiveness of this strategy, we used a mixed-methods case study employing institutional change theory as an analytical framework. Specifically, we gathered evidence of regulative, normative, and cognitive indicators of change. Our findings suggest that attending to coherence between district instructional guidance infrastructures and reform pedagogy may be a successful strategy for school districts attempting to implement NGSS-aligned physics instruction.
      • ASELL Schools: Practice of Science and Inquiry through Professional Development

      • EL06
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Manjula Sharma, Cornish Scott,, Vicky Tzioumis,, Petr Lebedev,, Srividya Kota,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Practice of Science and Inquiry, if implemented adequately can transform classrooms into places of wonder, inspiring students to be creative and critical. Yet, despite substantive funding for such endeavors, the transformation in science education has been sluggish. This paper describes ASELL Schools, a professional development program aimed at embedding inquiry approaches across Australian secondary schools in a unique model in which students and teachers work together, with students having increased responsibility for learning. Our results demonstrate that teachers are changing their practices, implementing more inquiry approaches with some resulting in whole school changes.
      • Investigating Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Views about Physics Representations

      • EL07
      • Tue 07/31, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Judyanto Sirait, Janet Ainley, Martin Bartstow

      • Type: Contributed
      • The ability to represent physics concepts in various forms is a very important skill in physics learning. Therefore, instructors have developed creative approaches by involving representations in the teaching process as a means of enhancing students' understanding. Most previous studies focused on drawing and using representations to help students in learning physics concepts and solving problems. This paper presents a study (qualitative survey) concerning pre-service physics teachers' views about physics representations during problem-solving processes. Interviews have also been conducted to investigate pre-service physics teachers' views about representations in more detail. Semi-structure interviews were used to explore deeply students' motivation to draw or not to draw representation such as free-body diagrams (FBDs) while solving physics problems. We found that most students agree that drawing representations such as picture or sketch, graphs, diagrams aids them to understand physics concepts, physics problems and to find the best solution.
      • Pre-service Teachers' Physics Conceptual Understanding and Technology Self-Efficacy: Effects of Exploring Physics Curriculum

      • EL08
      • Tue 07/31, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Deepika Menon, Matthew Conway,, Meera Chandrasekhar,, Dorina Kosztin,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of an innovative iPad-based curriculum app, Exploring Physics, on pre-service elementary teachers' physics conceptual understandings and technology self-efficacy during a semester-long specialized physics content course. Participants included 73 pre-service elementary teachers who participated in pre-post implementation of a physics conceptual test and technology self-efficacy survey and open-ended questionnaires. Data analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and open-coding techniques. Results showed significant positive changes in participants' physics conceptual understandings and technology self-efficacy. Qualitative trends revealed that learning science via curriculum app benefitted participants as learners of science as well as teachers of science. Participants found continuous engagement via iPads throughout the semester enhanced their knowledge of physics concepts as well as exposed them to successful models of the appropriate uses of mobile technologies in classrooms. Findings have implications for pre-service teacher preparation in physics via the use of mobile technologies.
      • Action Hero Goes on the Road

      • EL09
      • Tue 07/31, 3:30PM - 3:40PM
      • by John Banks,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Over the last 10 years, I have developed an action hero, Super B (Banks). I have a costume, cape, and flashing wand that dispels ignorance. As the action hero I do interactive science shows with giant bubbles, a bed of nails, elephant toothpaste, human polymers, ruler breaks, exploding pumpkins, fire in the hands, and much more. With this as a springboard I do classroom labs and professional developments with teachers. I have developed a webpage with lessons aligned with Next Generation Science Standards with each of my show's interactive hands-on, minds-on demonstrations.
  • Astronomy

      • Undergraduate Course

      • AN01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Vladimir Tsifrinovich,*
      • Type: Contributed
      • I would like to share my experience in development and teaching an undergraduate course "Introduction to Cosmology". While cosmology is one of the most popular topics in science and the idea of "Big Bang" is well known to the general public I was surprised to see that students actually do not understand the scientific meaning of modern cosmology. The major problem I face is to explain what do we mean under the modern cosmology? Many students believe that we really wish to describe the infinite world at an infinite spatial and time scale and even answer the theological question. I have to explain that modern cosmology describes the Universe on a definite spatial and temporal scale. The current cosmological scale is definitely greater than that in the ancient or even 19th century cosmology but it is still finite. It is important to explain that at every new scale we have a new picture of the Universe as well as new mathematical models to describe that picture. So, I have to explain that the previous cosmological models starting from the ancient ones were not wrong. They described the Universe at the scale available at that time. They became wrong or even ridiculous only when people tried to extend those models to a larger scale without reliable information about the Universe on that scale. The same is true for the modern cosmology.
      • A Student-Generated Embodied Metaphor for Binary Star Dynamics

      • AN02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Elias Euler, Elmer Rådahl,, Bor Gregorcic,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In this presentation, we present an example of a student-generated metaphor for celestial motion in the form of an embodied dance. We examine how this dance played a part in the students' reasoning about astronomy, paying particular attention to how the students coordinated the movements of their bodies to communicate with one another about the centrality and reciprocity of the interactions between binary stars. We also consider how an open-ended, technology-rich learning environment made such a metaphorical, embodied representation possible, and review how the process of unpacking such metaphors can be embraced by teachers in potentially fruitful ways.
      • Astronomy Outreach Done Right: Ten Year Anniversary of Phoenix Landing on Mars

      • AN03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Ken Brandt,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The Phoenix mission outreach team did a masterful job of engaging audiences through their outreach plan and delivery. This talk looks back on that success from an institutional point of view. Also presented will be an overview of the mission and its discoveries.
      • Once in a Blue Moon, Space Explores You!

      • AN04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Jordan Steckoff,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Astronomy education often takes place in formal education settings. However, the cosmos periodically produces an event that engages a broad swath of the community, and provides a tool to informally engage the broader public. The Hamburg Meteoroid entered Earth's atmosphere shortly after 8 p.m. on Jan. 16, 2018, producing a shock wave equivalent to ~10 tons of TNT, and rained meteorite across the frozen lakes of Hamburg Township, Michigan. The resulting meteorite strewn field was soon swarming with professional and amateur meteorite hunters and curious families. Here I present the astronomy education and public outreach opportunities that this event created, which allowed me to engage the public in an informal setting. This "field trip" allowed these learners to investigate the physics of meteorites, such as how the atmosphere sorts meteorites by size, why the meteorites were cold to the touch, and why 11 km/s is "slow".
      • Lessons Learned in Learning to Research

      • AN05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by David Oparko,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Through the Institute for Student Astronomical Research (InStAR) we are able to collaborate with other institutes with a common purpose of educating students in the process of astronomical research. At Stanford Online High School our end goal for students in our Astronomy Research Seminar is to write, revise, and submit a manuscript for publication to a journal such as the Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO). Data is gathered through robotic telescopes which allows remote observing and coincides with our virtual meeting nature. Learning to research within a group and independently can be a difficult skill to develop but is greatly valued. Areas that may indicate how a student may do are linked to their previous research experience, class size, group size, and class structure. With these possible predictors we have gained an increased understanding of our pitfalls and successes to improve the Research Seminar at Stanford's Online High School.
  • Astronomy Poster

      • Teaching Seasons When Distance Does Matter

      • PST1A01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Mary Brewer Sherer,
      • Type: Poster
      • When teaching the cause of the seasons on Earth, the main misconception isthat the distance changes from the Sun dictate the seasons. Multiple studies and teaching lessons have been developed to help dispel this misconception. In my astronomy and astrobiology courses, most students can correctly identify the cause of the seasons on Earth, but when trying to apply this framework to extra-solar planets, their gaps in deep understanding show. Many extra-solar planets have such elliptical orbits that the distance from their star does cause seasons, yet students do not always have the tools available to decide which factors are important. Through a light sensor and an Arduino, I have developed a lab that allows students to vary both the angle of the light and the distance to understand how much each affect the radiation at a planet's surface.
      • The Niels Bohr Institute Youth Lab Exoplanet Mystery Box

      • PST1A03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Ian Bearden, Marta Mrozowska,, Jo Verwohlt,, Axel Boisen,, Jimmy Hansen,

      • Type: Poster
      • We have developed an Arduino controlled, 3D printed orrery, which, when observed with a photosensor (the light sensor on an IOLab, for example) can be used to illustrate how exoplanets are detected using the transit method. Each orrery has two "orbits" with interchangeable planets so that students can investigate the relationship between planet size and transmitted light from the "star" which they orbit. In our model, the "star" is a large light bulb. After students become familiar with this simple system, they take data from an orrery (hidden in the mystery box) which has an unknown number of planets of unknown size. When the students finish analyzing these data, the mystery box is opened and the results compared with the now visible model.
      • Evaluation of an Interactive Undergraduate Cosmology Curriculum

      • PST1A05
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Kimberly Coble, Aaron White,, Dominique Martin,, Patrycia Hayes,, Lynn Cominsky,

      • Type: Poster
      • The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks as well as labs that allow students to manipulate and analyze real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a format that builds important STEM skills, while engaging those outside the field with modern discoveries and a more realistic sense of practices and tools used by professional astronomers. Over two semesters, we field-tested the curriculum in general education cosmology classes at a state university in California [N ~ 80]. We administered pre- and post-instruction multiple-choice and open-ended content surveys as well as the CLASS, to gauge the effectiveness of the course and modules. Questions addressed included the structure, composition, and evolution of the universe, including students' reasoning and "how we know."
      • The Impact Crater at Middlesboro, KY

      • PST1A02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Bob Powell, Ben Jenkins,

      • Type: Poster
      • The authors visited the astrobleme at Middlesboro, KY, on their way home after S17 meeting of AAPT at Cincinnati, OH. The Middlesboro crater is 4.8 km in diameter and was formed less than 300 million years ago. Its identification as an impact site was confirmed in 1966 when Robert Dietz discovered shatter cones in sandstone; shocked quartz was later found. Early travelers, including Daniel Boone, found the relatively flat basin easy to travel after crossing the Cumberland Gap. The authors visited the town's exhibit about the event and photographed the circular form from Pinnacle Overlook in the nearby mountains.
      • Building a Radio Telescope after ALPhA Immersion Experience

      • PST1A04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Erin De Pree,
      • Type: Poster
      • Constructing a small radio telescope for our advanced lab course has lead to unexpected benefits. In addition to offering several students research and construction experience, the machining skills developed are leading to a new course on metalworking for instrument making. We will discuss the unexpected challenges of learning metal machining skills from scratch, integrating multiple sets of instructions and notes, and the progress to date. The telescope is currently on schedule to join the experimental line up in our advanced lab course in the spring 2019 semester. We will also publish a complete instruction manual later in 2019. The telescope was originally designed by Alan Rogers at MIT's Haystack Observatory and modified by Carl Akerlof at the University of Michigan. The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA) immersion course in summer 2016 lead by Carl Akerlof made this project possible.
  • Awards Committee I (Closed Meeting)

      • Awards Committee I (Closed Meeting)

      • COM18
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Best Practice in Teacher Professional Development

      • PD of Physics Teacher-Leaders in a Program of Regional PLCs

      • FC01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Smadar Levy, Esther Bagno,, Hana Berger,, Bat-Sheva Eylon,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Teacher-leaders play a major role in teachers' Professional Development (PD) and in the development of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs). However, little is known about the PD of the teachers-leaders themselves. We studied the PD of high-school physics teacher-leaders in a national PLCs program. The teacher-leaders' PLC was led by a team from the Weizmann Institute of Science, while the teacher-leaders simultaneously led regional PLCs of physics teachers. In order to characterize the teacher-leaders' PD we developed a theoretical framework: Physics Knowledge for Teaching and Leading (PKTL). Our framework is based on the frameworks of Knowledge Integration (Linn & Eylon, 2011) and MKT (Ball, Thames & Phelps, 2008). The results show the teacher-leaders' long-term PD in several aspects: their physics knowledge, their knowledge about teacher learning, dissemination of learner-centered practices, and more. Elaborated examples will be presented and implications for PD of teachers and teacher-leaders will be discussed.
      • Theory of Planned Behavior as a Lens for Professional Development*

      • FC02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Alistair McInerny, Mila Kryjevskaia,, Jared Ladbury,, Paul Kelter,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A North Dakota State University team is designing, implementing, and evaluating a sustainable campus-wide professional development program to encourage the use of active learning in college classrooms. Each cohort of faculty participates in four 2-day workshops and regular Faculty Learning Community meetings over 2 years. To assess the effectiveness of the program, we have incorporated two methodologies common in psychology research: (1) the Theory of Planned Behavior, which utilizes attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy beliefs to predict intentions toward a specific action (e.g. implementation of active-learning), and (2) "retrospective" pre-tests instead of traditional pre-tests. The comparison of post- and retrospective pre-tests has been shown to be more reliable in detecting change when assessing self-report data. A robust set of data from two cohorts, collected over the course of three years, allowed us to probe changes in participants' attitudes, beliefs, and classroom practices, and the links between them.
      • Partnerships for Science Identity: Three Populations of Active Learners (PSI^3)*

      • FC03
      • Tue 07/31, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by Wendy Adams, Kristine Callan,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We have added a new component to our science teacher preparation program that partners pairs of secondary teacher candidates (TCs) with a team of elementary teachers (ETs), and their elementary students (ESs). The goals of this partnership are to: establish expectations of vertical articulation with TCs, provide strong examples of classroom management for the TCs, empower ETs to teach more science activities, and develop science identities in both ETs and their ESs. Here we will report on the successes and challenges of the first year of this project including how we have worked with different districts to share materials. *This work is supported by 100Kin10.
      • Inquiry as Strategy for STEM Education

      • FC04
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Mohammad Bhatti,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The U.S. National Science Education Standards recommend that science instruction and learning should be well grounded in inquiry. In spite of these efforts, however, little has changed in the way science is taught. Teacher-talk and textbooks are still the primary providers of science information for students. The objective of this talk is to: (a) review the history of inquiry science teaching, (b) define inquiry as a strategy for teaching science, and (c) present the Physics by Inquiry model for in-service middle school science teachers. Amazing results of the implementation of the model and make and take activities will be presented.
      • Can You Tell Me What Evidence Supports This Theory?

      • FC05
      • Tue 07/31, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Richard Gelderman,
      • Type: Contributed
      • We recognized the needs that would face the teachers in our region, and assembled a strong interdisciplinary team to thoughtfully design the content to maximize learning. This team iterated until we had a schedule that would allow the maximum number of diverse teachers to participate. Funding was acquired to allow us to purchase material to share and to provide stipends, travel reimbursement and support for substitute teachers to allow participants to feel it was worth being part of the project. From the first rounds of workshops we identified top performers with leadership potential. The second round incorporated those teacher leaders into the workshop team. After being presenters alongside the original team, the teacher leaders came together to plan the third round of workshops. That was when we happened to ask "Can you tell me what evidence supports this theory?" and were stunned to hear their responses.
      • Exposing Physics Majors to Education while Supporting Studio-Style Courses

      • FC06
      • Tue 07/31, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Brokk Toggerson,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Many departments have few formalized opportunities for physics majors to explore education principles within physics departments. Moreover, teaching a 100-student course in a team-based format as in Michaelsen et al often requires significant in-classroom assistants. At UMass-Amherst, we have been developing a course to meet both of these needs. In our course, students engage with modern PER literature and get hands-on practical experience in a studio-style classroom under the mentorship of one of our department's lecturers. Simultaneously, the students in this course provide the in-classroom support needed for the first semester of our introductory physics for life sciences course. We will present some of the key features of our course, in particular how course assignments both help the department achieve its teaching goals as well as allow students develop real-world products they can use in future job searches.
  • Best Practices in Educational Technology

      • Using Mobile Devices as Data Sensors for Laboratory Experiences

      • DC01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Vieyra Software, Chrystian Vieyra,, Benjamin Xu,, Diana Price

      • Type: Invited
      • Mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous among students, teachers, other STEM professionals, and the general population as useful measurement tools. Importantly, the same tools used by secondary students are proving to be useful in high-level engineering and scientific research. Panelists who have collaborated on the development of these tools will include a prior high school physics educator, a software engineer, and an undergraduate computer science student. These panelists will share anecdotes of their interactions with the STEM-curious with mobile sensors, from outreach with elementary children through collaborations with experienced professionals. They will share their expectations for the future of mobile sensor development and will be eager to receive feedback from the audience about their own desires for mobile technology in physics education.
      • Perusall: A Social learning Platform to Encourage Active Reading

      • DC02
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Brian Lukoff, Kelly Miller,

      • Type: Invited
      • We illustrate the successful implementation of pre-class reading assignments through Perusall, a social learning platform that allows students to discuss the reading online with their classmates. Perusall encourages students to come to class prepared by facilitating social interactions around the course content and by automatically grading students' work. We show how the platform can be used to understand how students are reading before class. We identify specific reading behaviors that are predictive of in-class exam performance. We also demonstrate ways that the platform promotes active reading strategies and produces high-quality learning interactions between students outside class. Finally, we compare the exam performance of two cohorts of students, where the only difference between them is the use of the platform; we show that students do significantly better on exams when using the platform.
      • Performing Real Science in a Virtual Environment with Video-based Experiments

      • DC03
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Matthew Vonk, Peter Bohacek,

      • Type: Invited
      • In this session, we'll explore some of the ways that technology can facilitate the learning of science concepts as well as acquisition of scientific abilities. In particular, we'll look at new video-based experiments (Pivot Interactives) that allow students to practice many science skills including: • closely observing an interesting phenomenon • asking questions about that phenomenon • designing experiments to answer those questions • collecting meaningful data • analyzing that data (often with graphs) • drawing conclusions • representing those conclusions in graphical, verbal, and algebraic form • using the results to make predictions about new phenomena Obviously the acquisition of these skills does not *require* advanced technology, each can be done (and has been) using the most basic tools. Yet, technology is especially good at reducing the cognitive load associated with each of these tasks. By reducing the unproductive struggle associated experiment logistics students can fully engage in the productive struggle associated with an authentic scientific approach.
  • Board of Directors Meeting I

      • Board of Directors Meeting I

      • BOD01
      • Sat 07/28, 6:00PM - 9:00PM
      • by Gordon P. Ramsey
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Board of Directors Meeting II

      • Board of Directors Meeting II

      • BOD02
      • Sun 07/29, 10:30AM - 4:00PM
      • by Gordon P. Ramsey
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Board of Directors Meeting III

      • Board of Directors Meeting III

      • BOD03
      • Wed 08/01, 3:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Gordon Ramsey
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Challenges and Solutions in Physics Instruction at the TYC

      • Challenges and Solutions in Physics Instruction at the TYC

      • TOP03
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Joe Heafner
      • Type: Topical
      • In this topical discussion, we will entertain conversation about issues facing physics faculty in two-year colleges. Come prepared to discuss both positive and negative aspects, and bring proposed solutions for the latter.
  • Committee on Apparatus

      • Committee on Apparatus

      • COM14
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Tara Peppard
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Diversity in Physics

      • Committee on Diversity in Physics

      • COM13
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Carolina Alvarado
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Educational Technologies

      • Committee on Educational Technologies

      • COM28
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Shahida Dar
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Graduate Education in Physics

      • Committee on Graduate Education in Physics

      • COM23
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 8:30PM
      • by Christopher Porter
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on History and Philosophy of Physics

      • Committee on History and Philosophy of Physics

      • COM20
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 8:30PM
      • by Christopher M. Nakamura
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on International Physics Education

      • Committee on International Physics Education

      • COM15
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Genrikh Golin
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Laboratories

      • Committee on Laboratories

      • COM19
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 8:30PM
      • by Jonathan R. Mumford
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Modern Physics

      • Committee on Modern Physics

      • COM11
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Kenneth W. Cecire
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Physics in High Schools

      • Committee on Physics in High Schools

      • COM21
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 8:30PM
      • by Charlene M. Rydgren
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Physics in Pre-High School Education

      • Committee on Physics in Pre-High School Education

      • COM17
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Tommi Holsenbeck
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Physics in Two-Year Colleges

      • Committee on Physics in Two-Year Colleges

      • COM29
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Gregory Mulder
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Physics in Undergraduate Education

      • Committee on Physics in Undergraduate Education

      • COM09
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Gabriel C. Spalding
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Professional Concerns

      • Committee on Professional Concerns

      • COM16
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Bradley F. Gearhart
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Research in Physics Education

      • Committee on Research in Physics Education

      • COM22
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 8:30PM
      • by James T. Laverty
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Science Education for the Public

      • Committee on Science Education for the Public

      • COM07
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Jacquelyn J. Chini
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Space Science and Astronomy

      • Committee on Space Science and Astronomy

      • COM30
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Benjamin G. Jenkins
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Special Projects and Philanthropy

      • Committee on Special Projects and Philanthropy

      • COM99
      • Tue 07/31, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Carolina Alvarado
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Teacher Preparation

      • Committee on Teacher Preparation

      • COM08
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Dan MacIsaac
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on Women in Physics

      • Committee on Women in Physics

      • COM31
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Sissi L. Li
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Committee on the Interests of Senior Physicists

      • Committee on the Interests of Senior Physicists

      • COM10
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Charles H. Holbrow
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Communicating Physics/Science Through New Media

      • Communicating Physics/Science Through New Media

      • by Chad Davies
      • Type: Panel
  • Computational Physics for the Life Sciences

      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS: Goals, Dilemmas, Choices

      • FD01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Edit Yerushalmi, Ariel Abrashkin,, Haim Edri,, Elon Langbeheim,, Ariel Steiner

      • Type: Contributed
      • The physics of mesoscale structure formation- how do many molecules organize themselves into large-scale assemblies- is at the heart of Biological physics. We present the dilemmas and choices underlying an introductory curriculum that gradually builds the knowledge structure required to address this question. The research-based-curriculum was tested in a course for interested and capable high-school students, and refined over three implementation cycles, introducing several shifts from traditional curricula to meet students' limited prior knowledge: Dynamics presented with a focus on motion dominated by frictional and stochastic forces. The step-by-step evolution of many-particle-systems, dominated by spatial randomness, towards equilibrium, is analyzed and pictured by means of computational models. Introductory level equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is presented in the context of particle diffusion involving spatial entropy; as a precursor to analogous treatment of thermal contact. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations serve to concretize analytical models of structure formation in systems where interactions compete with randomness.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- Paving the Way

      • FD02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Haim Edri, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Central position papers present a challenging task -- the inclusion of thermal physics as part of the IPLS course. We present the first unit in an introductory science curriculum that uses computational tools to explain the random nature of multi-particle-systems, crucial in statistical physics, while taking into account students' limited prior knowledge. The unit focuses on diffusion – an important generic characteristic of ions in solution and many other bio-molecules, engaging students in constructing a series of computational models intended to align the stochastic nature of random walks with their prior knowledge of Newtonian mechanics. Students analyze the development of particles' trajectories in time at different time scales. This analysis serves to justify the shift from deterministic model of the motion of one or two particles in vacuum, to a model of colloidal particle dominated by frictional and stochastic forces, resulting from the interactions with the many-particles of the solvent.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- From Dynamics to Equilibrium Statistics

      • FD03
      • Tue 07/31, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by Ariel Steiner, Ariel Abrashkin,, Sam Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Computational dynamical models were used in the first unit of an introductory science curriculum to concretize the shift from Newtonian dynamics to particle diffusion modeled as a random-walk. In the second unit of the course this is followed by the abstract statistical-thermodynamics treatment of non-interacting systems assuming equal probability of all microstates (spatial configurations). This unit demonstrates the superfluous nature of the random-walk model for diffusion, accounting for the time-evolution of all particle trajectories, when used to describe equilibrium. Students compare the long-time averaged density distributions of random-walk vs. Monte-Carlo simulations anchored in the equal probability assumption and realize that both lead to constant density. Students justify the assumption by examining spatial sampling in a random-walk model for the relevant measurement timescales. This analysis sets the stage for later discussions of entropy and the second law as-well-as analysis of other systems relevant to life sciences, such as polymeric macromolecules.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- From Spatial to Energy Spreading

      • FD04
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Ariel Abrashkin, Ariel Steiner,, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Biological cells consist of molecules in aqueous solution, serving as a thermal reservoir. The analysis of such systems relies on the laws of thermodynamics, and the conceptualization of energy and its associated entropy. We suggest an instructional sequence in which thermal contact is presented in terms of energy diffusion in the system, in analogy to a more concrete context – particle diffusion involving spatial entropy and the second law. Working in a framework of non-interacting particles, having only kinetic energies, enables a simple and concise definition of temperature and thermal equilibration. To illustrate our approach, we demonstrate a simulation-based discovery activity in which students investigate thermal contact between particles occupying the same volume, relevant to biomolecules in solution. Next, potential energy arising from interparticle interactions, crucial for structure formation (e.g. membranes, vesicles), is introduced. In this context, we derive the Boltzmann factor accounting for interactions from the first and second laws.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- From Energy to Complexity

      • FD05
      • Tue 07/31, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Elon Langbeheim, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Structural complexity is quintessential to biological systems that containmany interacting molecules (e.g., cell membranes, cytoskeleton). The derivation of analytical models that explain structure formation in biological systems requires mathematical treatments of entropy and internal energy which may be beyond the reach of introductory students. Monte-Carlo computational models are an alternative path for the analysis of such biological systems. A lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation samples the configurations of the system by starting from an arbitrary configuration, and then alters the location or orientation of each component (e.g., lipid molecule) using random steps. Each step can then change the potential energy of interaction through the variation of the separation of a given component and its neighbors. The Boltzmann factor is used to calculate the acceptance probability of each step, based on the change in potential energy. We will demonstrate how students use this method for modeling processes in complex biological systems.
      • Introducing Computational Models for Diffusion into IPLS

      • FD06
      • Tue 07/31, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Benjamin Dreyfus, Wolfgang Christian,, Haim Edri,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Weizmann Institute's Interdisciplinary Computational Science curriculum, for advanced high school students in Israel, has students develop molecular dynamics simulations that model macroscopic phenomena such as diffusion. The connection between the microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is also a core element of IPLS curricula for undergraduate students in the U.S., such as NEXUS/Physics. We report on preliminary results from a collaboration that is exploring how elements of these curricula can be synthesized, in order to integrate computational modeling into IPLS. This requires examining the interface not only on the level of content, but also the different student populations for which the curricula are designed, and the different goals for the courses.
      • Adapting Weizmann Institute Material for Use in the United States*

      • FD07
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Wolfgang Christian, Haim Erdi,, Benjamin Dreyfus,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Science is a universal activity and interdisciplinary and international collaborations are common in traditional research but less so in education because teaching material is written in the local language and curricular requirements vary from country to country. This paper describes work done in conjunction with the Weizmann Institute and the Davidson Institute of Science Education in Rehovot, Israel, to study the practicality of sharing material between the AAPT-ComPADRE digital library and the Weizmann Institute. We demonstrate how a collaboration could proceed by adapting a module from a 10th grade "Interdisciplinary Computational Science (ICS): Chemical and Biological Physics" course. This ICS module uses hard-disk molecular dynamics to construct a fundamental molecular framework to a variety of natural phenomena. The module starts with a pre-test to assess prior computational and physics knowledge, is followed by student programming projects, and concludes with an assessment of both computational ability in physics concepts.
      • Modeling and Simulation for the Life Sciences

      • FD08
      • Tue 07/31, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by Peter Nelson,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Life-science students are introduced to modeling and simulation on day oneusing a physical "marble game" modeling diffusion. Students then work through a self-study guide introduction to Excel and write their own kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation of the marble game in a blank spreadsheet. In this guided-inquiry exercise, students discover that Fick's law of diffusion is a consequence of Brownian motion. Subsequent activities introduce students to: algorithms and computational thinking; drug elimination and radioactivity; semi-log plots; finite difference methods (and calculus); the principles of scientific modeling; model validation and residual analysis. Thermodynamics is introduced using kinetic models of osmosis, ligand binding, ion channel permeation and phase equilibria. IPLS students without calculus are not afraid of Excel. They have been able to implement Monte Carlo and finite difference models of topics that usually require ODEs and PDEs. Sample chapters are available for free at http://circle4.com/biophysics/chapters/
      • Integrating Computation with Science Courses to Bolster Student Understanding

      • FD09
      • Tue 07/31, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Odd Petter Sand, Marcos Caballero, Christine Lindstrøm

      • Type: Contributed
      • In modern science education, computational understanding is a crucial skill for students to learn. At the University of Oslo, Life Science students are now learning computation deeply integrated with biology and mathematics in their first semester. In this course, students use Python to learn scientific modeling with a JupyterHub textbook where the examples are interactive. We are studying how students organize their knowledge in both computation and science when the curriculum is taught in such an integrated way. Here we will outline the integrated approach and present lessons learned and implications for further curricular development in these and similar courses. We also discuss how the use of computational methods may bolster students' conceptual understanding in mathematics, biology and physics.
      • Modeling and Visualization of Thermal Systems in Introductory and Upper Level Physics

      • FD10
      • Tue 07/31, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by Jay Wang,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Thermal physics transcends disciplinary boundaries more than any single subject, and an understanding of the basic concepts is important in nearly every area of science including life and environmental sciences. We describe the modeling and simulation of thermodynamic systems integrated into both introductory and upper-level physics courses. We discuss computational activities based on first-principle simulations involving many-body interactions such as Brownian motion and molecular dynamics. The activities are designed with meaningful, level-appropriate student engagement using Jupyter Python for computation and enhanced visualization with VPython (see gallery at http://www.faculty.umassd.edu/j.wang/).We will present actual activities in which students can study concepts such as thermal equilibrium, diffusion, and entropy, and quantify properties including diffusion rates, Maxwell distributions, and equipartition theorem.
      • Fun with Fluids! Interactive Simulations to Illustrate Fluid Dynamics Concepts*

      • FD11
      • Tue 07/31, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by Chris Orban, Richelle Teeling-Smith,, Chris Porter,

      • Type: Contributed
      • One of the closest connections between introductory physics coursework andlife sciences is through the topic of fluid mechanics. Many textbooks mention an important connection between fluid mechanics and the circulatory system. For example, fluid mechanics dictates how the heart does work to pump blood to the head, and the way that blood flows through blood vessels. The fluid in a fluid mechanics discussion is often depicted as a liquid of a certain color with a velocity vector to show the direction of the flow rather than as a group of particles exhibiting some obvious motion. Thanks to "particle system" algorithms such as Box2D, simulations with dozens of particles can now be rendered in real time and in an interactive way on a typical chromebook. We demonstrate a few simulations of this kind and discuss future possibilities for using this approach these to illustrate fluid mechanics concepts. *The STEMcoding Project is supported by the AIP Meggers Award and internal funding from OSU.
      • Polymer Chain Translocation in Post Array Induced by Arrangement Differ

      • FD12
      • Tue 07/31, 6:50PM - 7:00PM
      • by Zhaohui Wang, Jiahua Lu, Xingchen Zhang

      • Type: Contributed
      • We demonstrate that the arrangement differs of posts have significant effect on the translocation of polymer chains which are embedded in the post arrays by using Monte Carlo algorithm. Moreover, by changing the diameter of the posts, we find that the associated translocation times are strongly affected by the structure of the post array. Hence, a new micro-fabricated device that is used to separate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by molecular weight can be designed using this idea. Moreover, this study can help us to develop a better understanding on the passages of polymers across membranes in nature.
  • Contributing to, and Using, the IPLS Portal

      • Living Physics Portal: Community and Resources for Physics for Life Sciences

      • CC01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Catherine Crouch,
      • Type: Invited
      • The Living Physics Portal will provide an online platform for sharing and developing curricula for physics for life science students, which will support the formation of a community of developers and implementers. Specifically, it will allow those who are new to such courses to learn about the special features and challenges of teaching such courses from experienced instructors; and it will allow those who develop materials, whether experienced at doing so or novices, to share their materials for feedback at an early stage, or submit them for inclusion in a "vetted collection" for materials that have been extensively used and refined. Finally, it will allow instructors to find materials through a searchable interface providing extensive metadata informing implementation. The Portal is a joint project of AAPT with faculty from eight colleges and universities. This talk will present the overall design of the Portal and the structures to facilitate community formation.
      • Contributing a Year-Long Introductory Course to the Living Physics Portal

      • CC02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Mark Reeves,
      • Type: Invited
      • Introductory physics for life sciences course instructors commonly professthe goal to instill physics thinking into future physicians and their students wonder why they take physics at all. A primary goal of the Living Physics Portal is to change this thinking. At GW, we have developed a year-long, calculus-based introductory course that is taken primarily by biomedical engineers and mathematically advanced biology students. We have worked with biology faculty and students to develop material that answers a student's question, "What can physics tell me about biology that I cannot learn otherwise?" Our material is being placed on the Living Physics Portal, as is material from similarly focused courses at the Maryland, New Hampshire, and Swarthmore. This talk will focus on our experience in using the portal as contributors at various levels and as users of material placed there by other members of the community.
      • The Value of Community and Questions that Arise from Portal Submissions

      • CC03
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Dawn Meredith,
      • Type: Invited
      • The seed contributors to the portal have been testing out the submission process over the last year. I will discuss one such trial submission that came with peer feedback to share the intellectual and emotional challenges and rewards of the process.
      • The Living Physics Portal and Reforming Introductory Physics for Pre-health Students*

      • CC04
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Ralf Widenhorn,
      • Type: Invited
      • Physics instruction for life science and pre-health students frequently does not meet students' needs and is often perceived as a weed-out course. A goal of the Living Physics Portal is to let instructors share resources and transform how these students are instructed nationally. Each institution and instructor has different needs, depending on their local student population and infrastructure. At Portland State University the algebra-based physics course is dominated by pre-health students. We are currently in the process of designing a full year sequence that focuses on the needs of these students. For this we worked with biomedical experts on physics content that is authentic to the medical field. This presentation will talk about the challenges of reforming a full year sequence and how the Living Physics Portal can provide a resource to combine one's own instructional material with curriculum that has been successfully used at other institutions.
      • The Living Physics Portal Support of Educator Evolution

      • CC05
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Nancy Beverly,
      • Type: Invited
      • As we evolve as educators, our curricular activities and materials created, or creatively adapted, for our unique curricular environment and life/health science student population, also evolve. When and how to share "works in progress" is addressed in the three-tier submission structure and community building, so evolution is supported by The Living Physics portal at any stage, for a spectrum of user/contributors (users becoming contributors and contributors also being users). Depending on the tier, submitters will be guided to provide potential users with orientation and pedagogy to help transfer usability and adaptability of materials developed for one institutional environment to a variety of other institutional environments. Getting and receiving feedback and proving for further discussion will also plays a supportive role.
  • Council on Undergraduate Research

      • Council on Undergraduate Research

      • GD
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Mel Sabella
      • Type: Panel
      • Physics and Astronomy Opportunities with the Council on Undergraduate Research

      • GD01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Michael Jackson, Toni Sauncy,, Duncan McBride,

      • Type: Panel
      • The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR), founded in 1978, is a multidisciplinary organization whose mission is to support and promote high-quality undergraduate student-faculty collaborative research and scholarship. Individual members are organized by divisions with the Physics and Astronomy (P&A) Division one of the oldest in the organization, second only to the Chemistry Division. Consequently, there are numerous opportunities for P&A faculty and students to participate in and benefit from the activities CUR offers. CUR currently has about 13,000 individual members and 700 institutional members, mostly colleges and universities, in several membership categories. CUR's Enhanced member institution classification provides free individual membership to any faculty, student, or staff member at the institution, thus providing an easy way for P&A faculty, staff, and students to become involved with CUR. Professional development is a key feature to several of CUR's programs. Along with CUR Dialogues and CUR Institutes that offer a range of faculty professional development programs, CUR offers a variety of consulting services, such as program reviews and on-campus institutes as well as department and faculty awards. For students, the organization hosts its annual Posters on the Hill event in Washington DC, the REU Symposium, and the National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR). NCUR creates a unique environment for multi- and inter-disciplinary interactions; celebrating and promoting undergraduate student achievement, providing models of exemplary research and scholarship along with professional development opportunities for students. Finally, the P&A Division has directly supported its members through a variety of initiatives including student travel grants, a multi-university NSF-REU program, and a faculty mentor award. During this presentation, panelists will provide an overview of these and other programs CUR offers, including their current NSF-funded IUSE proposal on integrating research into the curriculum (CUR Transformations Project, Grant no. 1625354). Panelists will answer questions about how these programs can benefit the professional growth of P&A faculty as well as their students. Finally, panelists will lead a discussion guiding participants to consider ways of integrating research into the curriculum.
  • Cutting-Edge Educational Technology From Europe

      • Creating Tech-Savvy Simulations with EJS

      • EB01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Francisco Esquembre,* Félix García-Clemente,

      • Type: Invited
      • Educational technologies change rapidly, and these changes offer new opportunities for innovative teaching. Isolated educators can find it difficult to keep up, but collaborative development and teaching communities that use standard open source tools can benefit from these technical advances. Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations, EJS (www.um.es/fem/EjsWiki), is a modelling and authoring tool that allows teachers to create, adapt, and share instructional simulations in Java or JavaScript. EJS transforms a high-level specification of a physics simulation into code that uses the latest technological advances, including ePub 3, iBooks, Android or iOS Apps, and, soon, Progressive Web Applications. This talk shows how ready-to-use, tech-savvy products can be created from any JavaScript EJS simulation, and -- as a result -- how EJS-generated Apps can run on all devices and even access mobile device sensors.  The Open Source Physics collection at the AAPT-ComPADRE digital library hosts hundreds of these EJS-based simulations created by and for physics teachers. Examples will be shown.
      • Promoting IBL Exploiting New Pervasive Technologies

      • EB02
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Giovanni Organtini,
      • Type: Invited
      • The advent of new pervasive technological devices made precision physics accessible to mostly everyone at affordable costs. Smartphones allow the usage of their sensors as measurement tools: in fact, they are equipped with microphones, cameras, and accelerometers. Often, a magnetometer or gyroscopes are available, too. The Arduino project, on the other hand, made electronics accessible to everyone able to write a few lines of code. In order to promote Inquiry Based Learning, we recently designed a three days activity for physics teachers to allow them to exploit both of these technologies to perform precise, but simple and informative experiments for their classes. Our "school of physics with Arduino and smartphones" turns a teacher with no experience in programming and electronics into a real maker, able to design, build and execute experiments with exceptional performance at a very affordable cost. In this talk we describe how the school is organised and we report on the first, extremely encouraging results.
      • The Technology Enhanced Textbook: Introducing an HTML5-based Online System for Authors, Teachers and Learners and its Application Possibilities in Teacher Training

      • EB03
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 3:00PM
      • by Rene Dohrmann, Jürgen Kirstein,, Sebastian Haase,, Volkhard Nordmeier,

      • Type: Invited
      • For many years there has been a great amount of multimedia content available for teaching physics, e.g. simulations, interactive screen experiments or remote laboratories. Here we introduce a platform that enables authors to include these tools into self-contained, rich learning materials. Furthermore, the system supports personalized work experience and active learning for students with these materials. By eliminating the boundaries between authors and learners, the Technology Enhanced Textbook (TET) motivates students as well as teachers to adapt their learning materials to their individual requirements. Additionally, TET is also used as an interactive platform for content that is part of teacher training programs. Recently, we added the FOCUS video portal that contains video vignettes helping future teachers to develop their professional knowledge. We will also discuss the use of TET in the teaching and learning labs of the Free University of Berlin.
  • David Halliday and Robert Resnick Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Physics Teaching

      • David Halliday and Robert Resnick Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Physics Teaching

      • PL01
      • Mon 07/30, 11:00AM - 12:00PM
      • by George Amann
      • Type: Plenary
      • We Teach More Than Physics - For me the enterprise of teaching physics, whether for non-science majors, physics majors, high school teachers, or college and university faculty, has always been guided by lessons learned from my experience working in the physics education research (PER) community. Among the innumerable insights that my colleagues in PER have striven to share, much of their work has helped us all discern more clearly the impact that our teaching can (and should) have on our students. For example, we naturally aim for our students to build for themselves a robust conceptual understanding of physics, and we want them to develop into increasingly sophisticated problem solvers. However, in addition, we can help (or hinder) our students’ understanding of science as a human endeavor; we can help them become more effective communicators with us and with their peers; and we can help them learn how they themselves learn. Along these lines, I intend during this presentation to reflect upon how we all teach more than “just” physics—in ways that may already seem familiar, and hopefully in other ways that will expand this notion a bit further.
  • Demo Show

      • Demo Show

      • SPEC17
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30PM - 9:30PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
  • Digi Kit Workshop in K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • Digi Kit Workshop in K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • TL02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra
      • Type: Event
      • Digi Kit Workshop in K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • TL03
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 3:30PM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra
      • Type: Event
  • Early Career Professionals Speed Networking

      • Early Career Professionals Speed Networking

      • SPEC06
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
      • Career development and networking can be time consuming, so AAPT is offering a fun and exciting way to get connected to a large number of early career and seasoned physics professionals in a short amount of time. Speed networking provides the opportunity to discuss career goals and challenges with a new contact for five minutes, exchange information, and then move on to the next person. By the end of the event each participant will have meaningful interactions with over half a dozen colleagues and the opportunity to meet many more. If you think you made a good contact, follow up with the person and schedule a time to meet for coffee. It's that simple! By the end of the first day of the conference, you would have already made several personal connections with other attendees. If you have business cards, don't forget to bring them.
  • Early Career Topical Discussion

      • Early Career Topical Discussion

      • TOP01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 10:30AM
      • by Daryl McPadden
      • Type: Topical
      • Postdocs, new faculty, and other junior Physics Education Research (PER) members are invited to this topical discussion to meet and discuss common issues. As this stage in a career can be a period of significant transition, we are hoping to provide a space to facilitate community building, resources, and professional development for those starting a career in PER.
  • Effective Practices in Educational Technology

      • 3D-Printing Apparatus

      • AC01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Martin Hopf,
      • Type: Contributed
      • 3D-Printing has developed rapidly in the past few years. In Austria, most high schools already possess a 3D-printer or plan to purchase one soon. We worked with pre-service physics teachers to explore possibilities for printing physics apparatus. We began by reviewing ideas that we found online, e.g. to print a magnetic field probe or an air puck. The pre-service teachers then developed their own ideas and worked hard to design, try out, and redesign their own apparatus. Finally they came up with working designs for printing carts, a launcher, and a hydrostatic apparatus. I will present these ideas in this talk.
      • Effective Coding in Introductory Physics and Electronics

      • AC02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Joshua Gates,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Despite the importance of coding and simulation in the real work of many physicists, introductory courses -- especially in high schools -- often omit these skills altogether. A brief overview of two paradigms (guided and project-based) for inclusion of two different programming languages (VPython/Glowscript and Arduino) in these courses will be presented. Demonstrated approaches work with novice coders and do not require extensive prior programming experience from teachers. Links to example projects and student work will be provided.
      • Using Pear Deck Software to Promote Student Engagement

      • AC03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Emily James,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Academic engagement can be defined as the active involvement, commitment, and attention aimed at academic tasks. When students are engaged, studies have correlated these behaviors with increased academic success. Given the myriad of stimuli that students encounter during their daily lives (smart phones, computers, etc), engagement can become a challenge for most adolescents. Pear Deck is a web-based presentation software solution for this problem. Each student connects to the teacher's presentation on any device, answers interactive questions, and learns from their peers. The Pear Deck offers teachers the potential to harness their student's devices for good. The talk highlights the utility of the Pear Deck for engaging every student in problem solving and lab discussion/conclusions. The experience of one teacher in using this interactive software to improve the engagement of students in presentations is described.
      • Getting Unprepared Students Prepared

      • AC04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Gen Long,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In this presentation, we report an ongoing exploring study of adopting effective practices such as just-in-time-teaching and peer-mentoring in a classroom with heavy traditional setting while adopting modern technologies (slides, videotaping lectures, poll-everywhere, etc.) to help students learn whenever they see fit. By requiring student to preview and review lectures content on their own, taking in-class quizzes, as well as providing lecture videos online, we found that the average grades of the class are improved. The pre and post assessments on physics prerequisite are also found to show improvement.
      • Prelab Video Assignments to Enhance Student Learning and Preparedness

      • AC05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Jonathan Williams,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Sensors and data collection software have become a mainstay of introductory physics laboratories. A drawback to using technology in the lab is the time required for students to become familiar with the experiments and proper use of lab software and sensors. During this time, students may become frustrated and overwhelmed with making basic measurements. In addition, students typically come to lab unprepared and oftentimes find it difficult to make a connection between lab activities and concepts covered in lectures. By creating short videos as prelab assignments, students are better prepared for labs and are less likely to make as many experimental errors during lab time, thus improving effectiveness. The assessment questions in the pre-lab assignment steers students into connecting lecture content to the lab activity being investigated. Preliminary result of students' satisfaction and learning with the implementation of the prelab assignments will be reported.
      • Creating Labs for Online IPLS Courses Using IOLab

      • AC06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Christopher Ertl,
      • Type: Contributed
      • As the demand for online courses continues to grow, we find ourselves faced with the challenging task of creating hands on labs that students can perform without having to attend in person. The IOLab hardware can be combined with simple materials to permit a wide range of laboratory experiments at a low cost. Lab activities presented include ideas for torque, buoyancy, electric and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic induction. I will also share the successful results of creating and improving these labs over the last two years which include effectiveness and student satisfaction.
      • Web-based Simulations as Laboratory Activities for Online Physics Classes

      • AC07
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Anthony Smith,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Laboratory activities have long been an integral part of physics education. With the increasing demand for online physics classes at the two-year college and university level, the question of how to replicate this hands-on lab component outside the classroom is of paramount importance. Full-length, college-level laboratory activities were written for Physics Education Technology (PhET) simulations, filling much of the role of hands-on experiments in a traditional classroom. These labs guide students through the process of collecting and analyzing data, answering conceptual questions about the Physics which is simulated, and summarizing and explaining their results. The topics cover a variety of material throughout the Introductory (Algebra-based) Physics sequence, such as friction, Hooke's law, and capacitors, rounding out the involvement of students in a high-context online environment.
      • Complete Introductory Physics Courses Online

      • AC08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by David Pritchard, Byron Drury,, Zhongzhou Chen,, Isaac Chuang

      • Type: Contributed
      • Evidence suggests that blending online and on-land teaching in some sort of flipped classroom results in more learning than either extreme. Unfortunately, optimally combining online, in-class, weekly homework and quizzes, and on-paper activities presents a formidable and time-consuming organizational challenge for the instructor. We are assembling sets of these resources into complete courses for intro mechanics and E&M at both algebra- and calculus-based levels. These can be flexibly assigned in the open-source online platform -- edX.org. Importantly, student interaction data are recorded in BigQuery; we extract problem difficulty and time on each resource, and can improve the course through research. These courses will be available as Customizable Courses this fall, and possibly in Canvass. Ultimately we will use the Harvard DART system to allow teachers to assemble courses from a library with descriptive and performance metadata about each resource. Volunteers are solicited for beta-testing and for curating existing resources.
      • Physics Mastery Modules: An Open First-Year Physics Learning System

      • AC09
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Joseph MacMillan, Rupinder Brar,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In many introductory university courses, including physics, online homework systems have mostly replaced traditional hand-written assignments; however, the most common online systems are provided by textbook publishers, which can be expensive and inflexible. Using the results of education research, we identified a "mastery setting" as a good model for homework delivery. In an effort to improve effectiveness and eliminate cost of online homework assignments at the first-year level of all physics courses at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), we built an online open-education learning system entitled Physics Mastery Modules. In this presentation we will describe this initiative, as well as quantify the statistically significant improvements in student performance and engagement.
      • Moodle Quiz Formatted OER Learning Modules

      • AC10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Robert Greeney,
      • Type: Contributed
      • I have developed a wide variety of physics learning and assessment exercises to be shared, used, and enhanced over time through peer collaboration among physics instructors. These exercises are authored in the format of Moodle Quizzes. The exercises are easily shared with anyone who has access to Moodle Learning Management System (LMS). Motivation for this initiative includes: a. Enhanced learning of physics, b. Convenient and effective assessment vehicles that promote learning. c, Easily shared and used OER learning and assessment exercises. d. Promote creative and productive collaboration among physics instructors. e. Quality cost saving options for faculty and students. f. Contribute to the growth and improvement of OER in physics
      • A Non-Traditional Database that Is Much More Time-Efficient in Improving Teaching Effectiveness

      • AC11
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Rolex Rao,
      • Type: Contributed
      • As we all know, test assessment is very essential in determining the teaching effectiveness. Often times, it's unsafe for a teacher to use the same paper that was tested last semester, but it's very time consuming for a teacher to write a set of new questions for a specific test every semester, so a database that allows a teacher to save their time in preparing the test becomes very meaningful. We find an effective way for teachers to make their new test quickly; they can save 90-99% of their time in test-preparation. Teachers don't have to know any computer languages or understand any of the traditional database, such as access, oracle, etc.; they can store, sort, and reuse the test questions without worrying about portability. This technology is also very useful in online teaching.
      • Video Analysis in Introductory Physics Courses

      • AC12
      • Mon 07/30, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by Imad ElJeaid,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The use of "Video Analysis" as a supplementary course activity can help solidify and further students' knowledge of crucial concepts and ideas portrayed in the classroom. Video Analysis requires the use of very accurate and hi-tech instrumentation, such as the "Casio EX-F1" camera, used for record high definition and high-speed video. In other cases where this technology is unavailable, the instructor may provide an already existing video, along with the written document required, to the students for data collection and analysis. Thereafter, the video will be uploaded onto the "Tracker" software or the "LoggerPro" for further analysis in two dimensions. The Data collected by the students, typically in Groups of 4, will be used to analyze and calculate given parameters, using graphical analysis methods, along with the laws of physics. In general, students can improve their understanding of a surprisingly broad range of topics including Newtonian mechanics, Mechanical and Sound waves propagation, Classical Thermodynamics, Optics, Electricity and Magnetism.These live photo video activities give students the experience of working together in groups to apply the laws of physics to world phenomena that simply cannot be obtained by listening to lectures, reading texts, and/or by solving problems. Students through these activities will be able to: 1) To examine the movie frames 2) To make predictions 3) To collect video data, correlate video and sensor data 4) To replay movies as graphs of previous video/sensor data points appear 5) To derive equations, fit curves, and do analytical mathematical modeling
  • Exchange of Ideas and Faculty in International Teacher Preparation: Lessons Learned II

      • Working as a Team: Planning and Teaching a Physics Unit

      • CD01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Bor Gregorcic,
      • Type: Invited
      • As a part of their "didactics of physics" course, at Faculty for Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, students used to visit a local high school to observe and give each a single physics lesson, the topic and form of which depended on the requirements of the teacher hosting them in their classroom. More recently, this model was replaced with a collaborative activity, where all participating pre-service teachers in the course, with the aid of two instructors, together prepare to teach a whole physics unit (e.g. geometrical optics), plan individual lessons, divide the teaching of the lessons among themselves and then teach the unit over the course of a month at a local high school. I will present insights from this reformed practice, as I experienced it as a guest instructor in the fall of 2017.
      • Physics Teacher Preparation Reform at Hubei University

      • CD02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Weining Wum
      • Type: Invited
      • First I will briefly describe physics teacher preparation at the Hubei University in China. There are currently two main problems in the practice of physics teacher preparation in China, one is that the transition periods for newly graduated students to transfer from novices to highly confident and competent teachers are too long; the other is that most teachers are only so called "teacher man," seen as delivering a fixed provided curriculum and know nothing about physics education research. In response to the above problems, at Hubei University, we adopted the following three interventions: a) create conditions to increase the students' practical training time for basic teaching skills; b) on the basis of the traditional curricula, set up elective courses, such as "Research Methods of Physics Education"; and c) encourage and guide students to apply for training programs in innovative research based pedagogy at all levels. Over the past few years, the above measures have achieved good results: Interns' performance in classroom teaching is obviously better than that in the past; the survey reports and theses submitted by students are of higher quality; more students have published articles in official journals, and many have won prizes in various teaching competitions.
      • Japanese Learning Theory 'HEC' and Its Research Activity

      • CD03
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Koji Tsukamoto,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In Japan, the contents of education in primary, middle and high schools are strictly controlled by the government. On the contrary, voluntary research activities by teachers in those schools have been proactive. Japanese scientific learning theory and the Hypothesis Experiment Class (HEC) have also been developed by such teachers. HEC was first advocated by Dr. Itakura, a senior scientist emeritus at the Japanese National Institution for Education in 1963. Then, a lot of results, lesson plans and teaching tools have been reported and discussed in the Association for Studies in Hypothesis-Experiment Class consisting of those voluntary teachers. We introduce a brief theory of HEC and its research activity in Japan. We believe that while HEC was established in the Japanese educational culture, it could be applicable to all countries around the world.
  • Exchange of Ideas and Faculty in International Teacher Preparation: Lessons learned

      • Re-envisioning Canadian Physics Teacher Education through Indigenous Knowledge and Star-lore

      • BC01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Richard Hechter,
      • Type: Invited
      • Within Canada, where teacher certification is under the jurisdiction of each province, there has been a call for incorporating Indigenous knowledges within teacher education programs. Specifically, from exploring Indigenous ways of knowing, to the storytelling of Indigenous star-lore from local and global communities, our physics teacher education courses have been revised to increase students' physics education resonance on personal, community, and global levels. Physics teacher education in Canada is now being taught and learned through multiple perspectives, with a special dedication to expanding our physics pedagogical approaches beyond traditional standards through a dedicated inclusion of global perspectives in physics. This presentation will highlight insights emerging from this change in philosophical design of physics teacher development. Through the context of sharing Indigenous star-lore stories, this session will also share the lessons learned, and impact of, including Indigenous physics knowledge found within Canada and globally in to physics teacher education.
      • Physics Teacher Preparation and Initiatives at Universitaet zu Koeln

      • BC02
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Andre Bresges, Kathleen Falconer,, Daniel MacIsaac,

      • Type: Invited
      • We describe physics teacher preparation at Universitaet zu Koeln includingan overview of demographics, graduating numbers and programs. In Germany there has been recent major reformation of physics teacher preparation to better integrate theoretical and practical experiences. To address these changes and the need for new styles of teaching and learning, a number of methods and practices have been modified, created and tested in a cooperation of German and International researchers, including the use of Action and Design Based Research (TADBARC) in teacher master's dissertations in local and international contexts; a greatly expanded use of digital media in future preparation (ZuS); and the development of a network of STEM school labs (schuelerlabor) that also assists to identify and recruit grade school students to the profession of STEM teaching.
      • Physics Educator Certification in the United States and the Netherlands

      • BC03
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Erin Fosnocht,
      • Type: Contributed
      • This paper provides historical overviews of physics education and reform in the United States and the Netherlands. Special emphasis is given to teacher-driven reform movements and their impact on physics curricula. In general, teacher-driven reform emphasizes the interaction between physics and society as a framework for teaching various concepts in physics. Next, certification and training requirements for secondary physics educators in the two countries are examined, compared, and contrasted. Specifically, requirements for teachers in Utah and Virginia and requirements for Dual Enrollment and Advanced Placement teachers are evaluated. This paper concludes by exploring connections between the effectiveness of these reform movements and the education, training, and certification of teachers in each country.
      • Physics Teacher Education in England: Then, Now and the Future

      • BC04
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by James de Winter, John Airey,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The recruitment and retention of high quality physics teachers in England has been and remains a challenge. National publicity campaigns, intervention from the Institute of Physics and tax-free bursaries (up to $35,000 tax free) seem to have little effect on the number of graduates entering the profession. In this session I will focus on the nature and content of the teacher preparation course at the University of Cambridge as well as reflecting on the wider landscape of teacher education in England, the factors that shape it and how this may develop into the future. I will also share findings from recent research on views from a stakeholder survey across the education community exploring perceptions of the attributes of the 'good' physics teacher that seems in such short supply.
      • Group Activities Developed in the Schwartz/Reisman Science Education Center

      • BC05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Netanal Hazut, Nir Peer,, Avishai Amar,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Schwartz/Reisman science education center was established in September2013 as a Campus within the perimeters of the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The center's vision and strategy are based on three key concepts: highly trained teachers, cutting-edge laboratory facilities, and a growing community of science teachers working together. These are features that most schools can't offer. In our presentation we will share activities performed in our classrooms, which are a result of the teamwork of teachers. These are project-oriented activities, in which the students work in groups and try accomplish tasks given by the teacher, where the goal is to successfully perform a physical experiment. For example, the calculation of the ballistic motion of a ball shot from a cannon. Each group needs to place a metal ring at deferent locations in the correct height. These activities aid in the learning process, are fun and increase the students' self-efficacy.
      • Lesson Study Improves College Physics Teaching in USA and Japan

      • BC06
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Sachiko Tosa,
      • Type: Contributed
      • This study examines how Lesson Study can help both students and faculty inintroductory physics courses in U.S. and Japanese colleges. Lesson Study is a collaborative lesson planning and discussion model for teachers. A Lesson Study cycle consists of three phases: lesson planning, teaching/observing, and debriefing. In Lesson Study conducted at the college level, discussion in the planning session focuses on the content in physics as well as active-learning instructional strategies, such as the use of clickers and white boards in group discussions. Student achievement was measured by administering pre/post-test of FCI. The results indicate a stronger impact of the physics courses in an active learning style than the courses in a traditional teaching style in both countries. The results also indicate that Lesson Study helped faculty see teaching in a more student-centered way.
  • Executive Programs Committee

      • Executive Programs Committee

      • COM05
      • Sun 07/29, 5:00PM - 6:00PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Exhibit Hall Open (Monday)

      • Exhibit Hall Open (Monday)

      • EXH02
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 5:00PM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
  • Exhibit Hall Open (Sunday)

      • Exhibit Hall Open (Sunday)

      • EXH01
      • Sun 07/29, 7:00PM - 9:00PM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
  • Exhibit Hall Open (Tuesday)

      • Exhibit Hall Open (Tuesday)

      • EXH07
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 4:00PM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
  • Experiences in Washington Policy Internships and Fellowships

      • Opportunities in Science Policy: AAAS S&T Policy Fellowships

      • FF01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Salaeha Shariff,
      • Type: Invited
      • This session will explore opportunities for scientists and engineers to apply their training to national and international initiatives, contribute to the policy-making process, identify transferable skills that can be developed and applied to a successful career in science policy, and discuss the rewards of collaboration/broad science engagement. Session will delve into opportunities to contribute scientific & technological leadership and innovation to design and execute solutions to address societal challenges. It underscores the influence of science and innovation on the policy-making process and the impacts of policy-making on the scientific enterprise. Provides strategies and resources to learn and engage in policy across career stages.
      • Career Transition: Observational Astrophysicist to Congressional Staffer

      • FF02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Sara Barber,
      • Type: Invited
      • A few months after defending my dissertation on remnant planetary systems orbiting white dwarfs, I found myself working alongside the staff of the House Committee of Science, Space, and Technology as a science policy fellow. During my year with the Space Subcommittee I helped conduct oversight of NASA, prepare Committee Members for hearings and legislative markups, and meet with stakeholders. At the end of my fellowship, I was invited to stay on as professional staff. Since then, my portfolio has expanded to include oversight of NSF, management of large research facilities, and STEM education and diversity. As a member of the Committee staff, I work every day to provide our Members with the information they need to make informed policy decisions. The transition from science to policy was not seamless, but I am fortunate to have found a career that challenges me and gives me a strong sense of purpose.
      • Physics, Policy, & Politics -- In DC and Beyond

      • FF03
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Philip Hammer,
      • Type: Invited
      • My mission as a physicist is to be a scientist engaged in the world so that I can contribute to a more just and equitable society. I left research early in my career to pursue my mission in ways that suited my skills and interests, starting with an APS Congressional Science Policy Fellowship; to serving on my local school board; to working in a science museum; to advancing education, policy, and diversity at AIP. I will illustrate various points in my career with a focus on personal phase transitions, opportunity, and eyes-wide-open entrepreneurship within the rich environments of Washington, D.C., and local communities.
      • The Physics of Politics

      • FF04
      • Tue 07/31, 6:30PM - 7:00PM
      • by Andrew Zwicker,
      • Type: Invited
      • What role should a scientist play in politics at all levels of government?Do we have any more of an obligation to participate in the political process than others? While policy issues of a technical nature are clearly within the natural comfort zone of a scientist, is a science background equally as valuable in dealing with the economic issues, education policy, or social issues? In this talk, I will offer my perspective on these questions and others as the first physicist ever elected to the NJ Legislature and as Chair of the NJ General Assembly's Committee on Science, Innovation, and Technology.
  • Experimental Design at All Levels

      • Design and Redesign of Acoustic Experiments

      • EC01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Ashley Carter,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Allowing students to design an experiment and iterate on that design to get better results provides an authentic lab experience. However, advanced and intermediate laboratory experiments are often so complicated that there is no opportunity for students to design experiments. Exceptions to this rule seem to be in optics and electronics experiments. Here we add another type of experiment to this list—acoustic experiments. Acoustics is used in ultrasounds, sonars, in back-up sensors for cars, in grouping cells together for tissue engineering, in seismology, and in architecture. Experiments can be made from piezo transducers (speakers) that are often lying around the undergraduate physics laboratory and require few parts, allowing students to design, build, and iterate in a single lab period. Here we present several acoustic experiments that give students an opportunity to design and re-design.
      • Goal-Focused Design in an Introductory Lab Course

      • EC02
      • Tue 07/31, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Nathan Powers,
      • Type: Contributed
      • An important part of design is maintaining an understanding of and focus on the goals of a project. This comes more naturally when students set and seek to accomplish their own goals. I have adapted an introductory lab course to include significantly more student design, including a culminating student-designed project for which both the goals and design are chosen by the student. Each week students attend a workshop which allows them to separate design and implementation. In the workshops, students can compartmentalize pieces of the overall design, set incremental goals, and design around those goals in a collaborative environment.
      • Transforming Introductory Physics Labs: Implementing Scientific Reasoning Instruction*

      • EC03
      • Tue 07/31, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Larry Bortner, Kathleen Koenig,, Krista Wood,, Lei Bao,, Lindsay Owens,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Two general findings have spurred a change in the lab curriculum at the University of Cincinnati. One is that traditional introductory physics labs do not necessarily support student learning of lecture content. The other is that the critical thinking skills of college graduates are not necessarily enhanced as a result of their undergraduate studies. To increase the scientific reasoning skills of students, in 2014 we introduced the Inquiry for Scientific Thinking and Reasoning (iSTAR) labs that involve both a skills-based framework focused on specific reasoning domains and the deliberate practice of each. An example of how to use the iSTAR lab framework to transform a traditional lab to one that emphasizes scientific reasoning will be given. Challenges to implementation will be discussed including training instructors. Results will be shared for student improvement for ability to control variables, measured through staggered post-testing, which is useful in curriculum development.
      • From Traditional to Scientific Reasoning Labs in Introductory Physics*

      • EC04
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Krista Wood, Kathleen Koenig,, Larry Bortner,, Lindsay Owens,, Lei Bao,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Learning outcomes recommended by AAPT focus on designing experiments, analyzing and visualizing data, modeling, and communicating physics. These scientific abilities require strong scientific reasoning skills, including the ability to design controlled experiments, collect and interpret empirical evidence, make claims based on that evidence, and support claims with scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning (SR) skills have been shown to correlate with students' ability to learn concepts and engage in higher levels of problem solving. We implemented introductory physics labs, called Inquiry for Scientific Thinking and Reasoning (iSTAR) Labs that focused on developing students' SR skills. This talk will discuss the implementation of iSTAR Labs at a two-year college, the challenges and benefits of adopting iSTAR Labs for students and instructors, and suggestions for developing the instructor skills needed to effectively teach guided inquiry-based lab curriculum. We will also discuss the effect of iSTAR Labs on students' SR skills. *This research is supported by NSF DUE-1431908.
      • So How Do You Guys Do Labs?

      • EC05
      • Tue 07/31, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Alex McKale, Marie Hamaoui,, Gary Oas,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Stanford Online High School has been around for 12 years and the single most common question is around how we do lab work. In this session we will share lessons learned and secrets that can be applied just as well to a traditional brick and mortar lab space. You may already go outside to the football field or the gym to measure the speed of sound. We just take it up a notch. Because the instructor is not present to make observations during the experiment, students need to conduct their work with much more independence and creativity. It also challenges the instructor to be creative in developing lab assignments. Lab write-ups (including videos, photos, and sound recordings) and lab notebooks become more critical to demonstrate what the student has done. We will help free you from the four walls of your current lab space.
      • Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Fundamental Physics through Scientific Argumentation

      • EC06
      • Tue 07/31, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Jianlan Wang,
      • Type: Contributed
      • One problem in physics education is overemphasizing mathematical manipulation over conceptual understanding. Consequently, students across all grade levels are likely to learn physics through "plug and chug". They may calculate the right answer without understanding what the number means. In this study, I will share the design of two labs in a row targeting two challenging topics in physics: reference frame and gravitational potential energy. The first lab is about the relative nature of motion and the second one is about the zero point of gravitational potential energy. Structured inquiry and scientific argumentation are the main instructional strategies. I will present the implementation of the two labs in a 7th grade class and discuss how they can be scaled up to the level of high school. Student data will also be included as evidence supporting the effectiveness of the labs.
      • Development of Scientific Abilities through Lab Reform

      • EC07
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Joshua Rutberg, Marina Malysheva,, Eugenia Etkina,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Traditional physics labs have been shown to have little effect on the development of students' scientific abilities. Reformed labs, such as ISLE-based labs, have been shown to improve these outcomes when used in conjunction with trained TAs and a course emphasizing the ISLE framework. We studied a physics course for engineering students utilizing ISLE labs within a traditional lecture-based course that did not follow ISLE. We scored student lab reports using scientific abilities rubrics and found that while students improved their abilities to design an experiment, to investigate a phenomenon, to identify patterns in the data, and to communicate what they did, they had trouble explaining the patterns and communicating the purpose of the experiment. We will compare these findings to the findings of student learning in ISLE-based labs in other courses.
      • Implementing Research Skill Elements in Introductory Physics Laboratory

      • EC08
      • Tue 07/31, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Changgong Zhou,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Research skill is a rich skill set. Even though not everyone needs research skill in his/her professional or personal life, some elements of research skill are essential for everybody's life, such as critical thinking, ambiguity tolerance, etc.. In the redesign of our introductory physics laboratory curriculum, one of the goals is to help students foster such element skills by letting them make use of the skills voluntarily. This presentation will showcase a few experiment samples, discuss the design philosophy and the impact on students behavior and learning.
      • Design and Implementation of a Cell Phone Detector

      • EC09
      • Tue 07/31, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Oladayo Oyenekan, Oluseyi Obafemi

      • Type: Contributed
      • This work is capable of detecting incoming and outgoing signals from mobile phones. The presence of an activated mobile phone can be detected by this handy, pocket-size mobile signal detector from a distance of one and a half meters, which could be used in preventing the use of mobile phones in examination halls, confidential rooms etc. It is also suitable for detecting the use of mobile phone for spying and unauthorized video transmission. The circuit can detect the incoming and outing calls, text messages, and video transmission even if the mobile is kept in the silent mode. The moment the gadget detects Radio Frequency (RF) transmission signal from an activated mobile phone, it starts sounding a beep alarm and the Light Emitting Diode (LED) blinks. The alarm continues until the signal transmission ceases.
      • The Myth of the $100 Detector

      • EC10
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Ian Bearden,
      • Type: Contributed
      • It is possible to find several sources (including the author) of so-called$100 detectors for, eg, muons, gamma rays, and other radiation sources. I will discuss what it actually takes to build a working detector and how it is that we can claim to build them for such low cost. It turns out that one often needs to be able to buy in quantities that can be financially prohibitive, to have access to an unusual amount of technical know-how, and that a basement full of old equipment brings costs down substantially. The unfortunate realities of limited budgets thus impose severe constraints on including such detectors in student experiments.
  • Explore Your Concept Inventory Data with the PhysPort Data Explorer

      • Explore Your Concept Inventory Data with the PhysPort Data Explorer

      • TOP02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 10:30AM
      • by Sam McKagan
      • Type: Topical
      • Do you give concept inventories such as the FCI, FMCE, BEMA, CSEM, CLASS, or MPEX in your class? Do you need help analyzing and making sense of data from these assessments? Are you curious what kinds of patterns are in your data? Would you like to compare your students' results to national averages? The PhysPort Data Explorer (www.physport.org/dataexplorer) can help you with all this and more. In this session, the creators of the Data Explorer will provide an overview of what it can do, answer questions, and if you bring a laptop with some data on it, show you how you can use the tool to get instant analysis and visualization of your own data.
  • Exploring Experiments with Augmented Reality

      • Smartglasses as Assistive Tools for STEM Laboratory Courses – Technical Aspects

      • CE01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Martin Strzys, Michael Thees,, Sebastian Kapp,, Pascal Klein, Jochen Kuhn

      • Type: Invited
      • Augmented reality (AR) learning environments are scenarios in which virtual digital augmentations and real-world objects coexist and are able to interact with each other. As learners are able to manipulate both simultaneously, digital augmentations can be integrated into laboratory experiments to achieve different goals: provide interaction elements to control the experimental setup, visualize experimental data in real-time using various representations, display tutorials or explanations. In this contribution we focus on AR scenarios realized with the help of smartglasses. We show how experimental setups can be enhanced with such a technology and how external sensors can be used to collect experimental data of abstract physical quantities like temperature or voltage, which can then be presented directly in the learner's field of view using suitable representations. Moreover, we discuss the technical requirements and affordances for a beneficial use in laboratory courses.
      • Smartglasses as Assistive Tools for STEM Laboratory Courses - Theoretical Foundations

      • CE02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Michael Thees, Martin Strzys,, Sebastian Kapp,, Klein Pascal,, Kuhn Jochen,

      • Type: Invited
      • Realizing augmented reality (AR) learning scenarios with see-through smartglasses creates a wearable educational technology providing active access to various additional information without distracting from the physical interaction with the reality. By displaying information directly in the user's field of view, the combination of real world and virtual objects creates a learning environment that enables students to evaluate their own measurements in more detail, to draw conclusions for further investigations or functional correlations between physical quantities. In this contribution, we apply the theoretical framework of multimedia learning to AR scenarios in introductory STEM laboratories, resulting in positive hypotheses about students' learning and motivation. Based on major principles of the Cognitive-affective theory of learning with media (spatial and temporal contiguity), this tool can (a) provide a real-time feedback while sustaining students' autonomy and authenticity of action, (b) structure students' hands-on experiences, and (c) guide their attention to cue points of knowledge construction.
      • AR with Smartphones and Tablets as Pocket-Labs

      • CE03
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Jochen Kuhn, Pascal Klein,, Michael Thees,, Sebastian Becker,

      • Type: Invited
      • Smartphones and tablets can be used as experimental tools especially in physics classrooms. This is possible because today's smartphones and tablets are equipped with many sensors, which can be used to perform quantitative and qualitative experiments. These mobile devices could be used as mobile "labs in your pocket" (so called Pocket-Labs) throughout various topics by students in high school and introductory physics courses and could so augment learning with experiments by providing respective data. In this talk, we integrate learning with smartphone and tablets as Pocket-Labs in the context of AR and present a survey of examples using smartphone and tablets as experimental tools related to different topics in physics classrooms and in introductory physics courses. Finally an overview of the results of studies with quasi-experimental treatment-control group design will be presented and their results will be discussed.
      • Collaborative Exploration of Introductory E&M via Augmented Reality

      • CE04
      • Mon 07/30, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by Steven Binz,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Augmented reality places computer-generated content into the field of viewof the user and until recently, this meant the content was added to a video feed that would then be displayed on a computer. Now there are general-purpose headsets that can be worn that make it look like the graphics are in the room with the user, who can then walk around and interact with them in an intuitive way. I am using this technology to help students learn about electric and magnetic fields by developing a program that allows students to collaboratively create and move simulated charges so they can see the interaction between the fields and the charges. The goal is for student comprehension to improve when they can interact with each other while using the simulation and can see the fields and forces in all three dimensions.
      • Virtual Reality as a Teaching Tool for Moon Phases and Beyond

      • CE05
      • Mon 07/30, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by Jack Madden, Natasha Holmes,, Andrea Stevenson Won,, Jonathon Schuldt,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A ball on a stick, a common and simple demo for teaching the phases of theMoon. This demo, like many others in physics and astronomy, gives students a perspective they otherwise could only imagine. For Moon phases, a third person view and control over time allows students to rapidly build a mental model that connects all the moving parts. Computer simulations of many traditional physics and astronomy demos provide new features, controls, or vantage points to enhance learning beyond a hands-on demo. Virtual reality provides the capabilities of computer simulations and the embodied cognition of a hands-on experience making it a natural step to improve learning. We recreated the traditional ball-and-stick moon phases demo in virtual reality and compare the learning gains using this simulation with those using traditional methods. Our study will inform on the benefits and compromises to be had using virtual reality as a teaching tool.
  • Exploring Physics Apps and Learning to Use Them

      • Measuring Vertical Velocities of Elevators Using Smartphone Pressure Sensors

      • DD01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Arturo Marti, Marti Monteiro,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We propose an experiment to measure the vertical velocities of elevators, pedestrians climbing stairs, and UAV by means of smartphone pressure sensors. Using an approximation valid in the first hundred meters of the atmosphere, the altitude and vertical velocities are obtained. After performing a numerical integration, we compare our results with those obtained with the built-in accelerometer. We show that data obtained using the pressure sensor is significantly less noisy than that obtained using the accelerometer. Error accumulation is also evident in the numerical integration of the acceleration values. The pressure sensor also outperforms GPS which does not receive satellite signals indoors and the operating frequency is considerably lower than that of the pressure sensor. Comparison with reference values taken from the architectural plans validates the results obtained using the pressure sensor. This proposal is ideally performed as an external or outreach activity with students. Phys. Educ. 52 (2017) 015010
      • Webassign Beyond Traditional Chapter Problems

      • DD02
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Richard Zajac,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The strength of Webassign remains the flexibility it provides for instructors to write/rewrite problem scripts to suit the eccentricities of their individual classrooms and teaching styles more usefully than do the stock problems provided as instructional resources with standard texts. Continued efforts are presented whereby homework is written/customized to match individual teaching style, specifics of local student lab experiences, and useful pop-cultural references. More significantly, evolving experience naturally leads the instructor to explore extending the uses of online homework in directions that abandon the limitations imposed by trying to mimic traditional textbook problems.
      • Classroom Response Made Easy with the PLICKERS App

      • DD03
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Joshua Winter,
      • Type: Contributed
      • We all appreciate the value of formative assessments and know how valuableimmediate feedback from our students is. But paper and pencil quizzes are time consuming and many of the classroom response systems used to obtain this information quickly are clunky or prohibitively expensive. It the PLICKERS app to the rescue! All you need is your smart phone (students don't need one). There are no expensive clickers for students to buy (and possibly lose). Learn how this FREE, easy to use, classroom response app can be implemented in your physics classes now.
      • Authentic Learning Opportunities with the Aurorasaurus.org Citizen Science Platform

      • DD04
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Elizabeth MacDonald,*
      • Type: Contributed
      • Aurorasaurus is the first citizen science project about the beautiful aurora. Auroras are the end result of a cascade of plasma physics beginning on the Sun and ending with visible lights in near Earth space. Citizen scientists can increase their chances to see aurora, contribute to helping others see aurora, help scientists improve very coarse models of aurora, and actively learn more about space physics in the process. Recently, citizen scientists have even captured features of aurora-like arcs not previously described in the literature at subauroral latitudes and contributed to ground-breaking new publications and understanding. Participants will learn how to use the app from the project's founder, space physicist Dr. Elizabeth MacDonald of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • First Timers' and Early Career Meetup

      • First Timers' and Early Career Meetup

      • SPEC25
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Kelsey Sheridan
      • Type: Event
  • First Timerss' Gathering

      • First Timers' Gathering

      • SPEC04
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
      • Are you new to an AAPT National Meeting? If so, this is the best time to learn about AAPT and the Summer Meeting, as well as meet fellow attendees. AAPT leadership will be represented to discuss ways to get more involved with AAPT. You are also welcome to participate in any of AAPT's Area Committee meetings. Please reference the program for a committee meeting that piques your interest.
  • Free Time

      • Free Time

      • SPEC10
      • Mon 07/30, 6:30PM - 7:00PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
  • Friday Registration

      • Friday Registration

      • REG01
      • Fri 07/27, 4:00PM - 7:00PM
      • Leti Marquez
      • Type: Registration
  • Frontiers of Astronomy

      • Scientific Visualization at NASA: LRO and the Eclipse

      • ED01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Ernest Wright,*
      • Type: Invited
      • The Scientific Visualization Studio (SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center uses data from NASA missions to produce animations and illustrations for education and public outreach. Its Web site contains over 6000 pages of media covering a wide variety of topics in Earth and space science. All of this material is freely available, and most is in the public domain. The process of creating visualizations at the SVS will be illustrated using the data returned by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft and the mapping of the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017.
      • Cassini's 13-Year Journey in the Saturn System

      • ED02
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Carrie Anderson,*
      • Type: Invited
      • The legacy of NASA's Cassini mission began in October 1997, marking its launch to begin a 7-year cruise to the Saturn System. Decades earlier, the Pioneer 11, followed by the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys, provided a mere glimpse into the Saturn System discoveries lying in wait for the magnificent 13-year Cassini mission. Cassini was the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn, enabling a much-anticipated detailed study of Saturn's environment – this includes its atmosphere, magnetosphere, extensive ring system, and 62 moons. Such discoveries include an in-depth study of Titan's atmosphere and surface, a moon that possesses Earth-like processes, as well as the small moon Enceladus, which has an active south polar region jetting icy material into space. In this presentation, an overview of the Cassini science discoveries will be given, along with a more detailed account of the discoveries made by the Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS), especially in regards to Titan.
      • Exploring the Solar System with the James Webb Space Telescope

      • ED03
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 3:00PM
      • by Heidi Hammel,*
      • Type: Invited
      • NASA's next Great Observatory will be the James Webb Space Telescope, planned for launch in 2019. As a successor to the venerable Hubble, Webb's science goals range from seeing the first stars in the Universe, to the studying the evolution of galaxies, to examining objects right in our own solar neighborhood. Dr. Hammel is one of the six Interdisciplinary Scientists chosen by NASA for this mission. Her program will use Webb to explore many objects in our Solar System, including Mars, Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, comets, asteroids, and more. She will give a brief status review of the telescope, and highlight some of the key science results to expect. She will also touch on the astronomy community's plans for even more amazing space telescopes in the future.
      • Reconnection Tames Turbulent Magnetic Fields Around Earth

      • ED04
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:30PM
      • by Amy Rager
      • Type: Invited
      • Magnetic reconnection is a change in magnetic topology that causes the rapid transfer of magnetic energy into plasma particle kinetic energy. Reconnection has been the driving explanation for the injection of solar wind plasma, momentum, and energy into the Earth’s magnetosphere, resulting in phenomena such as aurora and substorms. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is designed to be able to observe the rapid reconnection of magnetic field lines at the dayside magnetopause. The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) instrument onboard MMS is able to detect the distribution of particles and their velocities in space with an unprecedented hundred-fold improved rate over prior missions, which have had to rely on the relatively slow spacecraft rotation time. We present a new technique for using the FPI instrument design to generate data with an added 4x greater time resolution and discuss the scientific discoveries made possible with this new data product.
  • Game Night

      • Game Night

      • SPEC12
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00PM - 11:59PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
      • Wind down the night and meet new friends with a round of table tennis, foos ball or bring your favorite game and deck of cards.
  • Gender

      • Large Gender Differences in Physics Self-Efficacy at Equal Performance Levels: A Warning Sign?

      • AO01
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Zeynep Kalender, Emily Marshman,, Timothy Nokes-Malach,, Chris Schunn,, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Contributed
      • Self-efficacy, or the belief in one's capability to succeed in a particular task, course, or subject area, has been shown to influence students' learning outcomes. Previous studies have shown that female students have lower self-efficacy than males in physics courses. However, few studies have focused on self-efficacy gender differences at equal performance levels. Differences in self-efficacy for similarly performing males and females can have detrimental short-term and long-term effects. Across two different introductory courses with many different instructors and pedagogies, we uncover large self-efficacy differences between female and male students performing similarly on standardized physics conceptual tests or who received the same course letter grade in physics. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Evaluating the Gender Gap within Introductory Mechanics at TAMU

      • AO02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Jonathan Perry, Tatiana Erukhimova,, William Bassichis,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Gender bias in introductory physics courses has been observed previously for in-course metrics (homework, participation, exams), final course grades, and conceptual assessments. Disparities in final course grades are often attributed to a small gender gap in exam performance. This gap, however, is not generally examined in detail within the course itself to determine if they are transient or persistent effects. This work examines the gender-based performance gap between in-course metrics, particularly mid-term exams, and final course grades. The data for this study covers STEM majors enrolled in the calculus-based introductory physics sequence at Texas A&M University between 2008-2016. Performance gap based on gender will be examined for each mid-term given to students over these years and compared to the gap in final grades to determine the consistency of this bias. Additional bias of instructor gender relative to mid-term exam and final course grades will also be studied.
      • Impact of Evidence-based Active-Engagement Instruction on the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics*

      • AO03
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Nafis Karim,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Prior research suggests that some evidence-based pedagogies may result in both improved learning for all students, as well as a reduction in the gender gap. We describe the impact of evidence-based active engagement (EBAE) strategies on the gender gap observed on validated conceptual surveys. We compare male and female students' performance in EBAE courses with courses that primarily use lecture-based (LB) instruction. All courses had large enrollment and often had more than 100 students. We find that students in courses which make significant use of evidence-based active engagement strategies, on average, significantly outperformed students in courses of the same type using primarily lecture-based instruction even though there was no statistically significant difference on the pretest before instruction. However, the gender gap persisted even in courses using EBAE methods. *Work supported by the National Science Foundation.
      • Impact of Psychological Interventions on Gender Gaps in Introductory Studio Physics

      • AO04
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Bethany Wilcox, Kristine Callan,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Implementation of interactive engagement has been shown as an effective strategy to reduce performance gaps for underrepresented groups of students; however, interactive engagement alone is often not sufficient to remove these gaps completely. In the context of a highly interactive, introductory studio physics course, we still see a significant gender gap on both pre- and post-instruction conceptual inventories, exams, and occasionally, final grade. We have previously investigated the impact of varying group composition within the studio environment, but have yet to observe statistically significant reductions in the size of the gender gap. In conjunction with this work, we have implemented other strategies for reducing performance gaps, including psychological interventions targeting students' sense of belonging and growth (vs. fixed) mindset. Here, we describe our implementation of these interventions and preliminary evidence for their effectiveness with respect to reducing the gender gap within our introductory studio physics course.
      • Persistence and Career Choices of Female Finnish University Students

      • AO05
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Alexis Knaub, Ramon Barthelemy,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Finland is often seen and admired as an equity and education-focused country. They have policies that champion gender equity and a world-renowned K-12 education system, with students ranking among the top on international metrics. However, little is known on whether these policies and early education experiences support gender equity in postsecondary education and beyond, particularly in fields that struggle to support women. We conducted a study on Finnish physics students enrolled in Finnish universities using the Science Motivation Questionnaire. In this talk, we will discuss the results of this study with respect to gender and differences in persistence and career choices.
  • Get Started! Integrating Computation into Courses at Any Level

      • Enhancing Conceptual Understanding and Building Problem-Solving Skills through Computation

      • BD01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Michelle Kuchera,
      • Type: Invited
      • Computation in the classroom can be used to enhance understanding of physics concepts as well as provide students with skills related to problem solving in research and industry applications. I will discuss how my computational exercises differ in physics courses at various levels. In-class "workshop-style" exercises using the pair programming paradigm, which is borrowed from computer science pedagogy, will be demonstrated. Examples of integrating exercises in the laboratory and classroom will be discussed, along with commentary on how I fit computational learning goals into the existing curriculum. I will frame this talk within the context of using the python programming language, along with Jupyter notebooks, in classes of less than 30 students at Davidson College.
      • Gaining Consensus within the Department Around Computation

      • BD02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Steven Wolf,
      • Type: Invited
      • Over the past two years, I have been implementing computational exercises in my calc-based introductory physics courses. As is the case at most universities, East Carolina University has many sections of intro physics taught by multiple instructors. So in order for computational exercises to become as standard part of intro physics courses, multiple stakeholders need to buy-in to the process. I will be discussing my experiences with this departmental discussion in-progress, as well as my successes and lessons learned from this discussion.
      • Python from the Start: Experiences with Villanova and LIGO

      • BD03
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Amber Stuver,
      • Type: Invited
      • Currently, little physics/astronomy research is done with pencil and paperalone; today, computational tools to analyze, model, and visualize data are the tools of choice. While students regularly use powerful computational tools (Wolfram Alpha, Excel, etc.), many don't know how to create their own computer algorithms tailored to their specific needs. To address this, physics/astronomy majors at Villanova University are formally introduced to Python and supporting tools in the first freshman semester and I am redeveloping this curriculum to improve students' literacy in Python. These skills are expected to be applied immediately in introductory labs, extensively in advanced labs, while Jupyter notebooks are being used in other physics courses to illustrate the behavior of the theory being learned. I will also share my use of Python with undergraduate students for gravitational wave research and how the LIGO Scientific Collaboration uses tools like Jupyter to make gravitational-wave data accessible to the public.
      • Integrating Computation into Courses from General Education to Intermediate Physics

      • BD04
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Aaron Titus,
      • Type: Invited
      • I first integrated computation into my calculus-based physics course in 2003 through the "Matter & Interactions" textbook by Chabay and Sherwood. This eventually led to a physics degree program launched in 2010 in which every course for physics majors includes computation. Now, two of our general education physics courses include computation. We have learned the following lessons: (1) provide explicit instruction in computation during lab or class (i.e. computing should not be relegated to homework); (2) in introductory classes, reduce technical barriers associated with software installation; (3) transform what you teach to include iterative thinking. I will present these lessons and show examples of computing across the curriculum.
      • Programming Modules for Algebra-based Electromagnetism: Using Coding to Enforce Physics Concepts*

      • BD05
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Richelle Teeling-Smith, Chris Orban,, Chris Porter,

      • Type: Poster
      • We present a series of electromagnetism programming modules that can be easily integrated into an algebra-based introductory physics course. These modules are game-like, browser-based (requiring no software installations), and are designed to highlight the physics aspects of an interactive simulation code while obscuring other details, making them ideal for beginner programmers. We will describe the effort to probe the impact of these coding activities on student conceptual learning using a series of animated questions inspired by the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment. These activities and assessments are currently being used in introductory physics classes at Mount Union and OSU Marion, as well as in a number of high school physics classrooms across Ohio.*The STEMcoding Project is supported by the AIP Meggers Award and internal funding from OSU.
      • STEMcoding Project: Bringing the Hour of Code to the Physics Classroom*

      • BD06
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Chris Orban, Richelle Teeling-Smith,

      • Type: Poster
      • Despite the success of code.org and the hour of code(TM), very little content currently exists to integrate coding into introductory STEM courses even though computer science is now designated as a "core subject". In fall 2017, the STEMcoding project released an hour of code activity (go.osu.edu/hourofcode) on the physics of video games and started a youtube channel (go.osu.edu/STEMtube). Importantly, a high percentage of the people featured in the videos come from underrepresented groups in STEM, and we try to ensure that it is mostly undergrads on screen, rather than professors or post-docs. This poster provides an overview of the coding resources that are freely available, summer training opportunities for teachers and future plans. *The STEMcoding Project is supported by the AIP Meggers Award and internal funding from OSU.
      • Use of Computation in Upper Level Mechanics at Winona State

      • BD07
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Sarah Phan-Budd,
      • Type: Poster
      • The physics department at Winona State has been expanding the use of computation across the physics curriculum. This poster will focus on the upper-level mechanics course which has recently been refreshed to include a computational portion implemented using Jupyter notebooks. We will discuss updated computational activities used both during class time and as homework assignments. We will also discuss how the physics department and other faculty members in the college of science and engineering have been training and supporting their fellow instructors to enable them to include more computation in their courses.
      • Challenges in Creating Accessible Materials for Online Physics Courses

      • BD08
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Yuri Piedrahita, Carina Rebello,, N. Sanjay Rebello,

      • Type: Poster
      • Nowadays there is an increasing presence of online courses in all fields of science, and particularly physics. Making such courses accessible to individuals with visual or auditory difficulties is imperative. Therefore, transforming common class materials from face-to-face classes (e.g., PowerPoint slides, or Word documents) to accessible materials is one of the firsts tasks towards designing an effective accessible online course. Although current reading programs have achieved relevant advances in accessibility, they still present a variety of limitations. For example, the inability of such reading programs to differentiate between say vertical lines in text, which in math represent the absolute value, but in physics might also represent the magnitude of a vector quantity. We spotlight the challenges found during the process of making the class materials of a Modern Mechanics course accessible, offering potential solutions with the aim to support others undertaking similar efforts.
      • Engaging Physics Students with Computation and Visualization

      • BD09
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Jay Wang,
      • Type: Poster
      • In this presentation we discuss integration of computation and visualization into the physics curriculum to actively engage student's learning. We will focus on sophomore and higher level classes where numerical computation is an integral component of the coursework. For example, introductory quantum mechanics is arguably the place where students benefit the most from computation only a handful of problems could be solved exactly in closed-form solutions, and virtually no time-dependent problem is accessible without computer simulation. Yet important concepts such as time-evolution of coherent states and tunneling are difficult to visualize and grasp to beginners of quantum mechanics. We describe activities that emphasize both computation and visualization within the Jupyter Python environment. We also describe creating an interactive computing and visualization environment with IPython widgets to make the activities more effective (see http://www.faculty.umassd.edu/j.wang/ for sample activities).
      • Initiating Computation in the Introductory Lab

      • BD10
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Andrew Gavrin,
      • Type: Poster
      • As part of a department-wide effort to introduce computational methods across the curriculum, I have begun to develop and implement computational experiences for the labs in our introductory course sequence. The first computational experiences students see are based on PhET simulations.* They use these to get a sense of what it means to do an "experiment" on a system someone else has already modelled. In later exercises, they use excel to develop their own models. To date, I have developed and classroom tested two PhET based experiments (both in mechanics) and two excel-based projects (one each in mechanics and E&M).
      • Integrating Computation into Introductory and Intermediate Optics

      • BD11
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Ernest Behringer,
      • Type: Poster
      • Optics provides many opportunities for integrating computation into the physics curriculum. Several computational activities, touching on geometric and physical optics, will be presented that can help students learn and apply optical concepts while achieving many of the learning outcomes described in the AAPT recommendations for the laboratory curriculum and for computational physics. While completing these activities, students use spreadsheets and structured language programs to generate and represent numerical data, to represent experimental data, to compare the predictions of theoretical models to experimental results, and to use models to predict outcomes in new situations. A subset of these activities, covering shadows, rainbows, and laser beam profiles, are available at the Compadre website for the Partnership for Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics.
      • Integrating Computation into Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

      • BD12
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Marie Lopez del Puerto,
      • Type: Poster
      • Computation and statistical mechanics go hand in hand. I have integrated several short computational (and even some experimental!) projects into an upper-level Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics course at the University of St. Thomas. While relatively easy to code, these projects help illustrate and clarify fundamental ideas (equilibrium, multiplicity, probability distributions, etc). Several example projects are presented in this poster.
      • Jupyter Notebook: A Natural Fit for Integrating Computation into Many Courses

      • BD13
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Steve Spicklemire,
      • Type: Poster
      • From "Scientific Computing" and "Intro Electronics" to "Quantum Mechanics"and "Advanced Lab" the "Jupyter Notebook" provides a flexible foundation for integrating computation into a variety of classes. Some of the relevant features of Jupyter Notebooks will be highlighted and a diverse set of examples provided.
  • Governance Structure Committee

      • Governance Structure Committee

      • COM32
      • Wed 08/01, 7:00AM - 8:00AM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Graduate Student Topical Discussion

      • Graduate Student Topical Discussion

      • TOP05
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Lisa Goodhew
      • Type: Topical
      • This session is the primary opportunity for student members of the PER community to meet and discuss common issues. While this session is aimed toward graduate students, we welcome undergraduates who are interested in studying PER or curious about life as a graduate student!
  • High School

      • Introduction and Strategies for New Styles of AP Physics Questions

      • AD01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Matthew Sckalor,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The revised AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2 courses have introduced two new styles of questions that students will see every year. Their design is based on the scholarship of teaching and learning from the Physics Education Research community. The "Qualitative Quantitative Translation" question, which assesses aspects of mathematization, and the "Experimental Design" question require students to demonstrate their physics knowledge and skills in specific and novel ways. In this talk, the audience will be introduced to these new question styles using recently released exam questions and rubrics. Matthew Sckalor will share this information from the vantage point of a question and rubric writer, a veteran AP physics teacher and a long time AP exam reader and leader. Also discussed will be strategies for teachers to effectively prepare their students to be able to answer these question types.
      • The Making of an AP Rubric

      • AD02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Matthew Vonk,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Have you ever wondered how Advanced Placement (AP) tests are scored? Why do some parts of a student response earn credit while others don't? …And are there clues in the way that a question is worded that indicate something about how it might be scored? The key to understanding how AP tests are scored is the rubric. In this session, the audience will get an inside view as to how a rubric gets made and applied. Matt Vonk is a member of the AP Physics C development committee and a longtime AP reader.
      • Applying Rubrics at the AP Physics Reading

      • AD03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Oather Strawderman,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Great care is taken at the AP Reading to ensure that the reported scores are both fair and reliable. One of the ways we make sure this occurs is through the use of carefully constructed and applied rubrics. In this session we will see how rubrics are utilized at the AP Reading to score exams. We will discuss how the rubric is finalized at the Reading after a thorough review of student samples to ensure that all answers that address the Learning Objectives receive credit. The importance of uniformly applying the rubric and how this is achieved through Reader training and back reading will also be addressed. Throughout the presentation actual rubrics for released exam questions as well as student samples will be referenced. Oather Strawderman is a member of the AP Physics 2 Test Development Committee and a Question Leader at the AP Reading.
      • Project Accelerate: Blended SPOC Bringing AP Physics to Underserved Students*

      • AD04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Andrew Duffy, Mark Greenman,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Boston University is in the first year of implementing a three-year NSF DRK12 award bringing AP Physics to underserved populations. During our prior pilot year, Project Accelerate partnered with 11 high schools in Massachusetts and West Virginia to bring a College Board approved Advanced Placement® Physics 1 Small Private Online Course (SPOC) to schools not offering this opportunity to students. Project Accelerate students (1) outperformed peer groups in traditional AP Physics classrooms on the College Board AP Physics exam, and (2) were more inclined to engage in additional Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) programs than they were prior to participating in Project Accelerate. Project Accelerate combines supportive infrastructures from a student's traditional school, a highly interactive private edX online course, and small group laboratory experiences. Project Accelerate offers a replicable solution to a significant problem -- too few underserved high school students having access to high quality physics education, resulting in these students being ill prepared to enter STEM careers and STEM programs in college. *Funded by NSF grant DRL 1720914.
      • AP Physics 1: A Seasoned Perspective

      • AD05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Brian Holton,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The evolution of AP Physics B into AP Physics 1 and 2 has significantly changed how high school physics takes place in America's schools. AP Physics 1/2 has moved away from being equivalent to most algebra-based college physics courses in that its emphasis is on process rather than content. While enrollment has increased from 93,500 in the 2014 AP B course to 174,000 in the 2015 AP 1 course, only 18.6% of students taking the AP 1 test scored a 4 or 5 compared to AP B's 32.8% these years. In addition, while AP Physics B was a comprehensive course covering the college equivalent of a first year course, AP Physics 1 and 2 is a two year sequence. Only 26,400 students took AP Physics 2 in 2015 realizing a loss of 67,000 students not being exposed to second semester topics. This talk will compare and contrast the Physics B and Physics 1/2 from the perspective of a 35-year seasoned high school teacher and college professor.
      • Computational Modeling in High School Physics

      • AD06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by William Fenton, Jesse Young,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We will present the way we integrate computational models with the Modeling Instruction(1) curriculum we use to teach AP Physics 1. When students are shown a situation with a changing net force or mass they find that their standard algebraic and graphical toolkit is not sufficient to make a model that can be used to make quantitive predictions. By introducing VPython early in the course, students eventually regard it as "just another tool" and, realizing that the force or mass don't change "too much" if the time interval is short enough, successfully use Euler's Method to model air resistance, oscillatory motion, planetary motion, and rocket propulsion without any knowledge of calculus. We will show how we introduce computational tools in our curriculum, how students make use of them and show some examples of student work.
      • A Family of Arduino-based Instruments for Linear and Rotational Kinematics

      • AD07
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Sidharta Vadaparty,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Kinematics in linear and rotating motion is core to introductory physics and should be internalized by high school students through hands-on experiments. However, subtle concepts like non-inertial frames and Coriolis force are often taught qualitatively. Additionally, commercially available instruments which can quantitatively measure these phenomena are often prohibitively expensive. In this presentation, we will introduce two instruments, Kinemeter and Cirkinemeter, which measure velocity and acceleration on a straight line and on a rotating disk, respectively. These classroom-tested instruments are built using Arduino microcontrollers, and are affordable, customizable and open-sourced. Through the data collected from a number of creative experiments using these instruments, we deduce the familiar kinematics equations in linear and circular motion to a high degree of precision. We also show how to measure g! The Cirkinemeter helps to clear students' confusion in centrifugal acceleration (fictitious vs. real), and also demonstrates Coriolis force quantitatively.
      • Use of 3D Pens in High School Physics Labs

      • AD08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Anne Huntress,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Learn how to have students design, construct, and engineer using 3D pen technology. No coding is necessary, just an outlet and an imagination! Participants will be introduced to how I use these pens in my Regents Physics classes to make bridges, amusement park rides, and windmills, but will also have ample time to play and brainstorm how to implement this technology into their own classrooms.
      • Teaching Thermodynamics in a Unique High School Environment

      • AD09
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Boaz Karni-Harel,
      • Type: Contributed
      • HEMDA - Schwartz-Reisman Science Education center in Tel-Aviv is a unique educational institute. It is a non-profit organization that provides science education to all the high schools in Tel-Aviv. This enables it to provide excellent laboratory equipment and highly trained teachers, most of them PhD holders. Taking advantage of this, the center offers the students many activities and classes beyond the regular curriculum. As an example a new course in thermodynamics will be presented. The difficulties and the ways they were overcame will be discussed.
      • Teaching Quantum Mechanics in High School

      • AD10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Efraim Weissman, Avi Merzel,, Nadav Katz,, Igal Galili,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The currently adopted high-school curriculum of modern physics is often extremely short including a few initial steps towards quantum theory. The wave-particle duality is mentioned, but often without the meaning of wavity of particles. The contrast between the classic and quantum theories often misses any discussion. Our new curriculum adopts the paradigm of discipline-culture in representing physical knowledge. Within this paradigm, a physical theory is structured around a nucleus-body-periphery which emphasizes the principles (nucleus), their application (body) and alternatives (periphery). An experimental curriculum was developed and applied. The first results show a positive impact on students' conceptual knowledge.
      • Astrophysics High School Internship Program: Hands-On Research Experience

      • AD11
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Ellie Feitlinger, Silvia Bravo,, Jean DeMerit,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In 2013, the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC) launched a summer and fall high school internship program. The summer internship invites 4-5 students and one teacher to work full time on a six-week-long research project. The fall internship invites 10-20 students to join WIPAC two hours per week for up to 12 weeks. Both internships offer innovative and genuine astrophysics research experiences for the students. We challenge interns to apply methods of scientific inquiry and analyze data contributing to actual experiments. Students work in small groups with a lead scientist on each project. At the end of the internship, and weekly during the summer, students present their work and answer questions from researchers and peers. We will discuss the challenges and opportunities of the high school program, including how teachers can engage with and benefit from this program.
      • An Agency by Design Framework for Physics Labs and Lessons

      • AD12
      • Mon 07/30, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by Stephen March,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Agency by Design (AbD) is a research initiative to investigate the promises, practices, and pedagogies of maker-centered learning. At Washington International School, we have been working with Project Zero researchers to implement AbD across the curriculum. This talk introduces the fundamentals of the Agency by Design framework in the context of High School physics and provides examples of ways one teacher has implemented the framework in his classes.
  • High School Physics Share-a-Thon

      • High School Physics Share-a-Thon

      • SPEC11
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 10:00PM
      • by Charlene M. Rydgren
      • Type: Event
  • High School Teachers Doing Action Research

      • High School Teachers Doing Action Research

      • BE
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Michael Lerner
      • Type: Panel
      • Action Research on Facilitating Classroom Discourse

      • BE01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Scot Hovan,
      • Type: Panel
      • Classroom discourse is a fundamental aspect of teaching and learning, but rarely do teacher preparation programs train educators how to facilitate this discourse. Thoughtful action research can result in meaningful growth of an instructor's awareness of and expertise in facilitating classroom discourse. In this presentation I will discuss possible action research questions that range in commitment from minutes to months but whose results will inform instruction and enhance understanding of communication patterns present in the classroom.
      • Action Research: Using Problems of Practice to Inform Instruction

      • BE02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Nicole Schrode,
      • Type: Panel
      • Is my curriculum reaching my lower third? Are ELLs making learning gains? Do my students really understand what counts as evidence in a CER? These are some examples of the questions I grapple with regularly in my classroom. I will share how I have turned these problems of practice into action research studies. Best practices for collecting and analyzing student data and how I used the data to inform instruction or curriculum will also be presented. I will also discuss how to share findings with stakeholders within your school, district, or teachers nationwide.
      • Role Reversal: What We Learn From Our Physics Students

      • BE03
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Danielle Bugge, Eugenia Etkina,

      • Type: Panel
      • Science practices are an integral part of learning physics. Recommendations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Advanced Placement Physics 1 and 2 guidelines call for incorporating these practices into learning and instruction. How do we know whether students achieve proficiency on the standards set by NGSS and College Board? The goal of this talk is to share my experiences conducting action research in a first-year physics classroom. In my classroom, students learn physics through the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) method. They regularly design their own experiments that engage them in the science practices and focus on the development of their scientific abilities. Students share their findings through white board symposia and written reports. We report on the study in which we collect and analyze student descriptions of designed experiments and their reflections in order to answer questions related to the development of science practices for young learners.
      • PLC-Embedded Action Research

      • BE04
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Marta Stoeckel,
      • Type: Panel
      • Action research has become a core part of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North St. Paul-Maplewood-Oakdale Public Schools, with an emphasis on small-scale projects. Instructional coaches and district leaders have developed a structure to support PLCs in engaging in worthwhile action research, even when PLC members have minimal background and experience. I will discuss projects completed by the physics PLC, including a year-long examination of student self-assessments on unit quizzes and single-lesson interventions to improve student performance on experimental design problems based on the AP Physics 1 exam.
  • History of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

      • Physics Research, Teaching, and Student Training at Fisk University: 1895 -1970

      • DE01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Ronald Mickens,
      • Type: Invited
      • We summarize the history of science education at Fisk University. The period covered begins at the end of the 19th century and ends in 1970. In particular, we discuss reasons for the heavy emphasis on science and mathematics in the university's curriculum and the subsequent consequences for the teaching of physics, physics student education and training, and both faculty and student research activities. A major figure, specially during the 1930's, was Elmer Samuel Imes, who graduated from Fisk in 1903, and then obtained the doctorate degree in physics in 1918 from the University of Michigan. We conclude the presentation with details regarding the Fisk – Vanderbilt Bridge Program and some comments on current STEM efforts for increasing minority participation in physics.
      • Curricular Reform and Physics Education Research at Spelman College

      • DE02
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Derrick Hylton,
      • Type: Invited
      • Based on student learning outcomes, the Physics Department at Spelman College has initiated several curricular reform over the past 10 years. These are based on physics education research. In addition, we have started some education projects on our own. We will describe our efforts on curricular reform and our physics education research projects over the past 10 years and continuing. We will also present our successes and weaknesses, as well as lessons learned that may benefit other institutions thinking about such projects.
      • Overview of Physics at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

      • DE03
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Gregory Good,
      • Type: Invited
      • This presentation provides an overview of what is known now about the history of physics teaching at HBCUs. It also provides some guidance for finding the existing literature on this topic. More importantly, this talk provides advice on topics -- schools, individuals, inspirational stories -- that might allow physics students and teachers to fill gaps in that history. Lastly, all of this draws on the Teaching Guides on Women and Minorities in Physics on the American Institute of Physics website at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/teaching-guides-women-minorities
  • Homer L. Doge Citation for Distinguished Service (DSC) and SM18 Fellows

      • Homer L. Dodge Citation for Distinguished Service (DSC) and SM18 Fellows

      • PL05
      • Tue 07/31, 10:30AM - 12:00PM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Plenary
      • DSC: Ximena Cid, Jose D’Aruda, Joy Elaine Gwinn, David Jackson Fellows: Brad Ambrose, Kyle Forinash III, John Stewart, Gay Stewart
  • Improving Accessibility for Physics Students with Visual or Cognitive Disabilities

      • A Hands-on, Nonvisual Approach to Accessible Intermediate Physics Laboratory Courses

      • EE01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Paul Thorman, Daniel Gillen

      • Type: Invited
      • The undergraduate physics laboratory should be an environment where students interact directly with experimental materials, but students with blindness or impaired vision have often been left out of planning for lab courses. Design philosophies for laboratory courses with accessibility in mind are not common knowledge, and will be explored in our session. This presentation gives an overview of the experience and lessons learned from accommodating a blind student (one of the presenters) in an intermediate laboratory course at Haverford College. We will share details of some of our visual disability accommodations, which can enhance the essential hands-on nature of lab courses and improve student learning of core physical concepts.
      • Navigating the Hidden Politics of Making Real Change

      • EE02
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Kyle Keane, Heman Gharibnejad,

      • Type: Invited
      • Accessibility is a complicated topic with a history of ethical debates about equivalent pedagogical opportunities, resource management limitations, unsolved research questions about perception and cognition, and technical R&D challenges. Other components include interpersonal collaborations and social support systems for those looking to innovate on the field. This presentation is a candid story about two colleagues' efforts to make interactive digital simulations more accessible through the addition of spoken descriptions and sonification. One of the presenters, Keane, has a PhD in physics and is visually impaired. He is steeped in accessibility work through his own personal experience, and has promoted accessibility in science and engineering education at MIT and in partnership with the PhET Project. The other presenter, Gharibnejad, is a traditional physics educator with an interest and commitment to improve STEM accessibility. Together they will discuss how they work together to bridge pedagogy and accessibility without compromising either.
      • Access to Visual Representations Using 3D-Printed Learning Objects

      • EE03
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 3:30PM
      • by Steven Sahyun,
      • Type: Invited
      • Particularly for more complicated, multidimensional or time-dependent images, novice learners don't always associate image representations or data in the same manner as those familiar with the material. In addition, information presented or gathered in a visual-only mode is inherently inaccessible to students who are unable to view or have difficulty interpreting what they are seeing. In an effort to create a more inclusive laboratory and classroom environment for students with visual difficulties, a number of objects commonly encountered in physics classes and laboratory settings that can be fabricated with a 3D-printer have been designed. Object files may be downloaded from a Website[1] by a student's instructor and then produced on a local 3D-printer. These tactile objects provide a method for universal design and multi-modal learning in physics instruction and allow representation of an object or concept under discussion that is otherwise only available as pictures.
  • Inclusivity and Diversity in STEM

      • Diversity and Inclusion in STEM: Figuring It Out Together

      • AE01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Shirley Malcom,
      • Type: Invited
      • Despite years of interventions there has been only modest improvement in participation levels in physics by women and underrepresented minorities. Diversity and inclusion are important but unrealized goals of the physics community, including the physics education community. What can be learned from other fields that can support physics' goals of diversity and inclusion? Can progress be achieved by making links between physics and other areas of science, that is, exploring interdisciplinary topics or focusing on important global problems? The STEM DBER Alliance was convened to look at possible benefits and lessons learned while supporting collaboration across discipline based education research communities as we tackle large, intractable challenges such as diversity and inclusion.
      • Research on Diversity Initiatives in Computing

      • AE02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Burcin Tamer
      • Type: Invited
      • Diverse perspectives foster innovation and ensure the needs of many are met. At present, computing fields lack demographic diversity. This presentation will focus on factors that often encourage (or discourage) women as well as men from underrepresented racial groups from engaging in computing degrees. In particular, the audience will learn about recent research conducted at the Computing Research Association's Center for Evaluating the Research Pipeline (CERP). CERP conducts national survey research to understand explanations for low diversity in computing education. CERP also studies the efficacy of intervention programs aiming to build diversity in computing. The audience will be given actionable items, rooted in research, to help foster diversity in STEM education.
      • Detailing STEM Educational Opportunities that Affirm Marginalized Students' Intersectional Identities

      • AE03
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Luis Leyva,
      • Type: Invited
      • Black and Latinx populations are significantly underrepresented in STEM, earning less than 10% of mathematics-intensive degrees (e.g., engineering, physics) in 2014. With mathematics operating as a gatekeeper of advanced STEM coursework, qualitative analyses of social influences on historically marginalized populations' mathematics success can illuminate ways to advance STEM retention and inclusion. Drawing on research that looks across observations and student journaling in undergraduate mathematics classrooms as well as student reflections, this presentation details how STEM student support services, faculty relationships, and teaching shaped inclusive mathematics educational experiences among students of color. I use intersectionality -- a theoretical perspective that captures the interplay of racism, sexism, and other systems of oppression in shaping unique forms of marginalization – to illustrate variation in how students of color negotiate their social identities with STEM pursuits. Implications are raised to inform postsecondary STEM educational programs and practices that are socially affirming of marginalized intersectional identities.
      • Exploring the Influence of Covert Identities in Active Learning Classrooms

      • AE04
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Sara Brownell,
      • Type: Invited
      • As we transition our college biology classrooms from traditional lectures to student-centered active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. We are interested in hidden or covert identities that are stigmatized, so that students may feel uncomfortable sharing their identity in the classroom. We have explored two stigmatized covert student identities that have thus far been unexamined in undergraduate biology classrooms: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities and students who have anxiety. Using semi-structured interviews, we probed the perceptions of 7 LGBTQIA students and 52 students with differing levels of anxiety in undergraduate biology classrooms that were being taught using active learning. We found that these students' covert identities are affecting their experiences in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles for these students.
  • Innovations in Teaching Astronomy

      • Innovating Astronomy Education with Robotic Telescopes

      • BF01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Kathryn Williamson,
      • Type: Invited
      • We are on the cusp on an astronomy education revolution. Robotic telescopes are now bringing the excitement of authentic astronomy practices and concepts to large numbers of students and educators far and wide. With internet access to a world-wide network of remotely-controlled, research-quality telescopes, even the most novice student can obtain accurate position measurements of asteroids, collect and analyze images of planetary systems to test Kepler's laws, and map the invisible universe through radio astronomy. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network and the diverse ways educators across the country have used it to engage students of all ages and in a variety of settings. To provide an example, I will describe how I have used the Green Bank 20-meter radio telescope to adapt a common "Mapping the Milky Way" project to the general education, large-enrollment, lecture-based, college astronomy course.
      • Astronomy Education: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Going?

      • BF02
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Colin Wallace,
      • Type: Invited
      • Astronomy education research (AER) is a unique discipline. Its practitioners are often found in physics departments, and many have backgrounds in PER. However, unlike PER, which traditionally focuses on STEM majors, AER has primarily focused on students in general education, introductory astronomy (Astro 101), many of whom are taking their final science course in life. In this talk, I will describe how AER fits in the national landscape of discipline-based education research. I will highlight some of the major findings and accomplishments of AER in order to elucidate challenges the discipline faces as well as opportunities for advancing our understanding of the teaching and learning of astronomy. I will present my perspective on what the frontier of AER looks like and where the discipline should go in the future.
      • The Dakota State University (DSU) STEM Institute Summer Program

      • BF03
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by James Maloney,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Studies show that the greatest attrition in STEM majors moving to non-STEMprograms occurs during their first year. To promote recruitment, retention, and student success, DSU conducted summer STEM Institutes in 2014 and 2016. The eclectic variety of STEM topics in past programs was not fully integrated. A new curriculum was designed around the popular themes of astronomy, rocketry, and space science. These themes offer appeal across the wide range of students' interests, particularly the large number of students enrolled or interested in DSU's computer science and cyber technology programs. Daily seminars, demonstrations and hands-on experiments cover concepts essential to understanding rocketry and incorporates aspects of astronomy and space science to help build interest and excitement among all participants. Past programs and lessons learned will be reviewed, and well as the motivation and implementation of the new integrated curricula. A K-12 outreach program implementing similar curricula will be presented.
      • Implementing a Horn Radio Telescope in HS Physics and Astronomy

      • BF04
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by John Makous,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The results of our experience in the Research Experience for Teachers - Digital Signal Processing In Radio Astronomy program at West Virginia University will be presented. Specifically we will discuss the construction of the horn structure, analog electronics assembly, and digital design using software defined radio. We further discuss the operation, and use of a horn radio telescope in high school physics and astronomy courses. This telescope is designed to detect the 21 cm wavelength emitted by atomic hydrogen, enabling students to map hydrogen in the Milky Way Galaxy, as well as determine detailed information about its structure.
      • Teaching Hands-On Observational Astronomy to a Wide Range of Students

      • BF05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Donald Smith,
      • Type: Contributed
      • I will present the design of a hands-on course to use telescopes to observe and photograph the night sky. The two main challenges of the course are the weather and the diverse backgrounds of the students. Students are typically a mix of physics majors and non-science students fulfilling a breadth requirement. The course uses a flipped classroom approach to help all students learn the basics of coordinate systems, optics, and time measurements. Then students choose 10 labs that match their skills and interests. The last month of the course is spent on an individual project that they develop themselves. I will report on the strengths and weaknesses of the flipped classroom approach and give examples of how the labs balance archival data analysis with rooftop observing to give students the ability to be flexible around the weather. Finally, I will share examples of some of the projects students have developed.
      • Going Paperless: Integrating Google Docs, Drive and Classroom into an Astronomy Lab Program

      • BF06
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by David McCallister,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Google Classroom is a free service for schools to "go paperless" with digital creation, submission, and grading of work. This presentation will provide examples of how traditional lab activities were easily modified to enhance the effectiveness of the lab exercise, such as crowd-sourced data collection for the entire section/course. Specific examples include generating an HR diagram and semester-long lunar observations. Going paperless has also streamlined grading for the lab instructors, and allowed students to give feedback to the instructor. Future plans are to expand to other lab activities and to compose new lab activities leveraging Google Forms for reporting data to a central database.
      • Exploring Mars with LEGO Mindstorm Robotics: A FYF College Course

      • BF07
      • Mon 07/30, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Debbie French,
      • Type: Contributed
      • All incoming freshmen and students new to Wilkes University must take a First Year Foundations (FYF) course. Faculty may develop an FYF course in any field of interest. FYF courses balance content with lessons on navigating the college experience. In this presentation, I will describe a Mars-themed FYF course where students completed LEGO Mindstorm Robotics Space Exploration missions. Students also learned about astronomy, integrated STEM concepts, and introductory programming (along with some required FYF elements). Student learning outcomes, student feedback, STEM connections, lessons learned, and next steps will be shared.
      • Using Motion Sensor Devices and VR Headsets in the Planetarium

      • BF08
      • Mon 07/30, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Pamela Maher, Janelle Bailey,, P.G. Schrader

      • Type: Contributed
      • For decades, planetaria have been used for teaching and learning by simulating the celestial sphere. A planetarium can supplement observation by conventional methods that use the electromagnetic spectrum to gather information about the heavens. This study describes how planetaria applications can be extended by using other simulation tools. The focus is on two tools that are of interest to practitioners: motion sensor devices (MSD), used with the fulldome planetarium, and virtual reality (VR) headsets. Data were collected from N = 67 introductory college astronomy students in a study to investigate the variety of experiences they had when using each device to manipulate a lunar flyby in the college planetarium. Results show what each tool affords, things afforded by both tools (crossover affordances), and each tool's constraints as an aid for instructors, designers, and researchers in choosing a tool for their research or educational purposes.
  • Integrating History of Science into Physics Courses

      • History in Physics Teaching and Physics in History Teaching

      • FG01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Robert Morse, John Campbell,*

      • Type: Invited
      • In this talk we discuss how to incorporate the history of physics in the designing and teaching of a physics class as well as a history class. Influenced by the Project Physics Course, Bob has had students recreate historical experiments in an effort to build student understanding and learn how we came to understand the physical world. John has developed an elective history course spanning the late 18th century and early 19th century when science and technology had a popular role in the intellectual life of arts and letters. He has called on Bob to give a few demonstration lectures on biographical and scientific aspects of two major scientists of the era, Franklin and Faraday. An essential motivation for us has been to intrigue and engage students students through both hands-on learning and the compelling narratives and discoveries of the past.
      • Guiding Students through Great Physics Texts

      • FG02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Kerry Kuehn,*
      • Type: Invited
      • "Does every object have weight?" If so, "how do you know?" Questions like these appeal to the sense of wonder and natural inquisitiveness that attract many students to the study of science. Moreover, such broadly posed questions provide both a motivation and a natural avenue for introducing some of the technical aspects of scientific theories. During the past decade, I have developed and taught a four-semester introductory physics curriculum at Wisconsin Lutheran College based on the careful reading, analysis and discussion of foundational texts in physics and astronomy-–texts such as Galileo's Starry Messenger, Pascal's Equilibrium of Liquids, Maxwell's Theory of Heat, and Einstein's Relativity. In this talk, I will explain how and why I developed this curriculum, and also some of the challenges which arise when attempting to incorporate history and philosophy into an introductory physics curriculum.
      • Integrating Conceptual History with Physics Content

      • FG03
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Chuck Winrich, Peter Garik,, Yann Benétreau-Dupin,, Andrew Duffy,, Luciana Garbayo,

      • Type: Invited
      • The Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) Project at Boston University is a professional development program for high school physics teachers. Our courses combine physics content with the conceptual history of physics and readings from physics education research (PER) literature. The content of ITOP courses includes mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, thermodynamics and modern physics. Participants are introduced to the development of concepts in parallel with the physics content to better understand the nature and development of scientific theories. PER literature suggests that student misconceptions often mirror historical ideas, so the conceptual history also contributes to the discussions of student learning. We present examples of conceptual history exercises used in the ITOP classes. These exercises are epistemic games to foster active engagement with the historical conceptions of physics. We will present evaluation data of the ITOP program, and discuss the integration of historical content into participants' physics classes.
      • Science and the French Revolution

      • FG04
      • Tue 07/31, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by Ruth Howes,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Prior to 1789, French scientists were well-educated men who could afford to equip laboratories and libraries. These scientists were members of the bourgeoise or nobility, and participated in the French Academy of Sciences trying to improve French agriculture, commerce, and weaponry. These men supported innovations including notably the metric system and played leading roles in Paris and the rest of France. By 1793, the rest of Europe, where monarchs were threatened by the French ideals, declared war on France. The French met their fear by establishing the Committee on Public Safety, a dictatorship led by the formidable Robespierre, which guillotined several excellent scientists. The prosecutor, Antoine Foquier-Tinville, answered a colleague of the chemist Lavoisier, who pleaded for Lavoisier's life by perhaps apocryphally saying, "The Republic has no need for scientists." The worth of scientists was not reestablished until the Napoleonic era.
      • Divine Émilie -- Fictional Dialogues With a Real and Bright Woman

      • FG05
      • Tue 07/31, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by Lutz Kasper,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Our protagonist is Émilie du Châtelet, also known as divine Émilie. Although women in early 18th century were barred from entering universities Émilie was privately educated by prominent teachers, such as Maupertuis. Moreover she conducted an affair with Voltaire that lasted many years. They lived together in a chateau where they built a laboratory and a scientific library to match the universities of their time. In 1737 the Paris Academy announced a handsome amount of prize money for the best scientific essay on the subject "The Nature of Light and Heat." Voltaire, a fervent advocate of Newton's ideas, entered the competition. Unbeknown to him, Émilie took part, too. In her anonymous essay she proposed ideas that basically anticipated the postulation of thermal radiation, similar to experiments by Herschel some 80 years later. In our talk we will show details and how we integrate this approach into physics teacher education.
      • History of Sucker and Vacuum Experiments

      • FG06
      • Tue 07/31, 6:50PM - 7:00PM
      • by Kaya Sakashita,* koji Tsukamoto,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A sucker is used to demonstrate the sensation of atmospheric pressure. Leather suckers are mentioned in 18th century introductory physics textbooks. These books describe children were playing by pulling up a stone by using a sucker suspended on a string in towns such as London in those days. We found that children's play using suckers was prevalent in the 17th century in Europe. A void is created in a sucker when a force acting on it is considered the same as the vacuum created by Torricelli. In addition, pulling two suckers attached together is considered to have the same effect as that observed in an experiment conducted by Otto von Guericke at Magdeburg. Therefore, it seems that suckers are the cheapest demonstration apparatus to teach about vacuum. We propose the history of the invention of the sucker and connect it to the history of the study of vacuum.
  • Integrating History of Science into Physics Courses II

      • History as Means for Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics

      • GF01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:10PM
      • by Jill Macko,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In this talk I will discuss our experience at ENC in teaching introductoryQuantum Physics via the history of its development, working from the dominance of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves to the discoveries of Einstein's photons and Bohr's quantized electronic energies and finally to the Bohr-Einstein debates and the dominance of the Copenhagen interpretation of the wave function. By including the history of science in our introductory quantum physics course, we have experienced benefits in the students' learning such as a fuller conceptual understanding of Quantum Physics (versus just "plug-and-chug" skills) and a deeper practical understanding of the Nature of Science. We will also discuss our methods of addressing the various challenges of integrating History of Science in the context of a "pure science" course.
      • The Invention of Public Radio at the UW-Madison Physics Department, 1917-1919

      • GF02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:10PM - 1:20PM
      • by James Reardon,
      • Type: Contributed
      • From April 1917-March 1919 Prof. Earle Terry of the UW Physics Department was able to continue research in wireless voice telephony--what we would now call AM radio--while all through the rest of the world, non-military radio research was halted by World War I. By the end of this time, he and graduate student Cyril Jansky were able to make triode vacuum tubes capable of dissipating more than 50 W, allowing his station 9XM to transmit voice intelligible at a range of 130 miles. Terry and Jansky freely shared their work with researchers at other universities, which contributed to the proliferation of college and university radio stations in the 1920s, the ancestors of what we now know as public radio. Our attempt to recreate the original 9XM transmitter has awoken huge interest in our Physics Department; the vacuum triodes we have made are a perfect vehicle for studying Richardson's law and the Child-Langmuir law in our upper-level undergraduate laboratory.
      • The Nature of Science Lesson Should Not Be One-And-Done

      • GF03
      • Wed 08/01, 1:20PM - 1:30PM
      • by Paul Ashcraft, Joseph Johnson,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Students often tune out the introductory lesson where the Nature of Science and the Scientific Method are discussed. However, repeated emphasis and experiential learning on how scientific theories evolved from better measurements changing our hypotheses can encourage students to produce new findings through their own research. Examples from the history of science can be incorporated into curricula to show both evolutionary and revolutionary changes. Suggestions for implementation through lecture, guided inquiry, discussion boards or even historical movies will be presented.
      • Role Playing Games in College Physics Classrooms

      • GF04
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Adria Updike,
      • Type: Contributed
      • While role-playing games have been employed by instructors in many fields as valuable teaching tools, many of these games have been aimed at humanities classrooms. The Reacting to the Past (RTTP) pedagogy for role playing using historical events is well-established active-learning method of engaging students in historical events, and offers a growing number of STEM games suitable for physics classrooms. These games come pre-packaged with inexpensive published texts for the students and instructor manuals for teachers. The games require students to engage with both the science and the history to construct arguments, write papers and give talks from the point of view of historical characters in an attempt to "win" the game. Students gain valuable insight into the intersection of science with society through this pedagogy. I will discuss my experience using these games in undergraduate physics classes, particularly in those aimed at a more general audience.
  • Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Whats New? ILDs Using Clickers and Video Analysis

      • Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Whats New? ILDs Using Clickers and Video Analysis

      • AP01
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by David Sokoloff, Ronald Thornton,

      • Type: Invited
      • The results of physics education research and the availability of microcomputer-based tools have led to the development of the Activity Based Physics Suite. (1) Most of the Suite materials are designed for hands-on learning, for example student-oriented laboratory curricula such as RealTime Physics. One reason for the success of these materials is that they encourage students to take an active part in their learning. This interactive session will demonstrate through active audience participation Suite materials designed to promote active learning in lecture-Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) (2), including those using clickers and video analysis.
      • Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Effectiveness in Teaching Concepts

      • AP02
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Ronald Thornton, David Sokoloff,

      • Type: Invited
      • The effectiveness of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) in teachingphysics concepts has been studied using physics education research based, multiple-choice conceptual evaluations.(1) Results of such studies will be presented, including studies with clicker ILDs. These results should be encouraging to those who wish to improve conceptual learning in their introductory physics course.    
  • Introductory Courses

      • A General Education Science Course

      • BG01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Stephen Parker, Darrell Born,

      • Type: Contributed
      • At Saint Martin's University, we are in the process of revamping our general education curriculum and planning a new "core curriculum" of required courses that better reflects our Benedictine heritage. One of the required classes will be a natural sciences class with a laboratory component, but with the added feature that it will also need to have an interdisciplinary aspect associated with it. To this end, we have developed a course entitled "The Physics of Music," where the class is co-taught by both a music professor and a physics professor. We taught a test run of this class two years ago, and we plan to offer this course on a more regular basis once the new core has been fully implemented. I will talk about some of the lessons learned during our first experience with this class and comment on the interdisciplinary discussions that occurred in the course.
      • Incorporating a Project-based Approach into Introductory Physics

      • BG02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Paul Walter,
      • Type: Contributed
      • We are in our second year of employing a team-based and project-based to calculus-based introductory physics based upon Eric Mazur and Kelly Miller's AP-50 course at Harvard University. Each month-long project culminates with a project fair with outside faculty serving as judges. We discuss the overall approach and the modifications that we have made while serving a different population at a Hispanic-serving institution. This talk will serve as a how-to and discuss resources that are available.
      • Scale-Up/Traditional Format -- A Detailed Comparison of Student Performance

      • BG03
      • Mon 07/30, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Andrew Hirsch, Chantal Leveque-Bristol,, Taylor Brodner,, Mark Haugan,, Jennifer Moss,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We have compared exam performance between two equivalent populations of students taking introductory mechanics at Purdue University over two semesters. One population was exposed to the traditional lecture-recitation-lab format, while the other to a Scale-Up format. Both groups took four identical exams, three midterms and a final, and in addition completed the same pre-instruction and post-instruction knowledge exam. We will present the analysis of the performance of the two populations after grouping students according to comparable demographic characteristics.
      • Physics Instruction: Between Lev Landau and Eric Mazur

      • BG04
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by David Pundak, Miri Shacham,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Even though the physics instruction revolution regarding the active learning is about 30 years old, the debate with the traditional approach still exists. Prof. Lev Landau made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics, is a typical representative leader of mathematical deductive approaches. Landau requires accepting, as a first step, an abstract formula or statement dictate by the instructor without doubts and concentrate attention on the study of mathematical procedures. Prof. Mazur is leading opposite approach that concentrated on the students' difficulties to absorb the reality and to create scientific concepts. He pays attention to the students' ideas and how to represent physical systems by dynamic figures and appropriate mathematics. Following this debate, we study an introductory physics course lead by two instructors hold those different points of view. We evaluate the students' difficulties and achievements during the course and in the final exams. At our talk, we will discuss the study and its results.
      • Calculus-Based vs. Algebra-based Physics: How to Distinguish and Teach?

      • BG05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Sajalendu Dey, John Barr,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In the universities in North America, at the undergraduate level, the introductory course in physics comes essentially in two different categories: the calculus-based physics and the algebra-based physics. But what makes these two categories of Introductory Physics different from each other? Understanding the answer to this question is certainly important not only for the teacher who teaches these courses, but also for the students who take these courses. Are there really any distinction? How much is the distinction if there are any? In this report, the authors have presented their own teaching experience to answer this question, and have tried to use an attribute-entity format to categorize the physics topics for better understanding of this calculus-algebra distinction.
      • Using Math in Introductory Physics: They're Measurements, Not Numbers!*

      • BG06
      • Mon 07/30, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Edward Redish, Mark Eichenlaub,, Deborah Hemingway,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Many students run into trouble using math in introductory physics, despitehaving done well in prerequisite math classes. Many tend to see math as for doing calculations instead of as a way to organize and think about the physical knowledge we have about relationships among variables and parameters. Most of the symbols we use don't stand for numbers, but for physical quantities often generated through measurement. This motivates many tools we expect students to learn to use, including the closely interrelated topics of significant figures, units, dimensional analysis, and estimation. Many students resist this ontological shift, failing to see the value of the new and more complex perspective of "math with physical meaning." We show some of the tools (epistemic games) we have developed to help students make the transition to reasoning with math instead of just calculating with math.
      • Electrical Analysis of Wheels and Stars

      • BG07
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Mikhail Kagan, Brian Mata,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Playing with electric circuits of interesting structure can make very engaging classroom activities and lead to thorough learning of multiple concepts across different disciplines. We investigate rotationally symmetric electric circuits of arbitrary size. Using the recently developed methods for computing equivalent resistance of generic electric networks, we obtain exact expressions for the equivalent resistance across arbitrary links of wheel- and star-like circuits. These expressions explicitly depend on the individual edge resistances, as well as on the circuit size N as an independent parameter. In some simple cases, students can see golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers show up in electrical circuits. The same analysis can be applied to computations of the complex impedance of AC-circuits of the same circular topology and allow students to investigate resonance phenomena therein. The obtained results have applications in graph theory (circulant graphs), matrix algebra and network security algorithms.
      • A Digital Text With Embedded Assessment

      • BG08
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Michael Tammaro,
      • Type: Contributed
      • I will present an innovative, interactive online environment through whichthe student is actively engaged with the course content. The interactive pieces include concept questions, practice problems, interactive examples, videos, animations, click-to-open footnotes, and additional examples. The robust hints that accompany the assessment pieces, as well as the pop-up glosses, take the pedagogy to a new level, as the online environment is fully exploited in this first-of-its-kind product. With interactive questions embedded with the reading, and the usual compliment of assignable end-of-chapter problems, along with innovative tracking tools, the instructor has an excellent vantage point from which to track and evaluate student progress.
      • Adapting RealTime Physics for Distance Learning with IOLab-A Final Report

      • BG09
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by David Sokoloff, Erik Bodegom,, Erik Jensen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The IOLab is a versatile, relatively inexpensive data acquisition device developed by Mats Selen and his colleagues at University of Illinois (1). It is self-contained in a cart that can roll on its own wheels, and it includes an optical encoder that measures motion quantities and a force sensor. It also contains sensors to measure a variety of other physical quantities. With a current cost of around $100, students can purchase their own individual device (like a clicker) and can-in theory-use it to do hands-on laboratory, pre-lecture (flipped classroom) and homework activities at home. We report on the results of a project (2) to develop distance-learning (DL) laboratories using the IOLab. We have adapted RealTime Physics Mechanics (3,4) labs for use with the IOLab and tested them in supervised laboratory environments and in distance learning mode at Portland State University and Chemeketa Community College. We will describe the labs and lab environments, and the significant FMCE (5) conceptual learning gains.
      • Investigating Reasons for Why Self-Paced Interactive Electronic Learning Tutorials Express a Challenge for Engaging Students

      • BG10
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Edana Wilke, Alexandru Maries,, Zhongzhou Chen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While the use and availability of electronic self-paced learning tools hasbeen growing in recent years, research suggests that many students do not engage with the learning tools as intended, resulting in less than desirable transfer of learning. A critical issue then remains how to design the implementation of electronic self-paced learning tools to encourage students to engage with them properly from them. We conducted an investigation in which students in an introductory physics course used self-paced, interactive, electronic learning tutorials as an extra aid in preparing for exams. The tutorials were designed around a challenging problem, similar to what students may encounter in an exam. The tutorial divided the problem into a series of subproblems which take the form of multiple-choice questions, with the goal of guiding students to use effective problem-solving strategies. We investigated a potential approach to motivate students to actively engage with the tutorials. Students were divided in two groups, one which was required to attempt the tutorial problem (by submitting an answer) before being allowed to move on to the guided subproblems (referred to as the RQ group). The other group, NRQ group, was given an option to skip the tutorial problem and move on to the guided subproblems. We found evidence students in the RQ group were slightly more likely to learn from the tutorial than the NRQ group, suggesting that requiring students to initially think about the problem may force them to be more active in the tutorial. We also discuss other possible interventions based on our study.
      • Acronyms

      • BG11
      • Mon 07/30, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Shannon Schunicht,
      • Type: Contributed
      • When taking any Physics class, be it Introductory PHY 201 or just high school math, further pursuit is steered away from due to the multitude of formulas required come test recollection. In 1985, this author was rendered unconscious "4" three weeks. Everything head "2b" relearned, only without a short term memory! When taking Physics, a pragmatic way of making acronyms from ANY FORMULA was devised, i.e. "a" for multiplication to imply "@", "o" for division to mean "over", "i" for subtraction to signify "minus", "u" for addition to symbolize "plus", and "e" for "equals". Most constants and variables are indeed consonants, e.g. "c" = "speed of light" & "z" = "altitude". ADDITION LETTERS may be inserted to enhance a letter combinations intelligibility, but need be CONSONANTS! I.e. The Quadratic Equation (exCePT i buiLD rabbiTS 4 caTS oN 2 HaTS). Everyone remembers Dr. Seuss? (Theodor Seuss Gesell) The possibilities of this mnemonic technique are limitless as ?X => 0 !
      • Challenges and Opportunities of Gender and Major Subject Diversity in a 3-term Introductory Physics Sequence

      • BG12
      • Mon 07/30, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Yuehai Yang Matthew Wilcox, Jackie Chini

      • Type: Contributed
      • Will the students who like their instructor learn better? A single 3-term sequence calculus-based introductory physics course for both bio-health science and engineering majors is offered in the four-year college. This unique setting of class present both challenges and opportunities for students from a diverse background to work together in and outside of the classroom. This presentation provides some insights into student interactions with each other and with their instructors, as well as the differences in their learning patterns, motivations and their success in the course.
  • Introductory Courses II

      • Comparison of Introductory Physics Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving with Those of Introductory Astronomy Students Using a Validated Survey

      • EF01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Andrew Mason, Melanie Good,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We examined how introductory physics students' attitudes and approaches toproblem solving compare to those of introductory astronomy students, using a previously validated survey called the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey. In addition, we compared the performance of physics and astronomy students on the factors that were identified in a factor analysis of the validation study. Findings will be presented. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Flipped Classes: A Low-Stakes Opportunity for Problem Solving

      • EF02
      • Tue 07/31, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by George Matthews, Jack Dostal,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Increased class time spent in interactive engagement has been proven valuable in improved student learning. Flipped classes fully embrace this concept by dedicating most teacher-student contact time to activities that engage students in applying concepts of physics to difficult questions and problems. We describe our implementation of flipped classes that pushes nearly all lecture to online videos and uses nearly all class time in small-group problem solving, ConcepTests, and similar activities. In-class activities are NOT graded. Flipped classes present a unique opportunity for extensive problem-solving activities that do not affect course grade. Since rewards have been proven to diminish performance on cognitive tasks, building a place for risk- and reward-free problem solving may contribute to the improved learning observed in our classes. We report improved student learning as measured by the Force Concept Inventory and student perceptions.
      • The Nature of Introductory Physics Students' Vector Difficulties with Physics Contexts

      • EF03
      • Tue 07/31, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Xian Wu, Diego Valente,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Students in introductory physics courses are required to have a reasonablygood grasp on basic vector algebra along with conceptual understanding of fundamental physical principles to develop proficiency in problem-solving. The Test of Understanding of Vectors (TUV), as a standard diagnostic test, was built upon previous studies to assess students' understanding on 10 fundamental vector concepts from a mathematical viewpoint. In this study, we have probed how the addition of physics contexts to the items in the TUV affects students' conceptual understanding of vectors. We have randomly assigned our participants to two groups: one taking the original TUV, with the other taking the TUV with physics contexts. Students were asked to show the problem-solving procedure on each item they answered. We qualitatively coded student responses and investigated how adding a layer of physics context to the TUV problems affected student understanding on all ten fundamental vector concepts. This study granted us new insight on the challenges students struggle with when using vectors in introductory physics courses.
      • "Design Your Own Physics Problem": A New Approach to Introductory Physics Problems

      • EF04
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Barbara Whitten, Steve Getty,, Joe Taylor,, Natalie Gosnell,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Solving problems is an important part of physics education; students spendmost of their study time working problems, and faculty rely on this practice to help students learn significant concepts and techniques. Recently, we have experimented with a new assignment, in which we asked students to design their own problems. We'll describe the assignment, give examples of student-designed problems, and describe our evaluation of this assignment.
      • Using Board Games to Understand Physical Concepts

      • EF05
      • Tue 07/31, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Matt Olmstead,
      • Type: Contributed
      • One of the goals of our physics senior seminar class is to both introduce newer ideas of physics while at the same time integrating the students previous knowledge. One idea implemented is to play several games that require looking at physics from a different perspective. The game that will be discussed involves students drawing from selected physics topics while at the same time guessing what the other students are drawing. Specific examples will be discussed including instances where students drew very similar pictures for different clues (constructive interference and resonance), when a student had to draw something that could easily be mistaken for one of the other clues (possible options include gravity, free-fall, Einstein, General Relativity, Newton), and what happens when students don't remember. Trying to distinguish and draw these similar concepts as part of a game requires looking at physics from a different perspective.
      • Impact of a Math Tutorial on Underrepresented Minority Student Success in Algebra-based Introductory Physics

      • EF06
      • Tue 07/31, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Donna Stokes, Rebecca Forrest,, Andrea Burridge,, Carol Voight,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A math tutorial intervention was implemented in introductory algebra-basedphysics courses as a means to increase student odds of passing the course. Of the 643 students enrolled across six sections, 231 were identified as at risk based on a math pre-test score. Chi Square statistical tests showed that underrepresented minority (URM) groups were more likely to be classified as at-risk with African Americans having the greatest risk. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression model was used to investigate the likelihood of completing the tutorial and the impact of tutorial completion on the odds of receiving a passing grade (?50%). The analyses showed that underrepresented minority groups were just as likely to complete the tutorial, and that those completing the tutorial were four times more likely to earn a passing final grade; therefore the math tutorial may be used to foster the success of URM groups in introductory physics courses.
      • The Music of Physics: More Than Equation Hunting

      • EF07
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by William Nettles,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Students first learning physics often think that physics problem solving is simply about finding the right equation or that physics is merely mathematical. Our difficulty as teachers is convincing them otherwise. Perhaps using music, which most students enjoy, as an analogy will inspire them to understand and use a more holistic approach to physics. Jazz musician Victor Wooten, in his book, The Music Lesson(1), outlines several qualities which are important for the musician to integrate in making music. Inspired by Wooten's book, the presenter explores important aspects of problem solving that work together to help the physicist compose solutions to problems.
      • Multiple Choice Questions: Right or Wrong?

      • EF08
      • Tue 07/31, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Guillaume Laurent,
      • Type: Contributed
      • We present a comparative study of performance in Introductory Physics class (PHYSICS 1) between Honors and Non-Honors engineering students. The learning conditions and teaching approach have been kept the same for these two groups of students during the semester (instructor, class size, assignments, exams, grading, …). As expected, we observed that, in average, the Honors students performed better in all aspects of the class: homework, attendance, quizzes, and exams. The top 50% of the non-honors students have shown the same level of performance as Honors students, though. For these two groups of students, we have measured a clear correlation between both their quiz and test exams grades and their final exam grades. Surprisingly, we have also observed a clear correlation between the students' performance and the evaluation method, indicating that multiple choice questions might not be adequate to evaluate their knowledge and understandings of Introductory Physics.
      • Mario Kart: A Study in Image Formation and Total Internal Refraction

      • EF09
      • Tue 07/31, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Robert Polak, Lana Tinawi,, Jonathan Cirone,, Matthew Conway,, Joseph Summers,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In Mario Kart 8, characters race through underwater tracks, yet, objects above the water appear to be exactly where they would be – as if the refraction of light passing from water into air did not occur. We present a lesson where we ask students to predict what a racer would see based on the physics they have learned and then assist them through a discovery process using ray tracing. Finally, we demonstrate the principle of refraction and total internal reflection with a submerged GoPro camera. Guided by these steps, we show how underwater images can be used to the determine the critical angle of the water-air interface and determine water's index of refraction.
      • MotivaTED to Learn Good Teamwork?

      • EF10
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Kathleen Harper,
      • Type: Contributed
      • No matter what profession our students choose, they will need a strong setof professional skills. Teamwork is consistently identified by employers as a particularly important area. Science and engineering courses naturally lend themselves to cooperation, providing an opportunity for students to explore and develop aspects of productive teamwork. As part of a long-term project in a first-year college engineering course, students were given periodic assignments to watch TED talks addressing aspects of teamwork. Each assigned video was accompanied by a short completion quiz to prompt reflection. The resulting reflections were qualitatively analyzed to determine what messages about teamwork the students took away from the experience. These were compared to the expectations of the course's instructional team. Details of the videos and questions will be shared, along with trends in the analysis and implications for future instruction.
      • Using Google Drive to Achieve Student Cooperation in Large Enrollment Introductory Physics Classes

      • EF11
      • Tue 07/31, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Yuhfen Lin, David Brookes,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Getting students to be actively engaged in a large enrollment class has many challenges. It is especially important to get the majority of students to come to the class on time and then engage in the group activities instead of getting lost on their phones. In our classes, students submit pictures of their group's whiteboard activities using the Google drive. This allows us to take attendance and share student work without spending extra time or extra equipment. In lab, students use Google docs, to work collaboratively on their group lab report. Using Google docs this way facilitates the process of grading and giving feedback. There is no more passing the papers back and forth. Google drive has allowed us to spend more time focused on student learning and less time dealing with paperwork.
      • Road Capacity with a Steady Flow of Traffic

      • EF12
      • Tue 07/31, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Percy Whiting, Leonid Minkin,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Problems of optimization in natural science, technology, economics, and management are of great interest. Students also usually find them intriguing. However, the selection of such problems in undergraduate physics textbooks is very limited and should be broadened. To that end, a model of traffic flow optimization, simple enough for undergraduates to analyze, is presented here. This problem, which students can easily relate to their everyday experience, will acquaint them with concepts useful in hydrodynamics, electrostatics, and electric current models.
  • Introductory Labs/Apparatus

      • Transformation of Experimental Physics 1 at CU Boulder*

      • AF01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Daniel Bolton,
      • Type: Contributed
      • By multiple measures, the introductory "Experimental Physics" course at CUBoulder was not meeting expectations and the department sought a re-design. We will discuss the multi-year process of this re-design (the new course was taught for the first time in spring '18). Although some specifics of the new course will be presented, emphasis will be on the process of the re-design. A series of interviews, surveys, and round table discussions produced learning goals, many of which required a different approach than the traditional introductory lab. The learning goals influenced course structure and activity choices. We will transit lessons learned about course transformation in general, and discuss the successes of failures of the new course. *This work was supported in part by the TRESTLE program with funding from the NSF (DUE 1525331).
      • Results from Piloting a Design-style Lab in Introductory Algebra-based Mechanics

      • AF02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by William Evans, Mats Selen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • At the University of Illinois, we have piloted a new design-style laboratory that focuses on sense-making and the acquisition of scientific skills in our algebra-based introductory mechanics course, which primarily serves life science students. This lab format was piloted for two semesters in 2017 with part of the class (2-3 sections) in preparation for scaling it up to the entire class. We collected data on both students' attitudes and conceptual learning using traditional instruments. We compare these data from students in the reformed laboratory sections with data from students in the more traditional step-by-step guided labs.
      • What's Happening in Traditional and Inquiry-based Introductory Labs? An Integrative Analysis at a Large Research University

      • AF03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Danny Doucette, Russell Clark,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Introductory lab courses have long been an essential component of physics instruction, but questions have been raised about their curricular role and value. As a first step toward reform, it is essential to understand the dynamics of what happens in the lab. Using an integrative approach that includes ethnography, surveys, assessments, and other tools, we mapped out the thinking, instruction, and social dynamics that take place in traditional and inquiry-based labs at a large public university. Findings will be discussed. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Recharging the Introductory Labs: Evaluating Concepts and Techniques

      • AF04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Dimitris Vassiliadis,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Undergraduate labs are a constant challenge in curriculum design with goals ranging from pedagogy to lecture-course scope to PER and budgets. Having recently taught a handful of introductory labs, I'd like to discuss some topics that seem relevant to PER findings. First is a type of iterative experimentation where students build versions of the experiment in a lab session while measuring uncertainty and error. The focus shifts from error reduction to quantifying the role of equipment and procedure on experimental accuracy, and to related issues. Second, letting students suggest changes in experiment design, and in some cases allowing them to implement their choices, appears to increase understanding/retention as well as their connection to the subject matter. Third, the above-mentioned labs were on E&M and thermal physics so I will go over some related techniques.
      • Semi-Authentic Lab Notebook Experiences using Post-Lab Exercises

      • AF05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Adam Lark, Viva Horowitz,, Jonathan Gaffney,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Training physics majors how to keep a useful and relevant lab notebook is a typical goal of introductory physics laboratories. However, students often view these laboratories as inauthentic experiences. With most of the information given by the lab instructions, students are less motivated to record observations in their lab notebook. To reinforce the value of recording experimental information and to help students decide which information is important, the Hamilton College physics department has decided to implement a post-lab system. We ask students to keep their own notebook and write down what they consider important. A few days after the lab, the students are given a post-lab assignment that asks them questions about the details of what they did during the lab. This has helped students organically discover what is valuable to record during their introductory physics laboratory.
      • Chi-squared Analysis and Model Testing in Harvard's Introductory Physics Lab

      • AF06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Keith Zengel, Carey Witkov,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Some of the most spectacular discoveries of our times, e.g., the Higgs Boson and gravity waves, rely heavily on chi-squared curve fitting and model testing. Long used in the particle physics community, chi-squared analysis is computation-intensive, improving upon ordinary least squares by combining model testing and parameter estimation into one unified method derived from probability theory, maximum likelihood estimation and the central limit theorem. By emphasizing uncertainties obtained from repeated measurements and by providing a continuous gauge of model improvement, chi-squared analysis offers a consistent methodology for iterative refinement of models, the sine qua non of the scientific method. Chi-squared curve fitting and model testing has been the central theme of Harvard's introductory physics lab course (Principles of Scientific Inquiry) for over a decade. This paper presents our experience teaching chi-squared analysis and applying it to a wide range of novel mechanics and electricity and magnetism introductory physics lab projects.
      • Practical Exams: Examples and Practice from the Past 15 Years

      • AF07
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Stephen Irons,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The lab practical exam is one way to assess a student's understanding of the lab's learning goals. However, practical exams can be difficult to implement effectively and fairly, and there are complexities regarding assessment. They have long been a part of both our IPLS labs as well as our introductory labs for majors. We will present a selection of the practical exam activities we have developed that are consistent with the NGSS and also implement the AAPT Recommendations for the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Curriculum. Many of these exam/activities are adaptable to the K-12 environment and can be modified to be more economical. We will also discuss strategies for successful exam administration and present some analysis of recent student performance across sections.
      • Using Whiteboards to Support Scientific Practices in Introductory Labs

      • AF08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Benjamin Spike,
      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of an ongoing course transformation effort at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we have introduced a suite of introductory mechanics laboratories to promote experimental design and scientific thinking. Inspired by ISLE Physics and Scientific Community Labs, each two-hour lab features a set of conceptual scaffolding activities, an open-ended design challenge, and a miniature "symposium" to emphasize collaboration and communication. In lieu of a formal lab report, each group uses a whiteboard to document their experimental approach and submits a digital snapshot when they have finished. Informal tools such as stopwatches and matchbox cars contribute to a relaxed, playful atmosphere that encourages students to answer their own questions and explore at their own pace. In this talk, we will describe our initial implementation of these labs and share preliminary findings.
      • Using IOLab to Enable ISLE Style Labs at Scale

      • AF09
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Mats Selen, Bill Evans,, Gabriel Ehrlich,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Starting in the spring of 2018, we significantly changed the lab componentfor all students taking algebra-based intro mechanics at UIUC. We replaced the traditional concept-focused cookbook-style labs with open-ended ISLE style activities, enabled by the IOLab system, and focused on scientific abilities such as design, sense-making, and communication. We report on our experiences and discuss plans to make similar changes to the other introductory physics courses at UIUC, ultimately impacting about 3000 students per semester.
      • Extending the Introductory Physics Laboratory to Free Falling Objects with Drag Forces

      • AF10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Paul DeStefano, Cora Seibert, Thomas Allen, Ralf Widenhorn

      • Type: Contributed
      • Recently introduced, low-cost, local positioning and sensing technology have great potential for enhancing introductory kinematic laboratory activities. One of the key benefits is quick and easy acquisition of position, acceleration, and rotation data. This enables students to access some of the physics of real-world application for example the modeling of trajectories including air resistance. Students can apply both a constant acceleration and drag-enhanced model to data sets obtained from drops or throws of foam balls or the launch of compressed-air rocket. The data analysis can span a range of complexity. Students may try to model the data using simple constant acceleration or model it with velocity dependent drag forces. Since acceleration data can be collected simultaneously, results from the modeling of position data can be compared to the direct measurement of the instantaneous acceleration.
      • Bringing a Desktop MRI into Your Physics Classroom

      • AF11
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Sanaz Taghizadeh,* James Lincoln,

      • Type: Contributed
      • With many students planning to pursue a career in medicine, it is the responsibility of physics teachers to instruct on the concepts of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this talk I provide a brief overview of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and discuss how nuclei interact with magnetic fields. I also share my work on a desktop MRI apparatus and demonstrate how it can be used to create MR Images during a single class period.
      • Demonstrating the On-Axis Electric Field of a Charged Ring

      • AF12
      • Mon 07/30, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by William Roach,
      • Type: Contributed
      • A common exercise in introductory electricity and magnetism courses is thecalculation of the electric field on the axis of a ring of charge. An apparatus was developed to help students visualize this field using a pith ball. In addition to demonstrating the electric field produced by the ring, the apparatus allows students to "see" a derivative as the pith ball moves through the field. After setting up the force diagram describing the situation, students use video analysis to record the horizontal position and angular displacement of the pith ball. Because the charge of the pith ball and ring are unknown, this lab also serves as an excellent opportunity to introduce students to computational modeling using software such as Mathematica in order to extract the unknown quantities.
  • Introductory Labs/Apparatus II

      • Designing and Facilitating Experimental Design Tasks to Support Collaboration

      • DF01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Gabriel Ehrlich, Mats Selen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Collaborative tasks are difficult to design but worthwhile: students working collaboratively on problem-solving tasks construct abstractions significantly more often than the single strongest student in the group would alone (see footnote). Students seem to collaborate better on open-ended tasks, so a classroom setting in which students design their own experiments is plausibly conducive to collaboration. Indeed, we observed spontaneous collaborative problem-solving emerge in an introductory laboratory course based on experimental design. Using video data of group work, we investigated the roles that the teacher and the task played in supporting collaboration. Our presentation will identify characteristics of tasks and facilitation that motivate students to collaborate on the construction of knowledge.
      • Disproving (and Re-proving) the Ideal Gas Law

      • DF02
      • Tue 07/31, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Dean Stocker, Tonnetta Elliott,, Socheathta Phouny,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Our algebra-based general physics lab at UC Blue Ash uses a PASCO Heat Engine / Gas Law Apparatus to demonstrate that volume is proportional to temperature for an ideal gas when pressure and the number of molecules are both held constant. However, carefully collected data does not show a linear relationship between temperature and volume. An apparent contradiction of the ideal gas law! This provides an interesting challenge for the students, and it is a challenge whose solution cannot be easily found on the internet. A careful inspection of the equipment and proper application of the ideal gas law actually does predict a curve for this instrument when measuring volume as a function of temperature. The math required for determining the shape of the curve when the temperature is increasing is beyond the scope of algebra-based physics, but the curve when the temperature is decreasing has an algebraic solution.
      • Measuring Magnetization of a Magnet*

      • DF03
      • Tue 07/31, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Biplob Barman, Athos Petrou,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The effect of an external magnetic field B on magnetic materials is a subject of immense importance. The simplest and oldest manifestation of such an effect is the behavior of the magnetic compass. Magnetization M plays a key role in studying the response of magnetic materials to B. In this talk, an experimental technique for the determination of M of a permanent magnet will be presented. The proposed method discusses the effect of B (produced by a pair of Helmholtz coils) on a permanent magnet, suspended by a string and allowed to oscillate under the influence of the torque the magnetic field exerts on the magnet. The arrangement uses mechanical energy conservation principles to measure M via graphical analysis. This low cost experiment is suitable for both AP physics students as well as an advanced lab for undergraduate Physics and Engineering majors. *This work was supported by NSF DMR-1305770.
      • Inductional Levitation of Electromagnetic Wheels

      • DF04
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Angel Gutarra-leon, Walerian Majewski,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We constructed two circular neodymium magnet array wheels in both Halbach and non-Halbach arrangements with strong alternating pole magnetic fields on the outer rims of the wheels. Such systems are referred to as electrodynamic wheels (EDW). A Halbach array is a series of magnets which have their magnetic dipole directions rotated by 90 degrees at each adjacent position. Our non-Halbach array created somewhat weaker alternating fields around the rim with magnetic dipole moments arranged circumferentially with reversing polarity. Our experiments measured the lift and drag forces produced by these spinning wheels on conducting plates which play a role of the tracks, at varying rotation speeds of the wheels. These forces were compared with theoretical predictions for the ratio of lift to drag. We found that the lift to drag ratios for both wheels followed the predicted linear relationship as functions of angular velocity of the rotating magnetic field.
      • Robotics in Physics Lab

      • DF05
      • Tue 07/31, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Ravin Kodikara,
      • Type: Contributed
      • A series of simple robotics and automation activities were designed and tested to be used in conventional introductory physics laboratories. The first of the series introduces microcontroller programing and basics of electronics using widely available Arduino Uno module. During the second lab activity students will investigate programing a mobile robot to simulate a given physical scenario. Typically this includes moving the robot at certain speeds, maintaining certain accelerations for given time periods and covering set distances. Students were later challenged to simulate circular, elliptical, and parabolic paths while maintaining certain speeds. At a secondary stage, a multi axis robot arm was used to introduce spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems. Pre-lab and post-lab assessments were conducted and comparisons were made against conventional lab results.
      • Materials Characterization of Nanocellulose in the THz Regime

      • DF06
      • Tue 07/31, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by JIng Gao, Beranrd Hall,, Frank D'Agusto,, Daniel Rosenfeld,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Nanocellulose is a relatively new material with a wide range of possible applications. One potential application is use in the manufacture of semiconductors. The properties of this material, including index of refraction, absorption coefficient and dielectric constant in the THz regime are important factors when considering the applicability of this material to the semiconductor industry. In this paper we present results for these properties for both ordinary paper and nanocellulose utilizing a time domain terahertz spectrometer. The Physics / Chemistry theory and experimental procedure used in this paper are easily accessible to undergraduate students in Physics and Chemistry making this an excellent opportunity for undergraduate students to learn the skills needed to practice real world science.
      • The Fitbit and Faraday: A Physics Adventure Towards Mechanical Lighting

      • DF07
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Stephen Mecca, Liam Reilly,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The value of lighting for an off-grid village household is undeniable. Yet, the realities of poverty and the unavailability of affordable local options often preclude even simple solar and other battery powered devices. The S-Lab has explored mechanical lighting options with the hope of having a locally made option. The project began with simple functional analyses leading to spring- shake- gravity- type systems and then the possibility of using the fitbit, a low friction spinner that can persist for several minutes. The fitbit, which may be a detour from our original design problem, has proven to be an interesting physics adventure in its own right, allowing the possibility of generating sufficient voltage to light LEDs. This paper will present: questions that arise in developing a magnetic flux change to effect a sizeable EMF to be rectified and used for simple lighting, a model representing the process, and some preliminary results.
      • Undergraduate Computational Research Opportunities in Introductory Courses

      • DF08
      • Tue 07/31, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Michael Butros,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Funded by an NSF-CREST grant students in Introductory Physics courses at Victor Valley College (VVC) have the opportunity to participate in undergraduate computational research projects during the winter break. This presentation will discuss the "Winternship" program at VVC, observations and outcomes, and future plans.
      • Methodological Aspects Related to the Students' Performance of Laboratory Work

      • DF09
      • Tue 07/31, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Genrikh Golin,
      • Type: Contributed
      • When performing experiments independently in a HS physics laboratory, the students can acquire several practical and intellectual skills that are needed for future work in industry or research. But this can be achieved only under certain conditions. In doing an experiment, each student should behave as a real researcher. Thus each student should not simply perform some prescribed procedures but should independently design and carry out an experiment. In this way the student will experience all the joys and pain inherent in creative work, and feel the connection between theory and experiment. It is also important to learn how to report and systematize observational results and to formulate conclusions. The laboratory work report must be concise and convey the main observations, measurements, experimental set-up, formulae, calculations, tables, diagrams, final conclusions. It is desirable to teach the students to generalize and predict future experimental results, and to formulate conclusions on reliability of the data that were obtained. During the talk I will show some strategies and examples of carrying out the experimental work.
      • An Everyday Life-based Route to Learning about Nano-technologies in High Schools

      • DF10
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Peppino Sapia, Assunta Bonanno,, Giacomo Bozzo,, Andrea Checchetti,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Nanoworld attracts ever-increasing attention, especially because of its technological applications at the molecular and atomic scale, and the prefix "nano" is ubiquitous in popular science and mass media. From a pedagogical perspective, the Nanoworld offers a mess of possibilities for implementing truly interdisciplinary learning paths involving physics, chemistry, and life sciences. In this context, we have designed a hands-on learning sequence on nanotechnologies, suitable for high school students, inspired to the PBL (Project-Based-Learning) paradigm. The learning sequence was proposed to a group of students attending as apprentices in the Laboratory of Applied Physics for Cultural Heritage at the University of Calabria, within an Italian national project aiming to promote high school students' skills in a real working context. The practical goal of the PBL activity was to develop a "toy" superhydrophobic film, similar to those used as protective coatings for monuments and artworks. In accomplishing this task, students got in touch with many of the concepts pertaining to the science and technology of the Nanoworld.
  • Introductory Physics for Life Science: Pedagogy and Practice

      • Modeling Structure Formation in Biological Systems

      • AG01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Elon Langbeheim, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Invited
      • How can Monte-Carlo simulations be used for explaining the emergence of biological mesoscale structures? We propose answers to this question based on our experience in an introductory-level computational physical science course. Students used VPython to construct and modify Monte-Carlo simulations and learn their underlying principles. The simulations demonstrate how structure arises in systems with two types of interactions: 1. Short-range depletion (excluded volume) interactions (e.g., a system of "self-avoiding" polymer chains), 2. Long-range inter-molecular attraction (e.g., the adsorption of molecules to a surface). Students then discuss the idea of an "entropic tradeoff" in which structure can emerge and entropy may be reduced in the system while at the same time increasing in the environment. The talk will describe the curriculum as well as student performance on computational inquiry projects and assessment tasks that evaluate their use of thermal physics principles when explaining structure formation in biological systems.
      • Exploring the Relevance of Physics for Students in IPLS Classrooms

      • AG02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Abhilash Nair, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Invited
      • A stated goal of many Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences classrooms is to make physics more relevant to life science students. At Michigan State University we have created a course, BLiSS physics, which is ideal for evaluating the success of this goal. In this talk, I trace my work using case studies of student experiences to explore the relevance of physics to life science majors through three different scales. First we look at a project-based assignment in which students in the course research, build, and critically examine a spirometer, a biomedical device that measures lung capacity with a complex and troubling history. We then explore how positioning life science students as disciplinary experts can strengthen students' sense of relevance by providing space to bring in outside knowledge. Lastly, we look beyond the two-semester experience at lasting effects as students in the course move into instructional roles as learning assistants.
      • Do Connections Persist? Assessing the Longitudinal Impact of IPLS

      • AG03
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Benjamin Geller, Chandra Turpen,, Nathaniel Peters,, Jonathan Solomon,, Catherine Crouch,

      • Type: Invited
      • Two primary motivations for IPLS curricula are (1) to better equip life science students with skills that will be important in their later biology course and research experiences; and (2) to foster the belief that physics is relevant and connected to the life sciences. Although efforts have been made to assess whether these goals are being met within the IPLS classroom itself, little if any work has been done to assess the impact of an IPLS course on students' later biology coursework. In this talk we describe the challenge of designing an exploratory study that compares student reasoning in intermediate biology courses between students with and without IPLS, and we present our initial findings. We analyze student written work from upper division biology courses, case study interviews of students progressing through their post-IPLS experiences, and journal entries in which students reflect on disciplinary connectedness.
      • Modeling and Simulation for the Life Sciences

      • AG04
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Peter Nelson,
      • Type: Poster
      • Life-science students are introduced to modeling and simulation on day oneusing a physical "marble game" modeling diffusion. Students then work through a self-study guide introduction to Excel and write their own kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation of the marble game in a blank spreadsheet. In this guided-inquiry exercise, students discover that Fick's law of diffusion is a consequence of Brownian motion. Subsequent activities introduce students to: algorithms and computational thinking; drug elimination and radioactivity; semi-log plots; finite difference methods (and calculus); the principles of scientific modeling; model validation and residual analysis. Thermodynamics is introduced using kinetic models of osmosis, ligand binding, ion channel permeation and phase equilibria. IPLS students without calculus are not afraid of Excel. They have been able to implement Monte Carlo and finite difference models of topics that usually require ODEs and PDEs. Sample chapters are available for free at http://circle4.com/biophysics/chapters/
      • New Development of Physics Courses Optimized for Life Science Majors

      • AG05
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by George Trammell, Katsushi Arisaka,, Elizabeth Mills,, Joshua Samani,, Shanna Shaked,

      • Type: Poster
      • Beginning with extensive course development over two years, and pilot courses offered beginning in fall 2017, the University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) Physics & Astronomy program has implemented a new Introductory Physics for Life Sciences (IPLS) series representing a crucial undergraduate education program serving ~1800 students/year. This effort has resulted in the introduction of new courses, the parallel development of new and modern biologically oriented lab experiments, as well as lecture demonstrations, all with an emphasis on evidence-based pedagogical methods. We summarize our efforts so far and present an analysis of available assessment data.
      • Transitioning a 300-student IPLS Course to Team-based Learning

      • AG06
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Brokk Toggerson,
      • Type: Poster
      • Over the past years, we at UMass-Amherst have been transitioning six 100-student sections of a first-semester introductory physics for life science (IPLS) course into a team-based (TBL) model following Michaelsen et al. Here we present an overview of our first efforts to teach the second semester of the sequence in the same style. Due to institutional constraints, the second semester of the sequence has 300 students per section and is taught in a traditional lecture hall. A discussion of how we handled some of the logistical challenges of teaching in a TBL mode in this space will be touched upon along with a discussion of the particular IPLS features and some notes on future plans
      • Application of Team-Based Learning to a First Semester IPLS Course

      • AG07
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Brokk Toggerson, Heath Hatch,, Christopher Ertl,, Paul Bourgeois,

      • Type: Poster
      • We present the current status of an effort at UMass, Amherst to transitionthe first semester of our large IPLS course to a team-based learning format following Michaelsen et al. while simultaneously adjusting the topics and skills covered to apply to our population. We will present our motivations for the transition, key features of our course's structure, and an overview of the largest departures in content from a typical algebra-based introductory course. We will also discuss new developments towards a dedicated free and open-source textbook for our course based upon the OpenStax College Physics text.
      • Creating a Survey on Moving Fluids for Life Science Students

      • AG08
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Dawn Meredith, James Vesenka,, Daniel Young,, Rebecca Lindell,

      • Type: Poster
      • We present several questions and student-generated distractors for a conceptual survey on moving fluids that is currently under development. This survey is aimed at life students and focuses on concepts of viscosity (including Hagen-Poiseuille law), Reynolds number, continuity, flow rate, and Bernoulli's principle.
      • Investigating Students' Resources on Diffusion with Experimental and Computational Activities

      • AG09
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Daniel Weller,* Kathleen Hinko,, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Poster
      • At Michigan State University, we have created an Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences course that utilizes the studio model of physics, with a particular focus on the topic of diffusion. As part of this course, we developed an experimental microscope activity to complement a computational activity that models the diffusive motion of particles in solution. In this microscope activity, students would form a hypothesis about the motion of various microbead solutions and design an experiment to validate these hypotheses. We present work that analyzes student responses to pre- and post-lab questions from a resource theory perspective. Specifically, we present findings highlighting how students perceived the realistic or idealistic nature of the two activities. This work forms the foundation for combining physical lab activities with computational modeling in a way that maximizes student engagement and comprehension.
      • IPLS at Georgia Tech

      • AG10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Nicholas Darnton, JC Gumbart,, Jennifer Curtis,

      • Type: Poster
      • Georgia Tech recently implemented a new IPLS "flavor" of our calculus-based introductory physics sequence. In adapting the University of Maryland, College Park framework to our target audience (biology, chemistry and neuroscience majors), we increased the number of online and written problems while reducing the scope of labs to allow for longer recitation sessions. Anecdotally, we observe enthusiasm for this approach, with enrollment growing with each subsequent offering. However, problems arise for students switching between IPLS and the traditional sequence mid-year.
  • John W. Layman and John L. Hubisz Remembrance

      • John W. Layman and John L. Hubisz Remembrance

      • PL15
      • Tue 07/31, 10:30AM - 11:40AM
      • by George A, Amann
      • Type: Plenary
  • K-12 PER

      • Organizing Physics Teacher Professional Education Around Productive Habit Development

      • CF01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Stamatis Vokos, Eugenia Etkina,, Bor Gregorcic,

      • Type: Invited
      • Let us stipulate that physics teacher education programs have shared viewsas to the requisite dispositions, knowledge, and skills needed for effective teaching. However, even if these are developed, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of, and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We argue that the link between intentional decision making and actual teaching practice are teachers' habits. In this talk, we provide a theoretical framework for the determinative role that habits of mind, habits of practice, and habits of maintenance can play in teacher formation and professional growth. The indispensable context for habit development is apprenticeship in a community that shares a common vision for effective teaching. Some implications of this framework will be presented, as well as possible future research agendas around habits.
      • Assessing the Impact of a Game-Centered, Interactive Approach for Using Programming Exercises in Introductory Physics

      • CF02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Chris Orban Richelle Teeling-Smith

      • Type: Invited
      • Computer programming is an increasingly desired skill for all STEM fields,not just computer science. We created simple and interactive computer programming activities based on the physics of video games and integrated these into introductory physics classes. Importantly, these activities typically involve less than 75 lines of code. Students completed an online assessment before and after each activity to measure the students' comprehension of physics concepts through a variety of animated questions and to gauge student perceptions about the activity, such as difficulty, level of enjoyment and whether it changes their attitudes about STEM. Data have been collected from introductory physics courses at local high schools and two different universities.
      • Designing NGSS Aligned Single/Multiple Select Assessment Tasks

      • CF03
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Debbie Andres,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for a three-dimensional approach to learning. Within high school classrooms, students engage in hands-on investigations, discussions, and written activities. Teachers use a variety of formative and summative assessment techniques to measure student proficiency. In New Jersey, the adoption of NGSS has necessitated change at the state assessment level. What does an assessment question that addresses all three dimensions of NGSS look like? During the 2017-2018 school year, I had the opportunity to work on district and statewide committees focused on the development of three-dimensional assessment tasks. In this talk, I will share several examples of, and strategies for, the creation of single/multiple select assessment tasks. Each assessment task addresses a phenomena and uses the three dimensions of NGSS to effectively evaluate student proficiency.
      • Creating Student Agency Using NGSS Science Practices in Physics Classroom

      • CF04
      • Mon 07/30, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by Nicole Schrode, Rebecca Stober,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The NGSS aligned Physics and Everyday Thinking High School (PET-HS) curriculum engages students in science practices of generating and defending claims using evidence as a means of developing and formalizing physics principles. This study focuses on how students typically underrepresented in traditional physics classes respond to the PET-HS curriculum as compared to a matched sample using other types of curricula. Students in both settings took a peer-created, conceptual diagnostic exam exam at the beginning and end of the year and growth was calculated. Preliminary findings suggest that students within the PET-HS classrooms from underrepresented groups show no significant difference in learning gains compared to students in majority groups. Additionally the PET-HS students demonstrated significantly higher effect size than those within the matched sample classrooms. We will discuss structures and practices that seem to facilitate a learning environment where all students are able to access scientific principles and practices.
      • Impact of Online Inquiry-based Physics Courses on Student Achievement

      • CF05
      • Mon 07/30, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Marie Hamaoui, Alexander McKale,, Gary Oas,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We are performing a study comparing the achievement of online honors physics students who took an online, inquiry-based physics course in middle school with those who did not. The specially designed, inquiry-based physics, online course was structured to cultivate a middle schooler's physics intuition and lay a foundational groundwork often assumed in later courses. Using anonymized student data, we will run a MANCOVA to determine any statistical differences in the students' achievements. We will also discuss the advantages of our online preparatory course and the online honors physics environment.
      • Preparing Students for Long-Term Open Inquiry Projects -- Students' Perspective

      • CF06
      • Mon 07/30, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by David Perl,* Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The advanced high-school physics course is commonly directed towards a high-stake exam. A three-year course, titled INQUIRY-PHYSICS, takes place in Israeli education system as an addition to the traditional physics course. It intends to bypass the difficulty of integrating open ended inquiry activities into test oriented setting. This timeframe allows for a gradual learning progression, developing inquiry practices in contexts that span from 1-2 lessons to a yearlong research project. I will describe the findings of an artifact-based interview that took place few months after the students launched their work on the research project. Student were asked to identify inquiry practices they have encountered earlier in the course and reflect on their fruitfulness. In particular, which of these practices they perceive as crucial to experience before engaging in a long term project. I will discuss these findings in view of the learning goals and design principles of the teachers.
      • Investigating Differences in How Physics and Biology Model Energy Flow*

      • CF07
      • Mon 07/30, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by Michael Wittmann, Troy Whitaker,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In Energy Theater, people represent units of energy and locations on the floor represent objects in the system. Movement of people therefore represents the flow of energy. Biology teachers participating in a professional development activity enacted the flow of energy in an ecosystem and afterwards discussed the ways in which Energy Theater led to the modeling of ideas that are not usually discussed in biology classrooms. For example, issues of energy conservation and thermal dissipation were typically not of importance to them, but required within the modeling activity. Our work shows some of the ways that physicists and biologists teach and discuss the NGSS crosscutting concept of energy flow differently. Our work also points out that there are productive and hopefully simple ways for teachers to talk across disciplines in ways that helps students learn the crosscutting concepts of energy flow more effectively. *Sponsored in part by NSF grants 0962805 and 1222580.
      • Engaging School Students with Open Inquiry Investigations via Digital Technologies

      • CF08
      • Mon 07/30, 6:50PM - 7:00PM
      • by Srividya Kota, Scott Cornish,, Manjula Sharma,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Can digital technologies be harnessed to engage students with open inquiry, or would they make it more challenging? This paper reports on an investigation on electricity - 'Vampire Power'. Using Design-Based Research methodology, Trial 1 was open inquiry, Trial 2 included digital technologies, Excel spreadsheet and Trial 3 was final deployment. Trial 1 ran with 41 teachers and 58 students in 4 workshops, Trial 2 with 25 teachers and 38 students in 2 workshops and Trial 3 with 29 teachers and 85 students in 3 workshops. Measures of 'mental effort' and 'attitudes' indicated that, in Trial 1, while teachers invested mental effort and had positive attitudes, students did not. In Trial 2, both teachers and students invested mental effort and had positive attitudes. Trial 3 results were similar to Trial 2. We conclude that, in this case, the integration of digital technologies into an open inquiry investigation improved student engagement.
  • K-12 Teachers' Day Luncheon

      • K-12 Teachers' Day Luncheon

      • SPEC08
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Dan Crowe
      • Type: Event
      • Join this special luncheon for K-12 physics teachers attending the conference for the first time. This luncheon is open to anyone who would like to attend.
  • K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • TL01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:00AM - 5:00PM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra
      • Type: Event
      • K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • TL05
      • Tue 07/31, 8:00AM - 7:00PM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra
      • Type: Event
      • K-12 Teachers' Lounge

      • TL06
      • Wed 08/01, 8:00AM - 1:00PM
      • by Rebecca Vieyra
      • Type: Event
  • Klopsteg Memorial Lecture Award

      • Klopsteg Memorial Lecture Award

      • PL07
      • Wed 08/01, 8:30AM - 9:30AM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Plenary
      • Black Holes and Time Travel in Your Everyday Life A little over a hundred years ago, Einstein helped us rethink space and time, and shook our conception of the universe to its foundations. Concepts like black holes, warped spacetime, wormholes, the multiverse, and time travel solidified and entered discussions of both our real universe and the universe of our imaginations. I’ll talk about some of these ideas, including aspects of exciting current research into them, and I’ll also talk about the role of these concepts in popular culture, describing my work helping creators to interweave these concepts into their storytelling in blockbuster movies, primetime TV, and bestselling books.
  • LabEscape

      • LabEscape

      • LS01
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 11:00PM
      • by Paul Kwait
      • Type: Event
      • Experience LabEscape at AAPT! World-renowned quantum physicist Professor Alberta Pauline Schrödenberg desperately needs your help — the fate and security of the entire world (and more importantly, her funding!) hang in the balance. You'll have to search her lab, solve mind-blowing puzzles to reveal clues, and hopefully find a way to escape! This APS- and NSF-funded outreach project is, we believe, the world’s only science-based ‘escape-room’, in which all the puzzles involve various physics phenomena, e.g., polarization, blackbody radiation, magnetism, etc. Our goal is to show that science can be useful and accessible (no prior background is assumed), as well as beautiful and fun! LabEscape will be open in the Franklin Square meeting room (Room ~#7.5) Sunday evening and Monday through Tuesday between 10 AM and 11 PM and Wednesday until 10:00 PM. Create a team of 3-6 Agents (or join someone else’s) and sign up online at LabEscape.org/AAPT. For more information, see LabEscape.org, or call (217) 378-7372.
      • LabEscape

      • LS02
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 11:00PM
      • by Paul Kwiat
      • Type: Event
      • Experience LabEscape at AAPT! World-renowned quantum physicist Professor Alberta Pauline Schrödenberg desperately needs your help — the fate and security of the entire world (and more importantly, her funding!) hang in the balance. You'll have to search her lab, solve mind-blowing puzzles to reveal clues, and hopefully find a way to escape! This APS- and NSF-funded outreach project is, we believe, the world’s only science-based ‘escape-room’, in which all the puzzles involve various physics phenomena, e.g., polarization, blackbody radiation, magnetism, etc. Our goal is to show that science can be useful and accessible (no prior background is assumed), as well as beautiful and fun! LabEscape will be open in the Franklin Square meeting room (Room ~#7.5) Sunday evening and Monday through Tuesday between 10 AM and 11 PM and Wednesday until 10:00 PM. Create a team of 3-6 Agents (or join someone else’s) and sign up online at LabEscape.org/AAPT. For more information, see LabEscape.org, or call (217) 378-7372.
      • LabEscape

      • LS03
      • Wed 08/01, 10:00AM - 10:00PM
      • by Paul Kwiat
      • Type: Event
      • Experience LabEscape at AAPT! World-renowned quantum physicist Professor Alberta Pauline Schrödenberg desperately needs your help — the fate and security of the entire world (and more importantly, her funding!) hang in the balance. You'll have to search her lab, solve mind-blowing puzzles to reveal clues, and hopefully find a way to escape! This APS- and NSF-funded outreach project is, we believe, the world’s only science-based ‘escape-room’, in which all the puzzles involve various physics phenomena, e.g., polarization, blackbody radiation, magnetism, etc. Our goal is to show that science can be useful and accessible (no prior background is assumed), as well as beautiful and fun! LabEscape will be open in the Franklin Square meeting room (Room ~#7.5) Sunday evening and Monday through Tuesday between 10 AM and 11 PM and Wednesday until 10:00 PM. Create a team of 3-6 Agents (or join someone else’s) and sign up online at LabEscape.org/AAPT. For more information, see LabEscape.org, or call (217) 378-7372.
  • Labs/Apparatus

      • London Lab Group

      • PST1B01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Scott Dudley,
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster provides an update on the effort to form a laboratory users group among local physics teachers. One key aspect of the effort were funds provided by a Bauder Grant which allowed the distribution of IOLab devices across the group.
      • Physiological Response of Localized Cooling of the Skin Recorded by Thermal Imaging

      • PST1B03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Haraldur Audunsson, Lilja Indridadottir,

      • Type: Poster
      • The use of thermal imaging to demonstrate some basic principles of physicsis becoming a common practice in introductory physics courses. This is in part stimulated by greater access to thermal cameras, due to lower cost, ease of use, and by the increasing number of potential demonstrations. However, applications of thermal imaging in exploring human physiology and consequent quantitative modelling do not appear to be as many. In our poster we will give one example of using thermal imaging to observe the physiological response after localized cooling of the skin on the forearm. The thermal images provide data for quantitative mapping of the local physiological thermal response, which can be used to engage students in constructing simple numerical models for both the lateral scale of the stimulation and a response time.
      • Simple Introductory Lab Activities on Measurements, Uncertainties and Graphing

      • PST1B05
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Gilbert Kuipers,
      • Type: Poster
      • These were inspired to demonstrate the science behind post-harvest fruit and vegetable process equipment. Today's machines automatically grade and sort materials using weight, size, shape, color, density, and other physical characteristics. The necessary materials are easy to obtain and inexpensive. Although fresh items dry out; dried beans, pasta, polished decorative rock pebbles, etc. can be reused. By measuring the dimensions and masses of individual potatoes and of individual unshelled peanuts the students produced models to reject foreign objects based on the concept of density as done with gravity tables or can be done with weight and photography. The concept of variation was introduced by recording the mass of a weighing dish as each item was added. The slope of the graph gave the average mass per item and the change in mass as each item was added gave the individual masses for further statistical analysis.
      • The Niels Bohr Institute $100 Gamma Ray Spectrometer

      • PST1B07
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Ian Bearden, Axel Boisen,

      • Type: Poster
      • We present a very inexpensive gamma ray detector based on LYSO scintillator coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The detector is powered by 4 9V batteries connected via a voltage regulator Such a power supply is both rather inexpensive and has very low noise compared to most low cost laboratory power supplies. We will discuss the design and construction of the detector as well as possible uses in laboratory courses from introductory to advanced level.
      • Use an iPhone Accelerometer App to Evaluate Various Sport Helmets

      • PST1B09
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Hsuan Labowsky, Caleb Shi

      • Type: Poster
      • Using an iPhone Accelerometer App, students evaluate the impact force of various sport helmets. The "impact force" is created by dropping a helmet from a fixed height onto the floor. As opposed to standard helmet testing that measures external force, the iPhone is fastened inside the helmet to simulate the effect on the brain. The app records the acceleration components as a function of time. The data is transferred to and graphed in an Excel spreadsheet. Graphs show the "free fall" and the "impact" regions, although an app with a data collection rate greater than the available 30Hz is desirable. After testing an unmodified helmet, the students then add foam and/or crumple zones in attempts to improve cushioning. Students exercise the scientific method in data collection/interpretation and draw meaningful conclusions. The experiment is particularly timely/meaningful in light of the concern over sports-related concussions.
      • Lab Activity of Projectile Motion Using Tracker

      • PST1B13
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Sechan Yoon,
      • Type: Poster
      • The Tracker video analysis and modeling program provides excellent opportunities for students to investigate and learn about kinematics and dynamics. A lab activity for projectile motion and pendulum motion is developed for students to use the Tracker program to analyze the motion and find the initial velocity. Using a table with a simplified finite difference method, students can compare to the Tracker program data and understand how the Tracker program works better. A set of inquiries is used to estimate the related physical quantities like time and range of the object without directly using kinematics equations and to investigate the differential equations and its solution.
      • Custom-built Vibrating Sample Magnetometer for Materials Characterization*

      • PST1B15
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Bryan Augstein, William Zimmerman,, Jeffrey Klupt,, Dr. Vera Smolyaninova,

      • Type: Poster
      • A vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is an instrument used to measure magnetic properties through sinusoidal vibrations of a magnetized sample in a uniform magnetic field. As the sample oscillates, a voltage is induced in two stationary pick-up coils. This voltage is proportional to the magnetic moment of the sample, and can be measured to a high degree of accuracy using a lock-in amplifier. This design was first proposed by Simon Foner and has been successfully used throughout the years in physics laboratories. This approach was used to create a vibrating sample magnetometer for materials characterization. The design of the VSM suitable for characterization of ferrofluids will be discussed.
      • Elevating Measurement, Error, and Statistics to Prominence in the Introductory Physics Lab

      • PST1B17
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by John Walkup, Roger Key,

      • Type: Poster
      • Although measurement theory is a part of most introductory physics labs, its treatment is often superficial and relegated to mostly significant figures and percent error calculations. The latter is especially problematic, as comparisons to known/accepted values is relatively rare in real-world lab activities. The authors have instead shifted focus away from calibration tasks (i.e., comparing results to known values), elevating the importance of measuring random error to dominance. The authors will address NIST and ISO standards on error analysis, updated measurement vocabulary, and how traditional lab manuals are often outdated, inconsistent, and wrong. The authors will showcase lab activities centered on teaching students to understand (1) the connection between resolution, sensitivity, and variability, (2) the distinction between uncertainty and standard deviation, and (3) how the standard deviation, standard error, and confidence intervals drive experiment. One such experiment uses a competition atmosphere in a manufacturing process, akin to Six Sigma, designed to meet real-world, industrial objectives.
      • Fitting Parameter Uncertainties

      • PST1B23
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Robert Deserio,
      • Type: Poster
      • Simple expressions are presented for the uncertainties in model parametersobtained from fitting programs. They require the uncertainties of the input data and the construction of the Jacobian matrix as the derivative of each fitted value with respect to each fitting parameter. The formulas are demonstrated for data from our muon lifetime experiment where Poisson-distributed input data is governed by an exponential decay. The Microsoft Excel Solver program is used to perform properly weighted fits using either of two equivalent techniques: one based on the maximum likelihood principle and the other based on the iterated least squares method. Excel's built-in array formulas are then used to obtain the parameter covariance matrix, from which the uncertainties are determined. Parameter uncertainties based on the Delta x^2 = 1" rule are also determined and shown to be in agreement.
      • Things to Consider When Updating Introductory Physics Labs

      • PST1B25
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Darwin Church
      • Type: Poster
      • There are multiple reasons why introductory physics labs need to be updated, and there are different approaches to consider in the process. A good place to start, if you are considering revising physics labs, is the American Association of Physics Teachers Recommendations for the Undergraduate Laboratory Curriculum. It is an excellent resource and includes student learning outcomes on which to focus. The challenge is to implement them with the limitations often faced with laboratory instruction. Having recently updated two semesters of introductory physics labs, this presentation will examine some of the reasons to update labs and common approaches that are popular today. The advantages and disadvantages of each will be highlighted.
      • Muon Telescopes for First Year Physics Students

      • PST1B02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Ian Bearden,
      • Type: Poster
      • We have had a number of students build muon telescopes based on both GM tubes and scintillators for their quasi-independent first year research projects. This poster will summarize our experiences with such projects. Possible designs for and preliminary results from a muon detector inexpensive enough that it is possible to procure a "class set" for introductory relativity labs will also be presented. Finally, we discuss how one could incorporate the building of such detectors in the advanced lab for use in introductory labs.
      • Rigorous At-Home Experiments with the IOLab for Introductory E&M

      • PST1B04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Shawn Weatherford, Robert DeSerio,

      • Type: Poster
      • Introductory physics experiments for the online learner have been designedto be performed at home with an aim towards achieving student outcomes comparable to those from traditional on-campus laboratories. This presentation features selected at-home experiments piloted for the initial offering of an algebra-based introductory physics laboratory course focusing on electricity, magnetism, and optics for UF Online, a program providing fully online bachelor degrees. Utilizing the IOLab, a wireless dynamics cart with a suite of onboard sensors suitable for investigating physics principles with a laptop, paired with a custom materials kit, students construct an experimental apparatus and make sense of data collected with the IOLab and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Rigorous labs include resistivity measurements using bare wires, the distance dependence of magnetic field strength from dipoles and quadrupoles, and the temperature dependence of power dissipated by an incandescent bulb. One or more of these labs will be presented in detail.
      • Teaching Physics Lab to Online Students

      • PST1B06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by John Long, Kenneth Chenery,

      • Type: Poster
      • One of the biggest challenges in teaching physics online is delivering labinstruction and practical skills to off-campus students. Since 1996, Deakin University in Australia has delivered an introductory physics course simultaneously to both distance/online and on-campus cohorts in engineering. Many of the off-campus students live in remote areas. The course has a significant lab component, worth 30 percent of the total assessment, and currently containing five experiments. We present a number of methods that we have employed to deliver lab experiences to off-campus students. These include weekend on-campus lab classes, remote-controlled experiments, video-presented experiments, real-time experiments broadcasted through web-conferencing, at-home electronics kits, and at-home experiments where students assembled their own materials. What worked and what did not will be discussed, as well as further suggestions and ideas. Our experience shows that it is possible to produce the same learning outcomes in lab for both online and on-campus cohorts.
      • Transcending Your Discipline: A Transdisciplinary Laboratory Course Provides Context and Quantitative Literacy Skills that Contribute to STEM Retention

      • PST1B08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Sarah Formica,
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster describes an introductory, one-semester, transdisciplinary labcourse that integrates concepts across biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, and develops basic quantitative literacy and stimulates student interest in STEM more effectively than traditional introductory lab courses in biology, chemistry, and physics. Students in the transdisciplinary lab showed higher quantitative reasoning and literacy gains than students in traditionally-taught science labs, and those gains were statistically significantly different between transdisciplinary students and traditionally-taught biology students. Retention rates of students in the transdisciplinary lab were also compared to students in the control groups and show that student retention in a STEM discipline was higher for students who participated in the transdisciplinary lab. These results suggest that a transdisciplinary approach to STEM lab classes benefits students by improving their mathematical reasoning skills and compelling students to continue with their STEM education.
      • Using a Rubric to Teach Design Skills in Junior Lab

      • PST1B10
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Karen Williams,
      • Type: Poster
      • Students are required to choose and design their own short research project in Junior Physics Lab. Students submit a proposal that I accept or reject. If rejected I guide them to a more viable project. The project is presented as their final exam. It is graded using an Inquiry and Analysis Value Rubric designed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Items assessed are topic selection, background from sources, the design process, the analysis, the conclusions of the project, and the limitations and implications of the findings. I find it a good rubric to assess the design of a project.
      • A Series of Optics Laboratory Projects Using Student Cell Phones

      • PST1B12
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Steven Sahyun,
      • Type: Poster
      • Modern cell phones have a number of optical properties useful for investigation in a student laboratory setting. This poster describes a series of laboratory activities involving student's smart phones for an optics course designed for third- and fourth-year undergraduates. Students investigated the index of refraction of the glass screen, color and display properties of the screen and flash lamp, sensor and lens characteristics, and used their phones as microscopes and spectrometers. This series of laboratory activities was developed so that students would have several laboratory experiments over the course of the semester as a way to relate to course material and to better appreciate the many optical properties in an object they carry and use on a daily basis.
      • Boosting Student Engagement in the Introductory Physics Lab through Competition

      • PST1B14
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by John Walkup, Roger Key,

      • Type: Poster
      • Students often complete lab activities, but then fail to demonstrate any tangible understanding of the physics concepts targeted in the lesson. The authors surmise that much of the problem centers on students' passive approach to performing lab activities, where all work is stopped once they deem their results "good enough." In response, the authors have recast the lab activities as competitions, where students use the existing traditional lab activities as mere practice runs for students to brainstorm the most effective approach toward besting their lab classmates' performance. Such lab activities involve far less dependence on instructions and much more reliance on discussion and planning. The authors have found elevated levels of student resourcefulness and engagement. Furthermore, student evaluations have generated almost uniformly positive attitudes toward the competitive approach, even though students admitted increased frustration and pressure. Time demands on the lab teaching assistant are also significantly reduced.
      • Delayed-Choice Interference Experiment for the Entangled-Photon Undergraduate Laboratory*

      • PST1B16
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Enrique Galvez, Jhonny Castrillon,, Boris Rodriguez,, Omar Calderon-Losada,

      • Type: Poster
      • We have developed a new undergraduate laboratory experiment with time-energy entangled photons that exploits the concept of delayed choice in quantum interference. Photon pairs produced by parametric down-conversion are entangled in energy and momentum. One photon is sent through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. It reaches a detector immediately after exiting the interferometer. The energy-entangled partner is sent through a long optical fiber to an energy filter followed by a detector. The delayed-choice of filter bandwidth determines whether one sees interference or not. The experiment involves adding only a few optical components to an existing correlated-photon undergraduate laboratory. The experiment makes the students confront fundamental concepts of quantum interference.
      • Even More Physics Experiments Using Your Smartphone

      • PST1B18
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Arturo Marti, Martin Monteiro,, Cecilia Cabeza,, Cecilia Stari,

      • Type: Poster
      • Smartphone usage has expanded dramatically worldwide in recent years. Indeed, it is everyday more frequent to use smartphones as clocks, cameras, agendas, music players or gps. More remarkable is the habit, especially among young people, of bringing their smartphones every time and everywhere. It is impressive that smartphones usually incorporate several sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers. Although these sensors are not supplied with educational intentions in mind, they can be employed in a wide range of physical experiments, especially in high school or undergraduate laboratories. Moreover, experiments with smartphones can be easily performed in non-traditional places as playgrounds, gyms, travel facilities, among many others. We show some of the capabilities of the smartphones and discuss some interesting physics experiments using them. The selected experiments involve accelerometer, gyrometer, magnetometer, luxometer and proximity sensors. It is worth mentioning that this technology allows the simultaneous use of different accelerometers. Additional information: http://smarterphysics.blogspot.com.
      • Explanation of Rotation Mechanism of Liquid Film Motor Via Ions

      • PST1B20
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Hongzhi Zhu,
      • Type: Poster
      • We present a qualitative explanation of the rotation mechanism of the liquid film motor via movement of ions. Principle of electrolytic cell is introduced into our model, in which the essence of the crossing current in liquid is the directional movement of ions and as soon as an ion has reached the electrode, electrons are exchanged so that the ion loses its charges. Several quantitative analytic results involving the speed of rotation and the threshold voltage of the crossing current are obtained. We find that the interaction of the electrolytic cell and the polarization equilibrium maintained by the external electric field causes stable one-way flows in two sides along the electric field in adverse directions. The flows of ions lead to the rotation of the whole film. Though traditional theories via polarization of molecules can both explain the holistic rotation, Our theory can perfectly explain the local flow in high concentration film which could hardly be explained by traditional theories , and most experimental phenomena observed in direct current electric fields are interpreted well.
      • Faradaymeter: Arduino-based Precision Instrument for High School Labs for Electromagnetism

      • PST1B22
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Sidharta Vadaparty,
      • Type: Poster
      • Electromagnetism is central to advanced physics and should be internalizedby high school students through hands-on experiments. However, concepts like Faraday's law are first demonstrated through qualitative experiments but quickly transitioned to memorization of formulas. Additionally, commercially available instruments which can fill this learning gap are often prohibitively expensive. In this presentation, we introduce an instrument, the Faradaymeter, which measures the induced voltage in a coil by a changing magnetic field. The Arduino-based electronics allow students to collect data without the necessity of an oscilloscope, making it affordable, customizable and open-sourced. This platform encourages students to design their own creative experiments and quantitatively rediscover the laws of electromagnetism: Faraday's Law, Biot-Savart's Law, and Lorenz's Law. Students can do this by adjusting the following variables: angular speed of a rotating magnet, the distance between the coil and the magnet, the diameter of the coil, and length of the wire used.
      • Interference of Control of Variable Skills with Causal Reasoning

      • PST1B24
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Lindsay Owens, Kathleen Koenig,, Lei Bao,

      • Type: Poster
      • Understanding how to create a controlled experiment, as well as using causal reasoning to synthesize experimental results are critical skills in the laboratory setting. Students' abilities to interpret what caused an experimental outcome were evaluated in think-aloud style interviews. Interviews were conducted with a variety of algebra-based and calculus-based students in introductory physics lab courses. The majority of interview participants showed difficulty in answering this causal reasoning task and treated the task as if it were instead testing their control of variables (COV) knowledge. The use of a second causal reasoning task confirmed that students' COV-reasoning skills were interfering with their causal reasoning abilities. Results from these interviews were used to provide meaning to quantitative data obtained from a post reasoning test administered to all students in the introductory lab courses. The quantitative data echoed the answer selections of the interview participants for both causal reasoning tasks.
  • Lactation Room

      • Lactation Room

      • LAC00
      • Sun 07/29, 7:00AM - 10:00PM
      • AAPT AAPT
      • Type: None
      • Lactation Room

      • LAC01
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 10:00AM
      • AAPT AAPT
      • Type: None
      • Lactation Room

      • LAC02
      • Tue 07/31, 7:00AM - 10:00PM
      • AAPT AAPT
      • Type: None
  • Learning Assistants' Role in Affecting Community in Physics Departments And Beyond

      • LA Program Infrastructure to Support Institutional Change

      • EG01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Laurie Langdon,*
      • Type: Invited
      • The Learning Assistant model catalyzes change not by pushing specific reforms or trying to change faculty directly. Instead, it offers resources and structures that lead to changes in values and practices among faculty, departments, students, and the institution. In this presentation, I will highlight three structures that facilitate change at CU Boulder. Departmental Coordinators (DCs) serve as liaisons between the Program and their departments; they meet to discuss strategies for engaging and educating faculty and to review faculty course proposals. LA Central software supports the overall operation of the program, including functionality that allows DCs to monitor and provide feedback to faculty applying to use LAs in their courses. The LA Mentoring Program engages experienced LAs as LA Mentors for first-time LAs. They observe settings in which LAs are used, consult with their mentee and faculty member throughout the semester, and serve as liaisons to the LA Program.
      • Talking about Teaching, LAs Insert Themselves into the Conversation

      • EG02
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Mark Reeves, Tiffany-Rose Sikorski,

      • Type: Invited
      • At GW, we have a Learning Assistant program that adheres closely to the Colorado Model that is described on the LA Alliance website. Two very important aspects that are driving our department's transformation are 1) the person-power of having one LA for every 15 students to enable teaching classes with close to 60% of their time dedicated to student-centered learning, and 2) a community of LAs that talk: to each other, to the students, to their instructor, to the departmental coordinator, to the instructor leading the pedagogy class. These conversations provide up and down linkages from students to instructors as well as instigate horizontal discussions between students and between instructors teaching across the introductory curriculum in our physics department. In my talk, I will focus on my experiences as an instructor and as a departmental coordinator to describe how LAs have reformed my own teaching and the teaching in my department.
      • A Cultural Analysis: An LA Program's Life, Death, and Reincarnation*

      • EG03
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 3:00PM
      • by Chandra Turpen, Ayush Gupta,

      • Type: Invited
      • In this talk, we describe the meaningful shifts in institutional routines that emerged during the six-year lifespan of the Maryland LA Program (e.g. new learning experiences for students enrolled in LA-supported courses, pedagogical growth for faculty, and examples of LA's activism within the university and broader community). These accounts suggest glimmers of cultural change. However, we also describe the death of the science-focused LA program at University of Maryland, as the "factory model" of higher education co-opted this program for its own purposes. We reflect on how our LA program was more effective at contesting problematic cultural assumptions with our LAs than with university administrators and faculty. We describe the specific institutional challenges that were present for our science-based LA program, and suggest some key differences that have allowed our Maryland LA program to re-emerge within the College of Engineering.
      • Creating Resilient Community Through the TXST Learning Assistant Experience*

      • EG04
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:30PM
      • by Eleanor Close, Jessica Conn,, Shahrzad Hesaaraki,, Ryan Zamora,

      • Type: Invited
      • The Physics LA program at Texas State is structured to support developmentof collaborative relationships among participants, including faculty, LAs, and students. The departmental decision to implement LA support in all sections of the calculus-based introductory physics sequence has created a community of learners with a large body of shared experiences of research-based instructional strategies, both as students and as facilitators of instruction. The majority of our majors now serve as LAs for at least one semester. In interviews and written reflections, LAs describe changing their ways of learning and of being students, both within and beyond physics, as a result of their LA experience. In addition, they perceive themselves to have increased competence in communication and a stronger sense of belonging to a supportive and collaborative community of peers, near-peers, and faculty. We analyze the LA experience in terms of Communities of Practice and negotiation of identity.
  • Learning more about getting involved in AAPT committee work: A primer

      • Learning more about getting involved in AAPT committee work: A primer

      • AI
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 10:30AM
      • by Mel Sabella
      • Type: Panel
      • In this session, AAPT participants can learn more about AAPT's diverse committees and the work they conduct to assist the AAPT in meetings its objectives. Area Chairs or Vice Chairs will introduce their committees an answer questions from participants about becoming more involved in committee work.
  • Lecture/Classroom

      • Method of Solving Time Problems in Harmonic Oscillator

      • PST2A01
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Quy Pham,
      • Type: Poster
      • Time is an important factor in solving physics problems. In the General Physics program for K12 students, the harmonic oscillator occupies a large part of the mechanical oscillator, the mechanical wave and the alternating current. Incorporating the trigonometric ring into the calculation of time factors will help students understand the concept of oscillator much better and easier. Through this article, I would like to introduce some simple but effective methods for physics learners to understand problems of harmonic oscillation most easily.
      • Project Yellow Light: Physics and Social Issues in Chicago

      • PST2A03
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Johan Tabora,
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster explains a culminating kinematics project in a 9th-grade physics course at a public high school. The project problematizes the physics implications of Chicago's 3-second yellow light and uses the socio-scientific issues framework to empower students to make complex decisions at the interface of science, technology, and society. Furthermore, the project hopes to develop science agency where students use their scientific knowledge to enact change in themselves and their environment. Students use kinematics concepts to evaluate the 3-second light time and use their findings to explore the related socio-political issues. Examples of issues are the locations of Chicago's red-light traffic violations, Illinois' income tax structure, and other city-levied fees and taxes.
      • Role of Characteristics of Bodies in Newton's Third Law of Motion

      • PST2A05
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Ajay Sharma,
      • Type: Poster
      • The third law establishes universal equality between action and reaction. The law is practically expressed in terms of forces. In third application of third law at page 20 of the Principia, Newton stated, "If a body impinges upon another and by its force change the motion of the other, that body also will undergo an equal change, in its own motion, towards the contrary part. Mathematically forward velocity of target, Vforward = ( Uforward - Ubackward ) m/M If target is heavier and remains at rest e.g. a ball impinges a heavy body then Vforward =0, Uforward =Ubackward or projectile must rebound with initial velocity. In this case characteristics, nature, compositions of bodies ( steel , rubber , spring , chewing gum) are practically and experimentally significant. These can be taken in account if law is generalised i.e. reaction is proportional to action through coefficient of proportionality.
      • Special Relativity as Part of the First-Year Introductory Physics Course

      • PST2A07
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Alice Churukian, Reyco Henning,, Stefan Jeglinski,, Duane Deardorff,

      • Type: Poster
      • At the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, we have incorporated aunit on Special Relativity into our first semester introductory physics course required for students of the physical sciences (chemistry, math, computer science, applied science, and physics majors). The course is taught in a lecture/studio format where students attend a 1-hour lecture and a 2-hour studio twice per week. Students spend two and a half weeks studying everything from simultaneity to relativistic momentum, focusing primarily on conceptual understanding through the use of space-time (Minkowski) diagrams. We will present a sample of the materials used in both lecture and studio, insights into the challenges of introducing Special Relativity at the introductory level, and comments from students enrolled in the course.
      • Student Perspectives about Active Learning in German Physics Lectures

      • PST2A09
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Cynthia Heiner,
      • Type: Poster
      • Research indicates that students learn more in an interactive learning environment. Yet despite the increasing empirical evidence, the active teaching and learning techniques are rarely tried in German higher education institutions. I report here on German students' opinions towards pre-class online assignments ('Just in Time Teaching') and in-class Peer Instruction via clickers in an introductory mathematical physics class. Furthermore, I will discuss the cultural differences in the education systems as well as how best to encourage students to engage with active learning in Germany.
      • Teaching Strategies for Dynamics in Introductory Physics

      • PST2A11
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by J.C. Yoon,
      • Type: Poster
      • Learning dynamics in introductory physics, students have difficulty in building connection between kinematics and dynamics and identifying the objects associate with force due to the ambiguity of force notation. The concept of applying force is introduced earlier in kinematics and the motion of an object is consistently analyzed and connected to net force using inquiries with plain English. As a common practice of omitting the roles of objects in force notation for simplicity causes trouble in free-body diagrams and Newton's laws of motion, every force in the lecture is labeled by which object force applies and on which object the force applies at a cost of elegant notation. Also, as many students find it difficult to come up what forces should be considered in a free body diagram, a list of possible forces is presented for them to check out and select the appropriate forces.
      • Teaching Strategies of Kinematics in Introductory Physics

      • PST2A13
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by J.C. Yoon,
      • Type: Poster
      • Teaching introductory physics to students with minimal experience of physics classes in secondary schools, the class curriculum for kinematics in the lecture has been modified to effectively cover the contents from the basics of kinematics including lab activities. The motion of an object is consistently presented with a motion diagram with inquiries on position, velocity, acceleration, and net force using plain English and the concepts of calculus. The motion diagram is investigated with a table to record the data and they are plotted in terms of time. Since students struggle with the plots for these physical quantities that are presented individually or at random order in the lectures or tests, the plots of position, velocity, and acceleration are always presented in the same order as a set in the lecture and assignments. The plots are analyzed with slope in differentiation format and area using a simple Riemann sum.
      • The Triplets Paradox. About Acceleration in Special Relativity

      • PST2A15
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Martín Monteiro,
      • Type: Poster
      • In this work a didactical approach about the well known twins paradox is discussed. In a simple and visual way it is shown that two systems could go through the same accelerations and yet end up having different times at the end of their trips, pointing out that the amount of acceleration is not the key of the problem. The change of inertial reference frame is highlighted to understand the issue together with the role of acceleration in special relativity and the twin paradox in particular.
      • What Bad Puzzles Teach Us About Good Science

      • PST2A17
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by David Morgan,
      • Type: Poster
      • Nowadays it's common to encounter "logic" puzzles online that pose as mathematical exercises, and frequently Internet commenters will argue over the right answer for days or weeks at a time. Often it is because these puzzles are, in fact poorly-designed as mathematical statements, and the "right answer" is ambiguous at best. But while they may fail as math problems, they succeed as examples of inductive reasoning in the sciences, and underscore the fact that scientific theories are always "underdetermined" by the available data. This poster gives an example of one such puzzle, along with suggestions for classroom discussions on topics such as theory construction, theory testing, underdetermination, simplicity, and falsification.
      • A First-Year Experience Program in Physics

      • PST2A19
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by John Simonetti,* Alma Robinson,, Kasey Richardson,, Shadisadat Esmaeili,, Courtney Vengrin,

      • Type: Poster
      • First-year physics majors at Virginia Tech take the introductory calculus-based sequence, taught with a student-centered approach, in a SCALE-UP classroom. In addition, our program includes a parallel sequence designed to enlarge the students' view of physics beyond the introductory curriculum and give them the skills they need to succeed as undergraduate physics majors, and beyond. This additional course sequence, also taught in a SCALE-UP classroom, is called "Thinking Like a Physicist," and includes explicit work on solving Fermi problems and other open-ended, ill-defined problems. They also learn systematic procedures for solving "end-of-chapter" problems, selected concepts in calculus, and numerical computations. Other topics investigated include research in the department and career paths. We will present our results from pre- and post-testing using various instruments including the Force Concept Inventory, Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism, and the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey.
      • Active and Engaged Learning: Lessons from the Rookie Semester

      • PST2A21
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Toni Sauncy,
      • Type: Poster
      • The introductory calculus-based physics course at Texas Lutheran University has been transformed from an "active" learning "traditional" format into a hybrid-inverted learning environment through the use of web-based video and simulation tools. Reluctance to change the format of the course quickly became enthusiasm as the potential for learning (by the instructor) became apparent. Lessons from this first time modified flipper, along with the student response to the revised pedagogy will be discussed.
      • An Integrated Career-Development Curriculum for College Physics Majors

      • PST2A23
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Joshua Grossman, Erin De Pree

      • Type: Poster
      • We present a curriculum in which college physics students engage in careerexploration and perform activities to develop skills for career advancement. We embed the curriculum in conventional physics courses, plus special program-wide events. This emphasizes the central importance of these skills for students and requires all students to develop these skills. While some material draws from the Careers Toolbox for Undergraduate Physics Students, developed by the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students, our curriculum is significantly more expansive, covering more career phases, plus including additional skills and activities. The Phys21: Preparing Physics Students for 21st Century Careers report by AAPT and the American Physical Society touched on this curriculum in its case study of best practices in our department. Besides providing more details on the curricular content, we will also present impacts from its implementation.
      • Complete Introductory Physics Courses Online

      • PST2A25
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Byron Drury, David Pritchard,, Zhongzhou Chen,, Isaac Chuang,

      • Type: Poster
      • Evidence suggests that blending online and on-land teaching in some sort of flipped classroom results in more learning than either extreme. Unfortunately, optimally combining online, in-class, weekly homework and quizzes, and on-paper activities presents a formidable and time-consuming organizational challenge for the instructor. We are assembling sets of these resources into complete courses for intro mechanics and E&M at both algebra- and calculus-based levels. These can be flexibly assigned in the open-source online platform - edX.org. Importantly, student interaction data are recorded in BigQuery; we extract problem difficulty and time on each resource, and can improve the course through research. These courses will be available as Customizable Courses this fall, and possibly in Canvass. Ultimately we will use the Harvard DART system to allow teachers to assemble courses from a library with descriptive and performance metadata about each resource. Volunteers are solicited for beta-testing and for curating existing resources.
      • How Are the Women Scientists Academic Trajectories?

      • PST2A27
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Isabelle De Lima,
      • Type: Poster
      • It is usual in physics classes the use of historical approaches to highlight the participation of important men. However, in Brazil, there are few studies about women's role and trajectory in physics. To join teaching, history of physics and the participation of women in science, we promoted a debate to thinking about 'how are the women scientist's academic trajectories?' To this, we presented Lise Meitner's trajectory, as an example. We highlighted important aspects of her life that helped us to start discussions with high school students. Then, to this presentation, we will report how this activity happened, what were the student's feelings and opinions before, during and after activity. We found students recognized similarities among women scientist's carriers, whether they are researchers, teachers or professionals in the technical area. It was possible to think over the barriers in our carriers and encourage students to think they could be a scientist.
      • Practical Sigma/Delta Relation for Teaching Single-Slit Diffraction Uncertainty Principle

      • PST2A02
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Richard Zajac,
      • Type: Poster
      • Illustration of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in terms of single slit particle diffraction is common in introductory texts. Such a presentation is conceptually and qualitatively useful, but is often confusing for students to apply numerically due in part to the differing interpretations of sigma and Delta presented in different texts and online resources, along with apparently differing definitions of the Uncertainty Principle. A simple scheme is presented to dissambiguate and apply these terms numerically. This scheme has been successfully used by students in the Alg/Trig-based introductory course with good accuracy, without the need to substitute alternative results from a "more rigorous" treatment, as is common in several texts.
      • Sparking Interest in STEM

      • PST2A06
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Kathleen VanBaren,
      • Type: Poster
      • According to a 2012 article in International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, "Students are making choices in middle school that will impact their desire and ability to pursue STEM careers. Providing middle school students with accurate information about STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) careers enables them to make more knowledgeable choices about courses of study and career paths" (Vanessa L., Heulskamp, & Siebert, 2012). In order to give all middle school students in our school an opportunity to learn more about STEM fields, activities involving robotics, computer programming, and electronics have been integrated into the eighth grade general science course. The poster provides examples of these projects over the last few years.
      • Standards-based Grading: Assessing the Assessment

      • PST2A08
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Katrina Black,
      • Type: Poster
      • In standards-based grading systems, student grades are based on mastery ofcourse objectives rather than a percentage of points earned on each particular assessment. Since spring 2017, I have used standards-based grading in an algebra-based introductory physics sequence for technology majors. I reflect on three semesters of standards-based grading, including how the grading scheme has evolved, practical considerations for choosing assessment questions and recording grades, and student responses to the system.
      • Teaching Strategies for Calculus Review in Introductory Physics

      • PST2A10
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by J.C. Yoon,
      • Type: Poster
      • The concept of calculus is briefly summarized with physics examples in thefirst lecture of introductory physics. The most topics in limits and continuity is avoided, and one simple point is emphasized that most functions in nature and in physics course are continuous and differentiable. The differentiation of function is roughly translated as slope, that is, rise over run, to find out the change of output compared to that of input, but it is presented with functional format instead of x, y coordinates. And it is demonstrated with linear and parabola functions with numbers. Using an example of speed, the integration of motion is introduced as summation of the change of distance per unit time, which is often overlooked as we consider integration as area only. A couple of Riemann sum with linear functions are used to demonstrate how the integration works.
      • Teaching Strategies for Trigonometry Review in Introductory Physics

      • PST2A12
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by J.C. Yoon,
      • Type: Poster
      • For introductory physics, trigonometry is reviewed in the first lecture toestablish the understanding of trigonometry on the basic concepts of physics with one main techniques of trigonometric identities. Using an example of physics application, the concept and purpose of trigonometric function are redefined with physically meaningful interpretations. In many physics applications in the following lectures, these interpretations make the students consider the purpose of trigonometric functions in selecting the appropriate functions, instead of using mathematical definition of trigonometric functions as a routine. Also, one set of rules in trigonometric identities is selected and used for the whole course to make it more effective and faster in dealing with physics applications.
      • The Process of Learning and Assessment in Activity-based Physics Classrooms

      • PST2A14
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Yuehai Yang, David Kirkendall,, Suman Neupane,, David Brookes,

      • Type: Poster
      • Multiple assessment instruments have been implemented in an activity-basedphysics course at Oregon Institute of Technology. In and outside of the classroom, students work together on a variety of learning activities with the assistance from supplemental instructors and are offered ample opportunities to participate in this active learning process. Assessment data are collected through Gradescope, an AI assisted grading tool, as well as traditional surveys. The result of this analysis is useful to identify important impact factors which contribute to student success in reformed introductory physics courses.
      • Using Social Deduction Games to Help Understand Physical Concepts

      • PST2A16
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Matt Olmstead,
      • Type: Poster
      • As part of our physics senior seminar course, the students are doing an in-depth research project in which they focus on one area of physics that has not been discussed in their previous courses and have several different projects based off of this including a paper, presentation, and poster. There are additional smaller assignments, one of which includes adding a scientist from their project into a social deduction game. In the game, each student is initially given a secret role; some are good and some are bad. During the course of the game, each role does one thing: swapping roles, looking at another role, getting a new role, etc. At the end, a vote is performed to see if one of the bad characters can be identified. This game has been modified to include the scientists from their projects and figuring out what sort of abilities fit these characters.
      • A Curriculum to Address Under-Representation and Culture in Physics

      • PST2A18
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Moses Rifkin, Chris Gosling,, Dana Hsi,

      • Type: Poster
      • Motivated by our shared desire to address under-representation in physics,we have created a flexible, modular curriculum designed to help physics teachers bring conversations about science and society into our classrooms. In this session, we will preview the curriculum, share preliminary data demonstrating its influence, and reflect on our experiences. Attendees will have an opportunity to download curricular resources, and will learn how to join our working group going forward. Together, we offer students and teachers a guided means to consider the culture of physics in order to create a more welcoming community.
      • Acceleration-centered Physics: Sharp Departure from the Traditional Free-Body-Diagram

      • PST2A20
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by John Walkup,
      • Type: Poster
      • Traditional problem-solving in physics involves students following a step-wise method where they create a free-body diagram and then attempt to solve the problem by examining known and unknown variables. The cognitive gap to the next step, formulating equations that govern the forces and motion encountered in the problem, is large and daunting, often leaving students grasping for any equations they can find that incorporate a matching set of known and unknown variables. The author has reformulated the traditional problem-solving method by elevating the acceleration as a gateway between cause, described by Newton's laws, and effect, described by equations of motion. (In essence, the acceleration in mechanics is regarded in much the same way as the state vector in quantum mechanics.) Such an approach has the advantage of providing students with a path toward successful completion of the entire problem from start to finish. It also highlights the Deterministic relationship between cause and effect. Finally, this approach is robust, being applicable to every (or nearly every) Newtonian force problem likely to be encountered by introductory physics students. In this poster, the author will present this new problem-solving scheme, then show how it applies to linear acceleration, centripetal acceleration, and angular acceleration problems with relative ease.
      • An Inquiry Based Biophysics Course for Non-majors

      • PST2A22
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Christina Othon,
      • Type: Poster
      • The development of a college-wide, general education curriculum alleviatedpressure to offer 100-level introductory physics courses for non-majors. This opened the opportunity for us to reconsider the type general education courses most needed to serve other disciplines at the institution. Ripon College has a large number of elementary and secondary education, health pre-professional, exercise science, and pre-engineering students. We developed an inquiry-based learning course that had no prerequisites that could satisfy the physical education needs of our education majors while providing a soft entry into the physics curriculum for our health pre-professionals. The course emphasizes hands-on activities that build quantitative reasoning skills and promotes a firm understanding of matter and physical properties of biomaterials. The course is populated by students of a wide mathematical and scientific background. We present results regarding the value of the course content for the target student populations.
      • Assessing Understanding Using Student-Created Video Tutorials

      • PST2A24
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Bradley Gearhart,
      • Type: Poster
      • Most high school students carry in their pockets a powerful tool for learning and assessment. Today's smartphones and tablets allow students to explore and generate content in ways that were impossible just a decade ago. Fortunately, many schools are now embracing this new tool for expression and consumption and looking for new and creative ways to engage and assess student understanding. This poster will explore my use of student-created video tutorials for assessing their understanding of forces. Students record everyday scenarios and then create a tutorial video applying concepts and tools developed in class to describe and explain their everyday occurrence.
      • Interpreting and Solving Problems Using Inequalities

      • PST2A28
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Jonathan Bennett,
      • Type: Poster
      • "Inequality problems," in which a physical quantity (such as a static friction force) can assume a range of possible values, provide interesting and instructive opportunities for students to practice problem-solving skills. Standard textbook approaches to solving such problems tend to examine only limiting cases (for example, the situation where the static friction force has reached its maximum possible value). We consider several common introductory problems and illustrate how a more general approach to solving inequality problems leads to more complete, interesting and instructive solutions, while only modestly increasing the mathematical complexity of the analysis.
  • Lessons Learned in the Robert Noyce Scholarship Program: Winning and Servicing the Grant

      • Winning a Robert Noyce Scholarship Grant

      • CG01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by John Stewart
      • Type: Invited
      • The Robert Noyce Scholarship program provides substantial funding to support scholarships for STEM graduates who plan to teach in high need classrooms. The scholarships can attract new students to teaching or retain students by providing bridge funding if obtaining a teacher certification requires more than four years. The author has been PI on two successful Noyce proposals (and two unsuccessful) and will share the lessons learned about crafting a successful Noyce proposal. Topics discussed will include capacity, recruiting, cohort building, programmatic quality, partnerships, and research. A Noyce scholarship program can be invaluable to successfully implementing or growing an undergraduate teacher preparation program. It can also allow STEM graduates to pursue post baccalaureate programs when no undergraduate program is available or when they make the decision to teach too late to enter the undergraduate program.
      • Recruiting and Retaining Teachers from a STEM-focused University

      • CG02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Kristine Callan, Wendy Adams,

      • Type: Invited
      • About a year after we enrolled our first Colorado School of Mines studentsin our newly formed teacher preparation program, we won a Robert Noyce Scholarship Grant to help us prepare more highly qualified science and math teachers. We are now finishing our second year of the grant and have learned a few lessons along the way: 1) We need to address perceptions (many of which are Misperceptions) about the teaching profession with students and faculty early and often; 2) Coupling paid Noyce Internships with an early field experience course and work-study can create an efficient recruiting and prestige-building mechanism; and 3) There are certain types of retention issues that Noyce Scholarships alone will not fix.
      • Preparing Your Noyce Grant for Continued Success Upon Official Completion

      • CG03
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by David Rosengrant, Samuel Polizzi,, Gregory Rushton,, Brett Criswell,, Michelle Head,

      • Type: Invited
      • Many funding programs, including Noyce, require the project team to address the issue of sustainability. Seeking new grant funding is an obvious option, but often difficult to guarantee. We propose there are multiple strategies a project can implement while it is funded to prepare for successful completion and sustainability. The authors are all part of the leadership team of a large multi-year Robert Noyce Grant at Kennesaw State University. We recently completed the bulk of this grant and are now working with the participants who are no longer funded nor required to be part of the project. In this talk, we will discuss aspects of our conceptual framework and our project's design features that we believe has influenced its sustainability. In particular, we will highlight what has and has not worked in keeping the participants actively engaged in the ideals of this project.
  • Lessons from a Long-Term, Distributed Faculty Community Focused On Curricular Adaptation

      • The Next Gen PET Curriculum and Online Faculty Community*

      • AM01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Edward Price,
      • Type: Invited
      • What can we learn from an online community of 50 instructors using a shared curriculum, collecting data on student learning, and seeking to improve their instruction? This talk will present initial findings from such an effort. The Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) Faculty Online Learning Community (FOLC) has the goals of supporting faculty development that will result in far-reaching, sustainable educational transformation, and serving as a "laboratory" for studying student learning. The community includes experts who serve as facilitators, an internal structure of faculty clusters, and supporting communication tools. Faculty in the community are teaching physics or physical science courses for pre-service elementary teachers using the Next Gen PET curriculum. Next Gen PET is a research-based, guided inquiry curriculum for pre-service elementary teachers that is aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards. Versions are available for either small or large enrollments, and addressing either physics or physical science content. This talk will describe the curriculum, the development of the community, student learning outcomes, and how the FOLC supports instructors' use of research-based instructional practices.
      • My Experiences Using the NextGenPET Curriculum and Joining a FOLC

      • AM02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by M. Lucatorto,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The Next Generation Physics and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) curriculum has been used in classrooms for both pre-service elementary teachers and general student populations at James Madison University beginning in the fall semester of 2017. Next Gen PET was selected because of its research-based, active learning focus. Students' prior exposure to physics and chemistry ranged from AP Physics/Chemistry to none. This talk focuses on two areas: how I found and implemented Next Gen PET curriculum and how my participation as a member of the Next Gen PET Faculty Online Learning Community (FOLC) has had benefits both in terms of utilizing the curriculum for my students and for my professional development as an instructor.
      • Planning and Carrying Out Investigations in the NextGen PET Curriculum*

      • AM03
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Paul Miller, Kathleen Koenig,, Lynn Michaluk,, Melissa Luna,, Fred Goldberg,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Next Generation Physics and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) curriculum is a research-based, NGSS-aligned curriculum for pre-service elementary teachers. This talk focuses on the NGSS practice of Planning and Carrying Out Investigations, a practice that is not currently supported in the published Next Gen PET curriculum. To address this omission, we developed materials in the Next Gen PET format that focus on this practice and that can be optionally included in a Next Gen PET. We piloted those materials during a fall 2017 implementation of the PET curriculum and administered a new assessment before and after instruction. The lead author is a participant in Next Gen PET Faculty Online Learning Community (FOLC), which has provided a community in which these materials can be shared and improved. *Funding for this project comes from NSF DUE-1611738.
      • Adapting the Next Generation PET Curriculum for a Lecture-Laboratory Format*

      • AM04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Gay Stewart, Paul Miller,, Fred Goldberg,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) grew from Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) and has been shown to significantly impact both future teacher content knowledge and understanding of how students learn science. It has been taught at two-year and four-year institutions, adapted for science methods courses in schools of education, and offered as a workshop for practicing elementary teachers. Although it is offered in two versions, designed exclusively for either studio style or lecture style settings, it did not fit the common lab/lecture format that fulfills general education requirements at many colleges. We have developed an implementation of existing materials to support the lecture/lab model. In this talk, we report on our experiences with a hybrid implementation of Next Gen PET. *Funding for this project comes from NSF DUE-1611738.
      • PEER Suite: Transforming Courses, Engaging Teachers, and Assessing Multiple Dimensions

      • AM05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Valerie Otero
      • Type: Contributed
      • The Physics through Evidence: Empowerment through Reasoning (PEER) Suite addresses contextual aspects of districts, courses, and teacher needs through a suite of materials intended to empower students through scientific practices. Our Suite T-E- A philosophy establishes long term partnerships leading to teacher community, pedagogical growth, and student success. T-Transforming Classrooms involves adaptable curriculum materials, guides, and a website that supports supplementing activities and creating storylines through engineering design challenges and other phenomena. E-Engaging Teachers is a community of PEER teachers that meets for several years to hone their practice for their specific contexts. Targeted professional development materials are intended for practice-based reflection/planning and building theoretical and philosophical underpinnings. A-Assessing Multiple Dimensions provides 3-D performance assessments as well as pre/post assessment materials and attitudinal assessments for meeting district goals. We will discuss the PEER Suite, show data regarding its effectiveness, and describe our district and teacher partnerships that make it all work.
      • Three Dimensional Assessment in High School Physics

      • AM06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Shelly Belleau
      • Type: Contributed
      • Even the simplest of assessments are challenging for physics students, andnew efforts to create "three-dimensional assessments" present an even greater challenge. The Physics through Evidence: Empowerment Through Reasoning ) project (formerly PET-HS) has engaged in developing 3D assessments to match curricular goals and has built a vast bank of resources to support teachers assessing student understanding, both formatively and summatively. Resources include 3D assessment tools that assess student learning on physics content, practices, and crosscutting concepts as well as engineering design challenges where students actively apply their physics understanding to design a solution to a proposed problem. In this session we will share our strategies for developing these types of assessments for the high school context in addition to the ways we generate rubrics and provide grades.
  • Meet-up for Members and Supporters of the LGBTQ Community

      • Meet-up for Members and Supporters of the LGBTQ Community

      • SPEC07
      • Mon 07/30, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Event
      • Relax, network and share your experiences and resources with members and friends of the LGBTQ/Physics Community. Light refreshments will be provided.
  • Meet-up for Undergraduate Physics Students

      • Meet-up for Undergraduate Physics Students

      • SPEC01
      • Sun 07/29, 6:00PM - 7:00PM
      • by Brad Conrad
      • Type: Event
      • If you would like to informally meet with other undergraduate students from all over to chat about school, professors, science, life, food, … please check out the undergraduate meet up at the AAPT meeting and make some great connections! This is an unstructured meet up near registration. Once you have assembled we recommend that you chose a place to eat dinner and get to know one another, but this is totally up to you.
  • Meetings Committee

      • Meetings Committee

      • COM02
      • Sun 07/29, 8:00AM - 10:15AM
      • by Lila M. Adair
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Membership and Benefits Committee

      • Membership and Benefits Committee

      • COM34
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:30AM
      • by Dyan Jones
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Models for Integrating Computation into Undergraduate Physics

      • Enhancing the Undergraduate Physics Curriculum with Computation

      • GG01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Kelly Roos,
      • Type: Invited
      • I believe (hope?) that in this contemporary era, wherein the vast majorityof professional physicists spend a vast amount of each day interacting with a silicon unit, there is general agreement amongst physics faculty that the inclusion of computational activities will positively enhance the undergraduate physics curriculum. However, the elevation of computational methods in undergraduate courses to the status of a widely-used, viable tool that completes the three-legged stool approach to physics education (the other two legs are analytical theory and experiment), is still well under development. I will describe how the inclusion of computational activities in individual courses can expand the range of coverage of physics topics, and can lead to opportunities for students to engage in learning that would not be accessible through the traditional approach of non-computational, analytical theory alone.
      • An Holistic Integration of Computational Modeling in Undergraduate Physics

      • GG02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Brandon Lunk, David Donnelly,, Hunter Close,, Kushal Das,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Virtually all physics graduates will need to be able to program or otherwise leverage computational tools to solve problems whether they go into academia or industry. Indeed, the recent "Phys21: Preparing Physics Students for 21st Century Careers" report [1] charges physics departments and educators with providing students access to an environment that can enable them to develop programming and other computational skills. In order to address the recommendations of the Phys21 report at Texas State University, we have begun a holistic integration of computation throughout the major degree plan starting with the introductory sequence and extending through upper-level courses. We will discuss the goals that we are forwarding, the instructional and scaffolding models that we are implementing, and the questions and challenges that we have encountered in our implementation.
      • Early and Often -- Threading Computation through the Physics Curriculum

      • GG03
      • Wed 08/01, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by MIchele McColgan,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Computational skills are highly desired for newly graduating physics majors pursuing graduate school or searching for their first job. At our small liberal arts college, very few freshmen physics majors come to us with programming experience. To overcome their fear and anxiety and avoidance of programming, we introduce programming concepts in their first semester and integrate it throughout most, if not all, of our courses. Research experience is strongly encouraged and financially supported beginning the summer after freshman year and continuing each summer. Along with independent studies and a senior project, it's difficult for our students to obtain a degree without significant exposure and experience with computation. In this talk I will describe how we thread computation through our physics curriculum.
      • "Computational Physics" vs. "Physics with Computation"

      • GG04
      • Wed 08/01, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Larry Engelhardt,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In our department, we have had a concentration in "Computational Physics" for about 20 years, but we have been increasing "integrating" computation into our "traditional" courses for the last 10 years. I will describe our progression towards increased computational integration and where we currently stand.
      • Making Computation Normal

      • GG05
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Andrew Gavrin,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In the physics department at IUPUI, we have embarked on a project to "makecomputation normal." That is, we intend that by the time our students earn their BS, they will consider computation as a normal approach to problem solving, on par with an analytical approach. To do this, we are incorporating computational assignments and projects in all courses. Although we will use excel in the introductory course sequence, all upper level courses will rely on MATLAB, and we are introducing a two credit-hour sophomore level course to introduce students to this platform. We are also benefitting greatly from PICUP, the Partnership for Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics.*
      • Integrating Computation into Introductory Physics: Interactive Modules for Beginner Programmers*

      • GG06
      • Wed 08/01, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Richelle Teeling-Smith, Chris Orban,, Chris Porter,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While there is a growing need to integrate computation into the physics curriculum, incorporating new content into an already jam-packed introductory physics course is a delicate task that involves many choices that may have a big impact on student learning. We introduce a series of hour-long programming activities for classical mechanics and electricity and magnetism. These interactive modules resemble popular games such as "asteroids" and "angry birds." The activities are browser-based (requiring no software installation) and modular in nature so that they can be easily integrated into existing courses. We will discuss our experiences in integrating these programming exercises into the introductory physics courses at Mount Union and OSU Marion, as well as in high school physics classes in Ohio. We will discuss our progress on assessing learning gains quantitatively using an animated version of the FCI developed by M. Dancy, as well as a series of other animated questions. *The STEMcoding Project is supported by the AIP Meggers Award and internal funding from OSU.
      • Computational Exercises in Experimental Physics

      • GG07
      • Wed 08/01, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Corey Gerving, David Kashinski,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A challenge for many undergraduate physics students is how to deal with anequation of motion that has no exact solution, while experienced physicists are able to rely upon several numerical techniques. We introduce several numerical techniques into our senior-level experimental physics class for students to feel more comfortable solving problems with no analytical solution. We focus our techniques primarily on the nonlinear pendulum or the damped harmonic oscillator as a means of expanding beyond the simplified models with analytical solutions. Here we discuss our learning objectives, our project requirements, and our results.
      • Bringing LaTeX into Introductory Calculus-based Physics for Homework and Computation

      • GG08
      • Wed 08/01, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Paul Heafner,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In this talk, I will describe how I introduced LaTeX into an introductory calculus-based physics course taught with Matter & Interactions and its associated computational tools. I submit that LaTeX can serve as a unique way to introduce computation with an immediately useful product for students, namely a professionally typeset and neatly organized homework paper with consistent notation, correct use of SI units, structured problem solutions with all work shown and with accompanying commentary, and inclusion of VPython or GlowScript programs (and live links to the latter). I will also describe mandi, a custom LaTeX package I wrote that facilitates all of this functionality.
      • Using Computation to Help Visualize Wave Functions in a Modern Physics Course

      • GG09
      • Wed 08/01, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Timothy Duman,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In recent years we have seen students in our modern physics course having difficulty representing wave functions for specified potential wells. This talk will present computational solutions to the time independent Schrodinger equation using jupyter notebooks (Python) to help students visualize and understand wave functions. The students are exposed to solutions for a variety of different potential wells. The shooting algorithm is used to solve the Schrodinger equation. Students are presented with a graphical representation of the wave function and asked to determine if it is a solution. They can click on the graph to select a different energy and produce a new wave function.
  • Models-based Physics Education - A Wendell Potter Memorial

      • Models as Reasoning Tools: Wendell's Legacy

      • GH01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by David Webb
      • Type: Invited
      • In science and science education an understanding of the use and role of models as intellectual tools has become increasingly visible in recent years. The CLASP introductory physics courses developed by Wendell Potter and his colleagues at UC Davis explicitly invited students to learn the major ‘models’ that physicists used in thinking about the physical world. Wendell’s emphasis was clear in i) the titles of the course books “College Physics: A MODELS Approach”, ii) the naming of about two dozen specific models of physical phenomena, and iii) for each model, a summary that collected the verbal, mathematical, graphical, and pictorial tools to be used. In this talk I will try to outline Wendell’s thinking and my own about the usefulness of this type of approach in science education as well as its connections to the work of practicing scientists.
      • Making Time for Sense Making: Designing Potter's Discussion-labs into Biology

      • GH02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Julia Gouvea,*
      • Type: Invited
      • At the core of Wendell Potter's models-based approach to physics is a commitment to supporting students in making sense of the physical world. Potter's course design features five hours per week of "discussion-lab," creating the time and space for student-driven sense making. The students in this physics course are primarily biology majors, yet their biology courses tend to look nothing like discussion-labs. For the past four years I have been working to re-design introductory biology labs at Tufts University with the aim of supporting scientific sense making. In this talk I will describe how Potter's vision inspired the design of "hybrid labs" for introductory biology. In these labs, students conduct extended investigations that integrate experimental design and computational modeling. The labs also feature many opportunities for small-group and whole-class discussions. I will discuss the design features of hybrid labs that align with and extend Potter's curricular and pedagogical vision.
      • (Still) A Radical Introductory Physics Curriculum: UCDavis CLASP

      • GH03
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Charles De Leone,
      • Type: Invited
      • In 1997 Wendell Potter published a paper on the UC Davis CLASP curriculum titled "Radically Restructured Introductory Physics Course at a Large Research University." Over 20 years later, the CLASP curriculum has affected tens of thousands of students and remains "radical" in both the number and quality of the research-based elements the course employs. In this talk we will explore some of the varied elements of the CLASP curriculum from its use and training of teaching assistants, to its approach to curriculum. The talk will also explore how the CLASP curriculum views physical models and the modeling approach to instruction. This includes a discussion of the language difficulties in discussing physics problem-solving in a models-based approach.
      • Impact of Student-Centered Assessment Techniques on Student Success in CLASP

      • GH04
      • Wed 08/01, 2:30PM - 3:00PM
      • by Cassandra Paul, David Webb,, Mary Chessey,

      • Type: Invited
      • Wendell Potter and a team of dedicated educators created and first implemented the Collaborative Learning through Active Sense-making in Physics (CLASP) curriculum almost 25 years ago. Previously referred to as simply "Physics 7," the CLASP curriculum is an introductory physics course for non-majors, organized around several models that are considered foundational to physics. While the description of the course has always emphasized the importance of these models, the CLASP curriculum also boasts several other inventive instructional and assessment-related techniques each intended to provide a truly student-centered experience. Wendell emphatically and passionately advocated for some of these techniques throughout his career as an educator, and we are still today uncovering evidence of the wisdom behind his insight. In this talk, I describe some of the lesser-known practices used in CLASP, and share some evidence of their success at UC Davis, and at San Jose State University, a secondary implementation site.
  • Monday Afternoon Break in the Exhibit Hall

      • Monday Afternoon Break in the Exhibit Hall

      • EXH05
      • Mon 07/30, 3:30PM - 4:00PM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
  • Monday Afternoon Exhibit Hall Raffle - Google Day Dream View - VR Headset

      • Monday Afternoon Exhibit Hall Raffle - Google Day Dream View - VR Headset

      • EXH06
      • Mon 07/30, 3:40PM - 3:45PM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
      • Google Day Dream View - VR Headset
  • Monday Morning Break in the Exhibit Hall

      • Monday Morning Break in the Exhibit Hall

      • EXH03
      • Mon 07/30, 10:30AM - 11:00AM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
  • Monday Morning Exhibit Hall Raffle - Gskyer Telescope, AZ70700 German Technology

      • Monday Morning Exhibit Hall Raffle - Gskyer Telescope, AZ70700 German Technology

      • EXH04
      • Mon 07/30, 10:40AM - 10:45AM
      • Robert Finnegan
      • Type: Exhibit Hall
      • Gskyer Infinity Series telescope combines an altazimuth mount and quality optics for a superb value. For newcomers and beginners alike, these refracting telescopes are a great way for you to discover the cosmos and the outdoors. If you’ve never owned a telescope before, This 70mm (2.8") aperture gives bright, sharp images for both land and celestial objects. Whether you're viewing the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, surface details on the Moon, or terrestrial objects, the Infinity 70 Refractor allows the first-time observer to explore the world, solar system, and beyond space. Raffle will take place in the AAPT exhibit hall. Must be present to win.
  • Monday Registration

      • Monday Registration

      • REG05
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00PM - 5:00PM
      • Leti Marquez
      • Type: Registration
  • NSF ADVANCE Program

      • NSF ADVANCE Program

      • CH
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Anne Cox
      • Type: Panel
      • Session description: Panelists will share their perspective on the NSF Advance Program beginning with the view from the Program Director, followed by a co-PI on an ADVANCE project and then current participants in the eAlliance ADVANCE program administered through AAPT. Come and learn about opportunities for women science faculty, the ways in which the National Science Foundation is helping to advance the careers of women scientists in academia and AAPT's current work to support the development of women physicists.
  • Nominating Committee I

      • Nominating Committee I

      • COM01
      • Sat 07/28, 6:00PM - 7:30PM
      • by Samuel M. Sampere
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Nominating Committee II

      • Nominating Committee II

      • COM35
      • Wed 08/01, 3:00PM - 4:30PM
      • by Samuel M. Sampere
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Other Poster

      • Physics to Visually Impaired Children: A Brazilian Experience

      • PST2B01
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Isabelle De Lima, Luzia Mota,, Beatriz Velame,, Josileide Oliveira,, Roseane Santos,

      • Type: Poster
      • One of the challenges in physics teaching is to find ways to present physics to visually impaired people. We are working on a project that intends to bring science to visually impaired children, specifically focusing on ideas about light. A part of this project was developed in the National Week of Science and Technology, an annual event that happens in Brazil. In this presentation, we will report this experience. Based on studies and in other projects, we developed activities on how a rainbow occurs. For this, we presented a video with an audio description about the explanation for the rainbow; after that, the children built a tactile prototype of the decomposition of light; finally, we did a storytelling session of the important scientist's life. We noticed the children's interest and curiosity during this variety of activities. Besides, it was possible to teach physics to visually impaired children with this approach.
      • The Effects of the Length of Junctions Between Balls

      • PST2B05
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Hao Xin Sun,
      • Type: Poster
      • If a chain initially rests in a container above the ground and pulled overthe rim of the container, the top of the chain will rise up above the container, which is called a "chain fountain." Since researchers did not include the effects of junctions between balls, former models fail to predict the experimental results when using chains with balls in different shapes. In our experiments, the relation between the steady-state chain height and the length of junctions of the chain is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Data is collected by using chains with junctions of different lengths while their other physical parameters are constant during experiments. Meanwhile, the weight of junctions is relatively small compared with the whole chain, so its impact is neglected during our analysis. We map the Height-Length of Junctions diagram and the measurements for different chains coincide with our theoretical analysis.
      • Doing Research with Undergraduates in a Bachelor's-only Physics and Astronomy Department

      • PST2B07
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Matthew Semak, Cynthia Galovich,, Richard Dietz,

      • Type: Poster
      • For many disciplines, it appears that the number of undergraduates involved in research is increasing. One can certainly argue that this is true for physics and astronomy. This is encouraging given the range of benefits students gain from such an experience. At the University of Northern Colorado, we have been fortunate to have undergraduate research as a component of the program for over 30 years. However, many students are overcome by classwork and do not see research as a viable option during their undergraduate career. Indeed, some are weary of approaching such a challenge given their limited experience with such a process. Moreover, without the extensive research efforts, facilities, graduate student mentors, and other important resources associated with graduate institutions, can an undergraduate program provide a meaningful research experience for its students? Indeed, the lack of funding devoted to student projects and the often-limited external collaborations can have students wondering about opportunities of which they were not aware. They also ask if they have been given the full range of tools for current and future success. These are frequent questions. We would like to present some possible answers by telling you about some of the journeys in research we, along with our colleagues, have taken with our undergraduates. With persistent attention to the evolving needs of our students along with an understanding of our advantages and limitations, we believe our program has substantial positive outcomes to report.
      • Latent Colonialism and Exclusionary Culture

      • PST2B09
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Danny Doucette,
      • Type: Poster
      • Although physics is a practice and body of knowledge that has historicallydrawn on people and cultures from around the world, many of our words and symbols today belie this reality. Instead, our field has lionized the work of white Western men while adopting, without fairly crediting, contributions from across the world and through time. In this sense, we might think of contemporary physics instruction as a colonial enterprise. Problematically, some of our language and signifiers send messages that may be responsible for perpetuating negative experiences and stereotypes that result in inequities and poor diversity in our field. This poster will dissect examples; propose modes of talking, teaching, and doing physics that move beyond colonial norms; and present ways we could use a critical approach to the history of physics as a tool to inspire positive growth in physics culture.
      • OER Learning and Assessment Modules Formatted as Moodle Quizzes

      • PST2B11
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Robert Greeney,
      • Type: Poster
      • I have developed a wide variety of physics learning and assessment exercises to be shared, used, and enhanced over time through peer collaboration among physics instructors. These exercises are authored in the format of Moodle Quizzes. The exercises are easily shared with anyone who has access to Moodle Learning Management System (LMS). Motivation for this initiative includes: a) Enhanced learning of physics, b) Convenient and effective assessment vehicles that promote learning, c) Easily shared and used OER learning and assessment exercises, d) Promote creative and productive collaboration among physics instructors, e) Quality cost saving options for faculty and students, and f) Contribute to the growth and improvement of OER in physics.
      • Research Opportunities for Underrepresented Students in Earth & Space Sciences*

      • PST2B02
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Prabhakar Misra, Susan Hoban,, Belay Demoz,, Blanche Meeson,, William Farrell,

      • Type: Poster
      • This early opportunities research program is funded under the auspices of the NASA Minority University Research and Education Other Opportunities Project (MUREP) and is a partnership between Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It engages underrepresented STEM students in cutting-edge Earth & Space Science-focused research under the mentorship of seasoned NASA researchers throughout the academic year, and a full-time 10-week research internship during the summer at NASA Goddard. Since its inception in August 2016, the project has benefited 12 early career Howard University undergraduate STEM students. *Financial support from MUREP NASA Award Number NNX16AC90A is gratefully acknowledged.
      • Stratospheric Temperature Changes Observed During the 8/21/2017 Total Solar Eclipse

      • PST2B04
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Erick Agrimson, Kaye Smith,, Gordon McIntosh,, James Flaten,

      • Type: Poster
      • We present additional results related to stratospheric temperature measurements taken before and during the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse. St. Catherine University and the University of Minnesota, Morris, collected data from six high-altitude balloons (HABs) launched during the two days prior to the eclipse and on the eclipse day. The overall atmospheric changes between pre and eclipse day flights were significant; an observed cooling of over 10 degrees Celsius in the stratosphere. We also observed a measurable change in temperature at the tropopause boundary. Temperature measurements were collected via a "wake boom" a structure, which characterizes the magnitude and extent of the thermal wake below an ascending balloon using over 20 temperature sensors, set at intervals along a horizontal carbon fiber rod.
      • Women's Leadership in Physics Education

      • PST2B06
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Laura McCullough,
      • Type: Poster
      • When people discuss the representation of women in physics, we often focuson enrollments and degrees. This data is readily available and is important to our discussion. We rarely talk about leadership positions in physics and women's participation in these roles. In this talk I will share data about the numbers of women in various leadership positions in physics education: editors, research group directors, professional organization roles. This data is more difficult to gather because of the short-term nature of people's time in these roles. But a snapshot in time of this data provides important information for the discussion of under-representation in physics.
      • Further Research on the Spring Pendulum

      • PST2B08
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Yan Huang, Hua Yuan,, Ze Tang,

      • Type: Poster
      • When a pivot of a spring pendulum starts moving along a horizontal circumference, the movements of the bob attached to the spring exhibit different patterns. We use difference method to do theoretical analysis concerning length and movement of the spring, and our numerical results correspond with that. In the low angular velocity regime, the dynamic system of the spring pendulum shows various bifurcations. When the stiffness coefficient becomes larger than a certain degree, the system turns into chaos.
      • Nonlinear Analysis of a Popsicle Stick Bomb

      • PST2B10
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Chengzhi Cai,
      • Type: Poster
      • A large potential energy can be released when weaving the stick bomb. However, in the experiment of the popsicle stick bomb, we find that repetitive experiments lead to a great uncertainty in measurement. It is because that when stress exceeds the threshold, popsicle sticks experience yield phenomenon which means plastic deformation and disability of returning to the original state. In this case the pattern of stress and strain is a nonlinear function. The experiment explores the law of nonlinear variation in the popsicle stick bomb. The experimental data is measured by using popsicle sticks with different sizes and different materials. Meanwhile, we use the same group of sticks in a series of experiments. The deformations of the sticks ranges from big values to small values. We also map the Stress-Strain diagram. Finally, we get the range of linear variation and the rule of nonlinear variation. Materials also impact results.
      • Role of Characteristics of Bodies in Newton's Third Law of Motion

      • PST2B12
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Ajay Sharma,
      • Type: Poster
      • The third law establishes universal equality between action and reaction. The law is practically expressed in terms of forces. In third application of third law at page 20 of the Principia , Newton stated "If a body impinges upon another and by its force change the motion of the other, that body also will undergo an equal change, in its own motion, towards the contrary part. Mathematically forward velocity of target, Vforward = ( Uforward - Ubackward ) m/M If target is heavier and remains at rest e.g. a ball impinges a heavy body then Vforward =0, Uforward =Ubackward or projectile must rebound with initial velocity. In this case characteristics , nature , compositions of bodies ( steel , rubber , spring , chewing gum ) are practically and experimentally significant. These can be taken in account if law is generalised i.e. reaction is proportional to action through coefficient of proportionality.
  • PER: Assessment, Grading and Feedback

      • Assessing Instructors with Student Grades: Algebra-based Physics

      • BH01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Srividya Suresh, Amber Simmons,, Andrew Heckler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We are studying the effects instructor(s) have on student performances in subsequent courses. Most introductory physics courses come in a two-semester sequence and our project's main goal is to determine: does a given instructor add value or under-serve students as measured by student performances in the subsequence courses in the introductory physics series? We analyze data that includes student course grades, physics and math courses, mathematics placement exams, and standardized test scores. Additionally, our data also provides student demographics such as gender and ethnicity. The data includes students enrolled in the introductory physics courses from the fall term in 2012 to the summer term in 2017 at the Ohio State University, representing over 10,000 students and over 200 instructors. We will also present some preliminary results of the analysis. This presentation is one of two conference presentations on this project and will cover the algebra-based physics sequence.
      • Assessing Instructors with Student Grades: Calculus-based Physics

      • BH02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Amber Simmons, Srividya Suresh,, Andrew Heckler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We describe a project, now in its initial stages, to examine the effects of an individual instructor or populations of instructors on student performance in subsequent courses. The project analyzes course grade data of students enrolled in introductory physics courses anytime from the fall term of 2012 through the summer term of 2017 at The Ohio State University, representing over 10,000 students and over 200 instructors. The data includes grades in physics and math courses, cumulative GPA, standardized test math scores, and demographics such as major, race, and sex. The project is ultimately aimed at answering: does a given instructor (or category of instructor) add value or under-serve students as measured by student performance in the subsequent course in the introductory physics series? We will also present some preliminary results of the analysis. This presentation is one of two conference presentations on this project and will cover the calculus-based physics sequence.
      • Finding Student Learning Profiles Using Brief Survey of Study Habits

      • BH03
      • Mon 07/30, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Jarrad Pond,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Student learning profiles are a powerful tool for describing how students in one's classroom approach the subject material, both in their study strategies and their motivations. In general, a wide range of students' strategic self-regulatory and motivational characteristics are surveyed to ascertain a student's learning profile membership, leading to a lengthy student questionnaire. Results of previous analyses have suggested a paring down of survey items can be achieved without limiting the ability to resolve distinct student learning profiles. In this work, I will present the evaluation of several semesters worth of responses from a shortened questionnaire (composed of around 49 items probing self-regulatory and motivational characteristics), reporting on consistency with its lengthier version (around 73 items) and its ability to identify learning profiles among a population of students.
      • Daily Homework: A Study-Skills Strategy

      • BH04
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Robert Arts,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Often in science courses homework problems are assigned in block sets thatrepresent content throughout a topic. Students are encouraged to look over these problems following each lecture as a study aid for the material presented. More often than not, students wait until the due date for these problems sets to begin their attempts; resulting in a flurry of questions and concerns. This presentation will focus on the switch from these homework blocks to smaller daily assignments that represent content from an individual lecture. Logistical information about the assignments, a compare and contrast of block homework scores to those of daily homework scores for the same student group, and student feedback will be a part of the presentation.
      • Who Should Study Harder, and When?

      • BH05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Zhongzhou Chen, Andrea Tama,, Geoffrey Garrido,, Michael Mikulec,, Kyle Whitcomb,

      • Type: Contributed
      • When is it a good idea to ask students to "spend more time studying"? Correlating learning behavior and effort with students' learning outcome at scale has always been a challenging question. Mastery-based online instructional design significantly improves our ability to answer this question by integrating formative assessment into the learning process. By analyzing data collected from multiple online learning modules using the UCF Obojobo platform, we're able to suggest the optimum amount of time that students should spend on studying each module, as well as identify those students who are probably spending an insufficient amount of time studying. In addition, it also identifies students who spend too much time and is likely struggling with the content. The results of this research could in the future lead to an automated system that provides students with personalized learning guidance.
      • Response-Shift Bias in the CLASS with Predicted and Retrospective Survey

      • BH06
      • Mon 07/30, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Ramesh Adhikari, W. Brian Lane,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is an important tool for assessing shifts in students' beliefs and attitudes about learning physics. Instructors hope that students overcome their preconceptions about physics and complete the course with a favorable shift in their attitudes, but pre-to-post-instruction CLASS results usually indicate a decline. However, we have found that these results can contain response-shift bias due to students' changing frame of reference regarding the subject. We have observed significant gains when comparing post-instruction CLASS responses with retrospective responses. We also report responses to a CLASS administration that asked students to predict their end-of-semester responses. We compare traditional pre- and post-instruction responses with predicted and retrospective responses to the CLASS, with which we evaluate the presence and impact of response-shift bias within student responses.
      • How Does the Question Affect Student Reflection?

      • BH07
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Petr Lebedev, Manjula Sharma,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Reflection enables us to correct distortions in our beliefs and errors in problem-solving Mezirow (1990). Our research deals with how reflection manifests after watching "Q&A" style physics education videos. In video one, four physics questions were asked, and in video two the solutions were given. We included a survey after the second video asking if the viewer changed their answers to the questions. If the viewer responded "no" the respondents were prompted to answer why they did not. There were 2200 respondents to our survey. 83.3 to 89.9% of the people who answered incorrectly reported that they changed their minds. The reasons given for not changing their minds were varied but were coded into seven distinct categories. The question played a large role. We are running this survey again with a group of 1000 first-year physics students and will attempt to identify how the question affects reflective thinking.
      • Engaging Students in Developing and Using Models through Assessments

      • BH08
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Katherine Ventura, James Laverty,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Recent national reports have elevated learning how to do physics to the same level of importance as learning the concepts of physics. By making these "scientific practices" more prominent in assessments, we hope to see a shift in students' focus toward the process of solving physics problems. Assessing scientific practices is important to determining if we, as educators, are facilitating students' abilities to engage in the process of science. We are investigating how assessments can be designed to engage students in the practice of Developing and Using Models. Using a think-aloud protocol we interviewed students while working on these assessments and analyze the interviews using Grounded Theory. We are looking at two questions: do students engage with the practice and do students get the problem correct? Observing students' engagement informs us how to develop assessments to engage students and how well we can assess practices.
      • Students' Use of Mathematics While Working on Physics Assessments

      • BH09
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Amali Priyanka Jambuge, James Laverty,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Exams and homework are the most common ways of assessing students' knowledge. These assessments often focus only on assessing physics concepts. With the introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), there is growing interest in assessing not just what students know, but what students can do with their knowledge. The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP) is a tool developed to help people design college assessment tasks that align with NGSS. The purpose of this study is to investigate how well such tasks can assess students' abilities with the scientific practice "using mathematics". We developed an exam with questions based on the 3D-LAP and the exams were given to students in an interview setting using a think-aloud protocol. This talk will focus on some interesting aspects of students' responses to the questions. This work will inform the development of future college level physics assessments.
      • Using Large-Scale, Normative Data to Assess Physics Courses

      • BH10
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Jayson Nissen, Ben Van Dusen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • How effective is my teaching? For over 30 years, instructors have used concept inventories and attitudes surveys to help answer this question. Unfortunately, no large-scale datasets have existed to inform their answers. Instead, instructors have relied upon rough rules of thumb and intuition. LASSO is an online platform designed to help instructors answer this question. The platform administers, aggregates, and scores pre-/post-research-based assessments for instructors (learningassistantalliance.org/modules/public/lasso.php). Instructors receive a report on their students' outcomes and can download all the data from their students. To support educators and researchers in assessing instruction, the LASSO development team is working on integrating normative, national-level data into the assessment reports. We will present analyses of concept inventory and attitudes surveys from over 300 introductory physics courses. Our discussion will cover how we intend to integrate these results into the LASSO platform to help researchers and instructors in assessing course outcomes.
      • The Long-Term Impact of Course Reforms

      • BH11
      • Mon 07/30, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by James Laverty, Santosh Budhathoki,, Sarah Peterson,, Dean Zollman,, Alice Churukian,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Many research groups have spent time and effort reforming introductory physics courses over the years. One measure of success for these reforms is to see if learning gains on concept inventories increase over the prior, traditional approach. Kansas State University reformed its introductory calculus-based physics course in spring 2000 to include studios. In this talk, we compare the learning gains on the FCI immediately after the course reform to those currently being observed. The result is a significant drop from what they were just after the reform to now, but gains are still significantly higher than before the reform. We examine how the course has (and has not) changed over this time period to search for possible explanations for the drop in learning gains. We find a number of factors that do not seem to have an effect on this drop and speculate on some other possible reasons for it.
      • A Dashboard for Evaluating Student Engagement with PhET Simulations

      • BH12
      • Mon 07/30, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Diana Berenice Lopez Tavares, Sam Reid,, Katherine Perkins,, Carlos Aguirre-Velez,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Student engagement with interactive simulations is affected by the promptsand activities teachers choose to couple with such simulations. In this work, we introduce a prototype dashboard to visualize and evaluate the level of student engagement generated by a PhET simulation activity. We compare student engagement resulting from two different prompts. The first prompt invites students to find the variables that affect stored energy in a capacitor through open exploration. The second prompt asks students to predict stored energy given specific parameters outside the simulation's available range. Engagement in this study is gauged by multiple factors including the time spent in the activity, the rate and pattern of clicks, and the controls used in the sim. The dashboard uses several approaches to visualize student mouse activity data, showing individual student interaction patterns with the simulation as well as the aggregated information of an entire group.
  • PER: Assessment, Survey Methods and Machine Learning

      • Identifying At-Risk Students Using Participation in Weakly Incentivized Activities

      • FA01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Seth DeVore, Cabot Zabriskie,, John Stewart,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Early indicators of student success in a class can be important in allocating additional support to those who need it most. Early warning systems, however, often rely on early homework scores or even early assessment scores which are only available after a significant portion of the class has passed. In this study, several measurements including participation in early optional assignments and extra credit opportunities as well as other early measurements of student engagement are examined alongside background measurements of student incoming ability. The relationship between these factors and the student's class grade is explored in an attempt to identify suitable early indicators of student difficulty.
      • Addressing Student Retention via Frequent Testing and Retesting

      • FA02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Brianne Gutmann, Tim Stelzer,, Gary Gladding,, Morten Lundsgaard,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Prior to the main physics classes, the University of Illinois offers a preparatory physics course for students who feel underprepared for the calculus-based engineers' sequence. After taking this preparatory course, only about half of the students continue and then pass the target course. This drop includes students who do not enroll in the main sequence following the initial class and students who do not pass after enrolling. To address this issue, we implemented bi-weekly quizzes with re-tests offered on off weeks to encourage students to confront difficult topics and continue to work on them, while also providing students regular feedback. To ease students' transition into the main sequence following the preparatory course, re-takes of exams were also added to the first course in the engineers' sequence. Student retention through the preparatory course and target course, both with these retakes, will be presented.
      • Can Machine Learning Predict When STEM Students Switch Majors?

      • FA03
      • Tue 07/31, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by John Aiken, Marcos Caballero,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As students go through their undergraduate careers, they take courses, interact with other students, and sometimes change their majors. Understanding what factors may act as precursors to major change can help advising faculty understand their students. This work uses data from the Michigan State registrar to predict when students in physics change their major. Our data includes time stamped courses taken, grades, and student demographics. This data set has been used previously to describe the pathways students take into and out of the physics major. Physics Education Research has historically focused on descriptive statistics and short time scales (e.g., concept inventories within single courses). This work expands the scope of what is possible within Physics Education research with predictive models exploring student choice at large time scales.
      • Understanding Standardized Test Scores Using Machine Learning and Longitudinal Analysis

      • FA04
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Matthew Guthrie,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Comparing students, schools, and districts to one another in order to forman understanding of performance on a standardized test is common across the country. If the comparison groups aren't carefully chosen, these comparisons are often not useful or can be completely invalid. In this talk, I will discuss the Texas Education Agency's current grouping method, and my attempt to improve this method using multidimensional reduction and clustering on demographic variables for students attending each high school in Texas. The resulting comparison groups are then used to identify schools that consistently outperform their peers, and to inform qualitative researchers about where to find exemplary schools.
      • Weekly Online Quizzes Outperform Written Quizzes

      • FA05
      • Tue 07/31, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Byron Drury,* Sunbok Lee,, David Pritchard,, Chandra Songh,, Michelle Tomasik,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Starting with standard concept inventories by Singh and others, we createdsingle topic online assessments taking ~½ hour by evening the coverage across subtopics, and including some questions requiring symbolic response. We administered these weekly along with ½ hour on-paper quizzes graded with partial credit in a remedial introductory mechanics course. Optimum reliability of the online quizzes occurred when weighting 1.0 (0.7) for first (subsequent) attempt correct. Both quiz averages correlated well with the traditional hand-graded long problems on the final exam (~0.8), and with the Mechanics Baseline Test online post-test (0.7) [1], but the online quizzes correlated much better with both the concept questions on the final exam and the Mechanics Reasoning Inventory [2]. We conclude that online quizzes are a better measure of overall student ability in mechanics, likely due to the combination of research-developed questions, selection of high discrimination questions, and absence of grading error.
      • Statistics for Use with Non-parametric Conceptual Evaluation Instruments

      • FA06
      • Tue 07/31, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Rebecca Lindell,
      • Type: Contributed
      • When studying the effects of two different curricula often the researcherswill use a Distracter-driven conceptual multiple-choice instrument or concept inventory to evaluate students' conceptual understanding before and after the different types of instruction. Many of the statistical tests utilized to study these effects are either parametric or non-parametric, but researchers can only use the easier parametric statistical tests, if the instrument meets the assumptions of a normal distribution of scores. Unfortunately due to their distracter-driven nature, these conceptual evaluation instruments are non-parametric due to their distracter-driven nature. As they are non-parametric instruments, it is no longer appropriate to utilize parametric statistical tests, such as t-tests or factor analysis when analyzing the data. In this talk, the researchers will discuss the non-parametric nature of concept-inventories, as well as present appropriate non-parametric statistical tests that should be utilized when analyzing results from these non-parametric instruments.
      • Comparing Insights from Different Methods for Clustering Multiple-Choice Test Questions

      • FA07
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Mark Eichenlaub, Deborah Hemingway,, Edward Redish,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Students taking a multiple-choice test generate more data than simply their final score, and a large class generates far more data than a single statistic can convey. Statistical techniques such as factor analysis and computations on network-based models can help us go from raw data to new insights on student learning, but only if we know how to interpret the results. As a case study in statistical meaning, we contrast results from applying factor analysis and network modularity maximization to data from two new survey instruments created as part of a project to study mathematical meaning-making in introductory physics for the life sciences. We ask what results would be expected given various models of student behavior, what results we actually see, and how quantitative results can go on to inform qualitative research.
      • Exploring the FCI Using Multi-Dimensional Item Response Theory

      • FA08
      • Tue 07/31, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by John Stewart, Cabot Zabriskie,, Seth DeVore,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Despite its wide adoption and use over the past 25 years, the factor structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) remains an active topic of research. Techniques such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) have hinted that a multi-dimensional structure may exist, but published structures have not been reproduced. Exploratory factor analysis using multi-dimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) was used to identify a factor structure different from previously published studies. Correlation analysis showed much of the identified structure could be accounted for by correlations resulting from blocked questions, repeated questions types, and correlations through the total score on the instrument. Using expert solutions, we developed a theoretical model of the knowledge structure of the FCI. This model was then refined using MIRT with a constrained parameter matrix. The refined model was shown to be significantly better than the original model proposed by the developers of the FCI.
      • Multi-Dimensional Item Response Theory and the CSEM

      • FA09
      • Tue 07/31, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Cabot Zabriskie, Seth DeVore,, John Stewart,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Significant attention has been paid to understanding the underlying structure of mechanics conceptual inventories in PER, such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). However, this same attention has not been directed toward understanding of similar instruments in Electricity and Magnetism. In this study we extend our previous analysis of the FCI using Multi-Dimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) to the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM). Using a MIRT analysis of CSEM post-test results from two universities, we are able to better understand the underlying structure in the CSEM and provide practitioners a better understanding of what CSEM results can tell them about their students' learning. We also compare models across institutions to determine what features of the CSEM depend on the student population and instructional environment.
      • Quantitative Analyses for Valuing Students' Incorrect Responses to Common Assessments

      • FA10
      • Tue 07/31, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by Trevor Smith, Kyle Louis,, Bartholmew Ricci,

      • Type: Contributed
      • It is well-documented that students in classes that use research-based instructional methods have higher learning gains on standard research-based assessment instruments than students in traditional lecture-based classes. What is not often discussed is whether or not a student can show improvement by choosing different incorrect answers on the pre-/post-tests. Are some incorrect responses closer to correct than others? We use quantitative analyses of student responses to the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation to answer this question by ranking incorrect answer choices from more to less sophisticated (with more sophisticated considered closer to being correct). We present the assumptions we use to determine which answers are more sophisticated than others, and the analysis methods that are based on those assumptions (item response theory for nominal responses; McNemar-Bowker chi-square test for asymmetries). A unified ranking of incorrect responses provides a mechanism for measuring student growth, not just mastery.
      • The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and English Learners

      • FA11
      • Tue 07/31, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by Alfonso Reina,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Teaching and assessing English Learners (ELs) in the context of global campuses from American institutions face the challenge of adapting to the cultural background and language skills of students. Here, we describe insights from the implementation of the FCI in various versions (English, Simplified English, and native language) in populations of ELs from various countries, predominantly in China. The performance of students in the FCI is dependent on the form of the FCI given and the English skills of the students. We also use a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test to identify biases in the different versions of the tests when applied to ELs.
  • PER: Cognition, Meta-cognition, Reasoning

      • Dual Process Theory as a Lens for Probing Physics Reasoning*

      • EA01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Brianna Santangelo, Mila Kryjevskaia,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Research has revealed that even after targeted instruction, many students still struggle to analyze unfamiliar situations systematically. Students tend to rely on intuitive reasoning instead of applying formal knowledge and skills acquired as a result of instruction. In order to pinpoint specific factors and instructional circumstances that lead to productive and unproductive reasoning strategies, we have been developing and implementing sequences of questions that allow for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding, reasoning, and intuition. The Dual Process Theories of reasoning are used to interpret the results. Student responses from one such sequence of questions in the context of introductory Mechanics course will be presented. Implication for research and instruction will be discussed.
      • Leveraging Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning to Impact Student Performance*

      • EA02
      • Tue 07/31, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by J. Caleb Speirs, MacKenzie Stetzer,, Beth Lindsey,, Mila Kryjevskaia,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As a component of a multi-year, multi-institution collaboration aimed at investigating and assessing the development of student reasoning skills in physics, we have designed an online "chaining" task to examine student skill at generating qualitative, inferential reasoning chains. In these chaining tasks, students are provided with correct reasoning elements (i.e., true statements about the physical situation as well as correct concepts and mathematical relationships) and are asked to assemble them into an argument to answer a physics problem. In particular, we have drawn upon dual-process theories of reasoning to design an intervention in which a single reasoning element is added in order to support the productive engagement of the analytic process (system 2). In this talk, we describe results from this investigation and situate them within a dual-process-based framework for student reasoning in physics. * This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • Probing the Nature of Student Reasoning Using Modified Chaining Tasks*

      • EA03
      • Tue 07/31, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by MacKenzie Stetzer, Ryan Moyer,, J. Caleb Speirs,, Beth Lindsey,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of a larger effort to investigate and characterize the nature of student reasoning in physics, we have been designing tasks that examine student ability to generate qualitative, inferential reasoning chains. In an online "chaining" task, students are provided with correct reasoning elements (i.e., true statements about the physical situation as well as correct concepts and mathematical relationships) and are asked to assemble them into an argument in order to answer a physics problem. In a modified version of the task, students are first asked to categorize these reasoning elements as being useful or not useful for solving the problem. Data from these modified tasks provide further insight into the extent to which some reasoning phenomena in physics may be accounted for by dual-process theories of reasoning and decision-making. * This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • Impact of Cognitive Reflection Skills on Student Reasoning in Physics*

      • EA04
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Mila Kryjevskaia, MacKenzie Stetzer,, Andrew Boudreaux,

      • Type: Contributed
      • According to dual-process theories of reasoning, human cognition occurs through two thinking processes: a fast, automatic, intuitive Process 1 and a slow, deliberate, analytic Process 2. The reasoner first develops a mental model of an unfamiliar situation through the fast and intuitive Process 1 and only then may the analytical Process 2 intervene to assess the validity of the first available mental model. As such, it is critical to understand the mechanisms that allow reasoners to mediate intuitive thinking via more analytical reasoning. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) has been developed in psychology to gauge the tendency of a reasoner to engage the analytic process in order to evaluate the output of the intuitive process. In this talk, we describe the results of our research using the CRT to probe the complex relationships among cognitive reflection, conceptual understanding, reasoning, intuition, and student performance in physics. * This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • The Relationship Between Cognitive Reflection and Performance in Physics*

      • EA05
      • Tue 07/31, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Cody Gette, Mila Kryjevskaia,, MacKenzie Stetzer,, Andrew Boudreaux

      • Type: Contributed
      • Dual-process theories of cognition suggest that many inconsistencies in student reasoning in introductory physics may stem from a fast, automatic, and intuitive process interfering with slow and analytical thinking. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) has been developed in psychology to gauge the tendency of a reasoner to engage analytical thinking to evaluate (and possibly override) these initial intuitive ideas. In our ongoing, multi-institutional project, we have been exploring the applicability of the CRT to probe the relationship between cognitive reflection and performance in physics (as measured, for example, by the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, or FMCE). Results from our investigation as well as implications for instruction will be discussed. *This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • The Cognitive Accessibility Rule: Reasoning with Alternative Explanations

      • EA06
      • Tue 07/31, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Andrew Heckler, Abigail Bogdan,

      • Type: Contributed
      • A critical component of scientific reasoning is the consideration of alternative explanations. Given that decades of cognitive psychology research have demonstrated that relative cognitive accessibility, or "what comes to mind," strongly affects how people reason, we articulate a simple "cognitive accessibility rule": Alternative explanations are considered less frequently when relatively high accessibility factors are offered as the explanation. We test the cognitive accessibility rule in the context of consideration of alternative explanations for six physical scenarios commonly found in introductory physics curricula. First we administer free recall and recognition tasks to empirically establish the relative accessibility of common explanations for the physical scenarios. Then we offer either high or low accessibility explanations for these physical scenarios and determine the extent to which students consider alternatives to the given explanations. Overall, we find the cognitive accessibility rule is strongly predictive, and can help to explain biases in considering alternative explanations.
      • Student Cognition in Physics Group Exams

      • EA07
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Timothy Sault, Hunter Close,, Steven Wolf,

      • Type: Contributed
      • When grading exams, professors often wonder 'why are they getting this wrong?', 'how did they get that answer?', or 'are they just guessing?' However, when viewed from a pedagogical perspective, the correct answer is never the most interesting one. When answering a single question, a single misconception may be identified, but with 'chains' of multiple questions on the same subject, students' logical consistency is asessed, and conceptual contradictions may arise. Given adequate time in a group collaboration environment, we believe that students' ability to process and overcome deeply nested misconceptions and sustain consistent logic will improve.
      • Investigating Factors that Affect Student Ability to Follow Reasoning Chains*

      • EA08
      • Tue 07/31, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Beth Lindsey, MacKenzie Stetzer,, J. Caleb Speirs,, William Ferm Jr.,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of a multi-institution collaboration, we are examining students' multi-step, qualitative reasoning in physics. One aspect of interest is the extent to which students are able to follow and infer conclusions from reasoning chains that have been provided to them. In order to explore this issue, we have developed a collection of tasks that are administered online to large populations of students in introductory calculus-based courses. We examine student success rates at inferring conclusions from the provided reasoning chains as well as the factors that may affect these success rates. The implications of our results for instruction and curriculum development will be discussed. *This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • Use of Eye Tracking to Examine Student Attention During Programming

      • EA09
      • Tue 07/31, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by W. Brian Lane, Daniel Furnas,, Ramesh Adhikari,

      • Type: Contributed
      • One of the challenges that arises when teaching scientific programming is encouraging students to focus on the most salient features of a code. This difficulty is similar to challenges encountered when students read a scientific textbook. A preliminary study (Malysheva, et al, 2015) has explored student reading of a physics textbook using an eye tracker, revealing that students engage in different reading patterns depending on whether they are reading through a physics text or searching a physics text for answers to pre-established questions. Such differences likely extend to student programming activities. We conduct a similar study by asking participants to perform various scientific programming activities (from reading a code to modifying a code to perform additional functions) and using an eye tracker to record participant eye behaviors during these activities. Measurements of student areas of interest and scanpaths within the code help us examine how students cognitively process these activities.
      • Using Eye Tracking to Identify Instructive Features of Diagrams

      • EA10
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Raymond Zich, Rebecca Rosenblatt,, Amber Sammons,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Visual representations play an essential role in the learning of physics. Grounded cognition suggests that visual perception activates perceptual symbols that are the basic cognitive units from which the brain constructs knowledge. Under this theory effective diagrams activate perceptual symbols that facilitate the construction of the correct physics concepts. Eye tracking technology was used to investigate student gaze patterns in a number of standard physics diagrams compared to modified diagrams that used changed color and size to perceptually enhance the diagrams. Students were presented with diagrams representing fluid flow in pipes and venturis, motion maps, and equipotential lines. For each diagram they were asked ranking questions about displayed variables at selected places. Eye tracking data was used to establish which elements of these instructional diagrams are necessary for success in the ranking tasks, if these elements are consistent across different diagrams, and if these elements change for perceptually modified diagrams.
      • Accuracy of Metacognitive Predictions in an Introductory Physics Course

      • EA11
      • Tue 07/31, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Jason Morphew, Jose Mestre,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Students must determine how to effectively allocate his or her time in studying for upcoming midterm exams. Prior research has found that low-performing individuals overpredict their performance, while high-performing students underpredict. This suggests that metacognitive skills are linked to ability. However metacognitive monitoring has also been found to be related to the goals, motivations, and epistemological beliefs in models of self-regulated learning. In other words, not all low-performing students demonstrate a lack of metacognitive monitoring accuracy. In this study, students enrolled in an introductory algebra-based mechanics course predicted their exams scores on all four exams and completed surveys about their epistemological beliefs and academic goal orientations. Preliminary results indicate that high-performing students are more accurate at predicting their exam performance, that their beliefs and goal orientations are not related to metacognitive accuracy, and that receiving feedback about the accuracy of their predictions do not affect exam performance or metacognitive accuracy.
      • Metacognitive Discourse in a STEM Experiential Program: A Video Analysis

      • EA12
      • Tue 07/31, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Ying Cao, Amreen Thompson,, Jenay Serman,, Aikaterini Mari,, Fidel Amezcua,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Metacognition supports student learning in STEM learning contexts. However, research is needed to examine metacognitive talk in classroom learning discourse. We have focused on a 33-minute, small group activity in a university bridge program where four freshmen students discussed about an article on growth and fixed mindset with instructor intervention in the middle of the discussion. We used iterative emergent coding to categorize metacognitive talk in discourse. We developed metacognitive talk categories in the mindset activity and related those to existing frameworks about metacognitive discourse. We then did a frequency analysis on the codes. We found that metacognitive talk in the group doubled in frequency following instructor interaction. The types of metacognitive talk also changed after instructor intervention. Future research will look at a different activity (e.g., authentic scientific inquiry) and categorize metacognitive talks in that context. We aim at reporting a contrasting case study about student metacognitive talk categories.
  • PER: Curriculum and Instruction and Student Content Understanding

      • Do Students Buy-in to Studio Physics Classes?: Survey Analysis

      • DA01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Matthew Wilcox, Jacquelyn Chini,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In studio physics classes, instructors may use reformed instructional strategies that students might not expect when they register for the class. As a result, instructors might experience student resistance to these strategies, and that resistance may discourage their continued use of the research-proven strategies. We hypothesize that instructors could reduce student resistance through discussions with students about expectations for the class format and why students should agree with the format. We are investigating how well students agree with the studio format, how their agreement affects their performance in class, and what instructors do to gain student agreement. Two surveys were created that measure student agreement and instructor methods to achieve student agreement. We report on the results of these surveys, finding that student agreement varies greatly within a class but is fairly consistent across physics classes. Additionally, we find that instructors tend to use student-centered methods to discuss student-centered activities.
      • Impact of Evidence-based Pedagogies on Student Performance in Introductory Physics

      • DA02
      • Tue 07/31, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Nafis Karim, Alexandru Maries,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We compare student performances in courses which use evidence-based activeengagement (EBAE) strategies with courses that primarily use lecture-based (LB) instruction. We used FCI in the first semester and CSEM in the second semester to assess students' conceptual understanding. The performance of students in EBAE courses is compared with those in LB courses in two situations: (I) the same instructor taught two courses, one EBAE and one LB course, while homework and exams were the same, (II) the averages of student performances in both EBAE course and LB courses were compared where different courses were taught by different instructors. We found that, on average, students in EBAE courses outperformed those in LB courses on conceptual survey posttests even though there was no significant difference in the pretest. We also discuss the correlation between conceptual survey and the final exam scores which typically places a heavy weight on quantitative problem solving.
      • Characterizing Active Learning Environments in Physics: Preliminary Results

      • DA03
      • Tue 07/31, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Kelley Commeford, Eric Brewe,, Adrienne Traxler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • There is broad evidence that active learning leads to improved student outcomes as compared with traditional lecture. Relatively little work has been done to distinguish outcomes from different types of active learning. We will be making COPUS observations and collecting network survey data from seven universities that exhibit active learning curricula. We will be using network analysis to characterize differences in student networks for each active learning environment. The COPUS data will be used to distinguish in-class activities. Together, these data will provide a baseline for identifying different forms of active learning. In this talk we provide a preliminary analysis of data from Peer-Instruction classes and classes using Tutorials in Introductory Physics.
      • Adapting Tutorials in Introductory Physics for New Populations and Environments

      • DA04
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Dean Bretland, Sheh Lit Chang,, Peter Shaffer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The systematic development of effective teaching materials requires repeated use in classes with known constraints. While it can be tempting to implement materials with students and in environments different from those in which they were developed, the learning outcomes may be quite different. Tutorials in Introductory Physics were primarily designed for use in small groups sections associated with calculus-based physics courses, but currently, at the University of Washington they are being used in algebra-based courses in lectures of between 100 and 600 students. Through the use of online pre-tests and written exam questions, we are examining the extent to which the tutorials are effective in this new setting and trying to identify differences between the two populations that can guide the development of materials that better suit the needs of this new population. Examples from this research will be given to illustrate some of the findings.
      • Transforming Modeling Instruction in a Large Classroom Environment

      • DA05
      • Tue 07/31, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Idaykis Rodriguez, Geoff Potvin,, Laird Kramer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In the past four years, FIU has expanding its offering of modeling instruction (MI) for introductory physics from a 30-student classroom to one that accommodates up to 100 students using multiple teaching resources and implementing several structural changes. MI is a studio-based, active learning curriculum that is derived from social constructivist theories of learning. This expanded classroom has been found to consistently support student learning with strong conceptual learning gains across at least four different instructors. In this talk, we discuss the development of the larger classroom offering, including the strategic use of LAs, the coordination of multiple discussion circles, preparatory meetings with an instructional team spanning multiple sections, and detailed curricular modifications that supported the expansion of MI.
      • Deconstructing Mastery-Inspired Learning Activities

      • DA06
      • Tue 07/31, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Muxin Zhang, Tim Stelzer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Mastery-inspired online activities have been introduced into physics introductory courses at the University of Illinois. Clinical studies have shown that students perform much better on quizzes after completing mastery-inspired activities than traditional multiple attempts activities. To understand the importance of the various components and their timing within the mastery-inspired activities -- immediate feedback, multimedia help, and multiple versions of problems -- we have created different variations of mastery-inspired activities and looked at how they affect students' quiz scores. This talk will share the results of our analysis.
      • Improving Student Understanding of Rolling Motion – Curriculum Development

      • DA07
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Sheh Lit Chang, Peter Shaffer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Prior research on student understanding of rolling motion has led to the identification of some specific difficulties that students have with this topic, including in the case of rolling without slipping. At the University of Washington, we have been building on this work and in the process of developing and testing a tutorial based on a relative motion approach to this topic. Results from pre-tests and post-tests will be given to illustrate some of the findings and to assess the utility of this approach.
      • Exploring Students' Understanding of the Motion of Rigid Body*

      • DA08
      • Tue 07/31, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Min-Fan Hsieh, Shih-Yin Lin

      • Type: Contributed
      • One topic typically discussed in an introductory mechanics course is the motion of rigid body. However, our anecdotal experiences suggest that many students do not have a good understanding of the motion of rigid body, especially when rotation is involved. For example, few students know that any pair of particles on a rigid body doesn't have relative velocity toward or away from each other. In addition, students may not realize the constraints of choosing a reference point for torque and moment of inertia in the rotational equations of motion. In this study, a set of problems about the motion of rigid body and relevant rotational equations of motion is developed and administered to a group of students who have taken introductory mechanics course. Findings from the study will be presented. *Supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan under grant No. MOST 106-2511-S-018-003-MY2.
      • Teacher-Student Discourse in Active Learning Lectures

      • DA09
      • Tue 07/31, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Ross Galloway, Anna Wood,, Christine Sinclair,, Judy Hardy,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Active learning lectures are becoming increasingly well studied, but an underexplored area is the nature of the dialogue between the instructor and the students during these sessions. We have conducted case studies of active lectures in a flipped-classroom introductory physics class, analysing them from a sociocultural perspective. From these, we have identified three main purposes for the dialogues: 1) Involving students in sense-making, 2) Guided expert modeling, and 3) Wonderment questions. We have also found that the structure of the dialogues is typically consistent with authoritative interactions (where the authority lies with the instructor), but that the learning environment of the flipped, active engagement class acts to create a learning context that can be described as ideologically dialogic. We will discuss how this combination of instructional design and the establishment of active classroom norms creates opportunities which may be beneficial for learning.
      • Using Students' Autobiographical Accounts to Inform Quantum Curriculum*

      • DA10
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Brandon James Johnson, Erin Ronayne Sohr,, Ayush Gupta,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Physics curriculum development has often privileged faculty perspectives. Instructors develop textbooks, lecture notes, and assignments; researchers probe student-subjects for their reasoning and difficulties, but students rarely participate in co-construction of curriculum (with some exceptions). To explore a contrasting approach that we hope can inform future curriculum development, we asked students to generate autobiographical video, audio, and written blogs and participate in open-format clinical interviews while taking an upper-division quantum mechanics (QM) course. We intended for students to have the freedom to generate their own critiques and appraisals of the class content and culture, including how it interacts with their broader experiences inside and outside of physics. Additionally, students own the blogging data, deciding what to share with researchers. We will present preliminary findings of these students' experiences. We will discuss insights about possible future QM curriculum development and course structure gleaned from these students' perspectives.
      • Evaluating JiTT and Peer Interaction Using Clickers in a QM Course

      • DA11
      • Tue 07/31, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Emily Marshman,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) is an instructional strategy involving feedback from students on pre-lecture activities in order to design in-class activities to build on the continuing feedback from students. We investigate the effectiveness of a JiTT approach, which included in-class concept tests using clickers in an upper-division quantum mechanics (QM) course. We analyze student performance on pre-lecture reading quizzes and in-class clicker questions answered individually and then again after group discussion, and compare those performances with open-ended retention quizzes administered after all instructional activities on the same concepts. In general, compared to the reading quizzes, student performance improved when individual clicker questions were posed after lectures that focused on student difficulties found via electronic feedback. The performance on the clicker questions after group discussions following individual clicker question responses also improved, as did the performance on retention quizzes administered at a later time. We discuss some possible reasons for the improved performance at various stages, e.g., from pre-lecture reading quizzes to post-lecture clicker questions, and from individual to group clicker questions and retention quizzes. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and English Learners

      • DA12
      • Tue 07/31, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by Alfonso Reina,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Teaching and assessing English Learners (ELs) in the context of global campuses from American institutions face the challenge of adapting to the cultural background and language skills of students. Here, we describe insights from the implementation of the FCI in various versions (English, Simplified English, and native language) in populations of ELs from various countries, predominantly in China. The performance of students in the FCI is dependent on the form of the FCI given and the English skills of the students. We also use a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test to identify biases in the different versions of the FCI when applied to ELs.
  • PER: Diversity, Equity & Inclusion

      • Centering Women of Color in Physics: Rethinking Family and Identity

      • EH01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Apriel Hodari,* Angela Johnson,, Elizabeth Mulvey,, Vanessa Webb,, Rose Young,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Centering marginalized voices has long been a tool for critiquing predominantly white institutions and individual practices by feminist theorists and critical race scholars. In this paper, we ask, "To what degree are physics departments that have proven to be inclusive of women of color also inclusive of other marginalized populations?" My examining the lives of students who parent and students of transgender experience, we seek to broaden traditional notions of diversity by breaking open who we see as belonging in physics learning spaces. The students who have shared their experiences with us offer new insights in the classroom cultures physics educators are co-creating with them. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide insights into how physics spaces that were not created for marginalized populations (women of color, students who parent, students of trans experience) can become more welcoming of them, and thereby increase thriving for all students.
      • Intersectional Physics Identity Framework

      • EH02
      • Tue 07/31, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Angela Johnson,
      • Type: Contributed
      • For the past several years, I have been studying a physics department where women of color feel successful and like they belong (typical comment: "physics is what I've always been interested in. It doesn't feel like I'm out of place. It's the subject I'm interested in.") In this presentation, I will present the physics identity which is available in this setting, and how that identity is accessible to women of color. I conceptualize identity not as an internal individual experience but as a feature of a social setting. I will also describe the approach I used to derive this identity (based on Patricia Hill Collins' Domains-of-Power Framework), an approach that would be useful to other scholars interested in either physics identity or issues of diversity in physics.
      • The Intersection of Identity and Performing Arts of Black Physicists

      • EH03
      • Tue 07/31, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Tamia Williams, Simone Hyater-Adams,, Kerstin Nordstrom,, Noah Finkelstein,, Kathleen Hinko,

      • Type: Contributed
      • How one negotiates their physics identity is crucial to gaining and maintaining membership in the physics community (Wenger, 2010). However, there is an exclusive culture of physics that has marginalized Black people and leads them to feel that they do not fit the criteria of who a physicist is supposed to be (McGee, 2016). Therefore, to understand what keeps Black physicists in the field, we must analyze their physics experiences. Studies show that the arts can act as an identity mediator or coping mechanism for underrepresented groups in STEM (Mejia, 2012). In this work, we collect and analyze interviews of 13 Black physicists, building on previous studies. We find themes in the ways that Black physicists participate in the performing arts. We map those themes onto the previously developed Critical Physics Identity framework (Hyater-Adams et. al, 2017) in order to understand how the arts have impacted their physics identities.
      • Characterization of Success in Physics from a Feminist Standpoint

      • EH04
      • Tue 07/31, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Brian Zamarripa Roman, Jacquelyn Chini,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Representation of women in physics has increased significantly since the 1960s; however this increase has plateaued at 20% of bachelor's degrees awarded to women yearly, while other STEM fields, such as chemistry and biology, have reached gender parity. For this reason, physics education researchers have focused their efforts on developing strategies to attract, retain, and increase the number of successful women physicists. Although research to promote the "success" of women is common, what success "is" has gone severely unexplored and likely varies based on the researchers' (often implicit) perceptions of success. This qualitative study is guided by Feminist Standpoint Theory to develop our understanding of success from the standpoint of women, who are traditionally marginalized in physics. We explore characteristics of success through semi-structured interviews of women in different stages of their physics career, including undergraduate and graduate students, and present emergent themes from their responses.
      • How Physics Students Learn, Adapt, and Defy Unspoken Cultural Expectations

      • EH05
      • Tue 07/31, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Mary Chessey, David Webb,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Many physics students hold the belief that a career in physics is not intended for people like them, but use characteristics of stubbornness and passion for the subject to defy expectations. Factors such as age, employment, parenting, commuting, national origin, ethnicity, gender, and family background influence students' behavior in academic physics settings, which reveals a set of implicit cultural expectations for undergraduate physics majors in a large research university. During a 15-month period of observation of upper division physics transfer students, study participants adapted to the unfamiliar environment and cultivated an active community focused on inclusion. The discussions and activities within this community highlight the elements of traditional lecture-based physics education that isolate and discourage students. At the same time, students make a livable working environment for themselves using strategies of resistance and mutual support. Patterns and complexities in transfer student progress through an undergraduate physics degree are reported.
      • A Synthesis of the Gender Gap on the Conceptual Inventories

      • EH06
      • Tue 07/31, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Rachel Henderson, John Stewart,, Adrienne Traxler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Recently, research has shown that the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) contains 11 items that show gender bias and eliminating these items reduces the overall gender gap by 50% in some samples. The study was extended to the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) and the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM); however, the number of items identified in the FMCE and the CSEM were substantially smaller than the number of items identified in the FCI. The current work will explore the overall gender gap in each of the conceptual inventories for male and female students of equal incoming physics knowledge measured by a "valid" pretest score. In addition, this work will suggest that the overall gender gap can be separated into a "real" gender gap and a gap coming from preparation differences in the student population. Results will be reported for the FCI, the FMCE, and the CSEM.
      • A Curriculum to Address Under-Representation and Culture in Physics

      • EH07
      • Tue 07/31, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Moses Rifkin, Chris Gosling,, Dana Hsi

      • Type: Contributed
      • Motivated by our shared desire to address under-representation in physics,we have created a flexible, modular curriculum designed to help physics teachers bring conversations about science and society into our classrooms. In this session, we will preview the curriculum, share preliminary data demonstrating its influence, and reflect on our experiences. Attendees will have an opportunity to download curricular resources, and will learn how to join our working group going forward. Together, we offer students and teachers a guided means to consider the culture of physics in order to create a more welcoming community.
      • Let's Talk About Equity - Two-Year College Students and Physics Culture

      • EH08
      • Tue 07/31, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Abigail Daane, Elizabeth Schoene,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We taught a week-long equity unit in an introductory calculus-based physics course, focusing on the effects of race and culture on the physics community. The demographics of these two-year college courses look vastly different than those of the physics field; students of color outnumber white students. Given this reversal of representation, our aim was to increase awareness of the racial inequity that is present in the rest of the physics community and to facilitate the development of support systems to move forward in STEM careers. We collected and analyzed written student reflections from these classes to better understand the views students of color bring to the equity conversation. We identified themes in their ideas about equity in physics and we argue that their responses indicate a need for explicit discussions in physics classrooms and the greater community.
      • Culture and Ideology in How LAs "See" (In)equity in Student Groups*

      • EH09
      • Tue 07/31, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Ayush Gupta, Chandra Turpen,, Jennifer Radoff,, Andrew Elby,, Hannah Sabo,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Learning Assistant (LA) programs have emerged within PER as an effective model for curriculum and cultural transformation in undergraduate learning environments. At UMD, adapting from the CU-Boulder model, we have started an LA program with two novel and interlinked foci: (1) The LAs all mentor teams of engineering students doing long-term projects in a first-year engineering design course, and (2) we scaffold the LAs in fostering equitable team dynamics and collaboration within the introductory engineering design course. In this talk, we analyze LAs' (i) interpretations of teamwork troubles, (ii) instructional responses, and (iii) role-playing to simulate problematic interpersonal dynamics and responsive instructional moves. We show that LAs' actions and responses more frequently embodied ideological assumptions foregrounding individual merit and responsibility, treating individuals as autonomous agents divorced from their settings, and backgrounding relational dynamics and systems-based analysis of teamwork troubles. These assumptions tie in with aspects of broader STEM culture such as meritocracy and social-technical dualism. These observations help us identify gaps in the design of the pedagogy seminar that we hope to address in future iterations. *Work supported by NSF Grant 1733649.
      • Shifting Power Dynamics in STEM Instruction by Leveraging the Learning Assistant Model*

      • EH10
      • Tue 07/31, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Mel Sabella, Andrea Van Duzor,, Felicia Davemport,, Fidel Amezcua,, Dontrell Cornelius,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Learning Assistant (LA) Model involves undergraduate students as peer support in STEM classrooms. LAs meet weekly with the instructors in whose classes they serve. Although there are a number of models of interaction between LAs and instructors, there is the potential for LAs to take up power and responsibility in these relationships. In this talk we provide examples of how LAs can be invited more intentionally as collaborators where they are integral participants in instructional design. We show that involvement in this collaborative relationships with faculty is important to LAs in feeling like valued members, rather than guests, in learning and teaching communities. We draw on the framework of "rightful presence" (Calabrese-Barton & Tan, 2017), used to understand equity-oriented teaching, as a useful lens in analyzing collaborative partnerships in the LA Model. Barton, A. C., & Tan, E. (2017). Designing for rightful presence in STEM-rich making: Community ethnography as pedagogy. * Supported by the National Science Foundation (DUE#1524829) and the Department of Education.
      • Increasing Visibility to Increase Diversity in Physics Graduate Programs*

      • EH11
      • Tue 07/31, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Lindsay Owens, Benjamin Zwickl,, Scott Franklin,, Casey Miller,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Positive steps towards increasing diversity are rising among the physics community with many departments transforming their practices to become more holistic and inclusive. In this multiple case study, we interviewed both faculty and graduate students in three physics and astronomy departments regarding the admission of students into graduate physics programs. Each of the three programs varied in their geographic location. One institution was a large public university while the other two were smaller not-for-profit institutions. Despite these differences, there was a common goal to increase the diversity of students in their programs as well as a shared concern regarding the lack of diversity in the applicant pool, inevitably blocking the road to a more diverse cohort of admitted students. Solutions proposed were unique to each program and ranged from increasing visibility through online media, targeted recruitment through neighboring institutions, and affiliating with the APS Bridge Program. *Supported by NSF-1633275.
  • PER: Groupwork, Interactions, and the Culture and Nature of Science

      • Denoting Leadership Actions and Traits in Group Work

      • GB01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:10PM
      • by Kristina Griswold, Daryl McPadden,, Marcos Caballero,, Paul Irving,

      • Type: Contributed
      • P^3 is an introductory mechanics based physics class at MSU that replaces lectures with a PBL learning environment. To promote the development of group based practices, students all receive group and individual feedback at the end of each week. The groups are composed of four students, one of which often takes on the role of being the group's "leader." Developing leadership-based skills is a specific learning goal of the P^3 learning environment and the goal of this research is to examine what actions/traits students in P^3 demonstrate while working in their group. The initial phase of this study examines multiple pieces of literature to identify possible characteristics and behaviors that may present themselves in potential leaders. In this presentation, we present the initial phase of our code book and a preliminary example of how it can be used to denote leader(s) and followers in our case study.
      • Evidence for Effective Group Work in Studio Physics

      • GB02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:10PM - 1:20PM
      • by Robynne Lock, Melanie Schroers,, Trever Bench,, Nicole Gentry,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Group work in environments such as studio physics, or SCALE-UP, has been promoted as a method of improving students' conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. However, strategies for creating effective groups and teaching students to work together effectively in university physics classes have not been sufficiently tested. In order to study these strategies, we must first determine what constitutes an effective group and what constitutes an ineffective group. We recorded video of groups in the introductory calculus-based physics sequence at Texas A&M University-Commerce over the course of several semesters. Groups were recorded completing tutorials, problem-solving activities, and labs. In each class section, the instructor suggested a "good" group and a "bad" group to be recorded. Video data has been coded using epistemological framing, and social network analysis has been conducted. We present evidence for what constitutes effective group work.
      • Studying Community Development: A Network Analytical Approach

      • GB03
      • Wed 08/01, 1:20PM - 1:30PM
      • by Christopher Hass, Pierre Ouimet,, Katarzyna Pomian,, Florian Genz,, Mary-Bridget Kustusch,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In a participationist learning framework, the development and evolution ofa community is a key component of learning. We set out to use network analysis for studying community dynamics based on classroom video data. By recording interactions between students as network ties, and classifying different types of interactions, we are able to generate networks which give us insight into how different types of interactions aid in community development and evolution. Specifically we looked to see how the frequency of task oriented, topical (related to STEM or the program), and social interactions evolved over the duration of a 2 week pre-matriculation metacognition program. Understanding the dynamics involved in building a working community will better equip us to support student community development and encourage learning.
      • Investigating Student Collaboration Using Exponential Random Graph Models

      • GB04
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by James Wells,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Student collaboration is a powerful technique for learning physics. Students may collaborate formally, in class or on a project with assigned groups, or informally, usually in study groups outside of class. The extent of collaboration between students in a given class depends on the characteristics of individual students, as well as the forces that govern social interactions. The interactions between students can be modeled as a network, with each student as a node and links between nodes indicating student collaboration. Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a logistic-regression-like tool to measure how the probability of a link forming between two nodes depends on the node characteristics and the larger pattern of links within the network. This study uses ERGMs to show that the instructor-assigned, in-class groups in an introductory physics course significantly affect students' informal collaborations outside of class, but this effect changes over the length of the semester.
      • Examining Group Work in Modeling Physics through the Lens of Social Interdependence Theory

      • GB05
      • Wed 08/01, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Miguel Rodriguez, Geoff Potvin,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Modeling Instruction is a well known physics curriculum which relies heavily on cooperative learning between students, deriving from social constructivist theories of learning. In the current study, we focus on interpreting student group engagement using the lens of social interdependence. Social Interdependence Theory is a framework for understanding how groups of individuals may (or may not) cooperate towards common learning goals. We will present an analysis of two particular sub-constructs of social interdependence theory: students' efforts to succeed and the development of positive inter-relationships. This analysis will consider multiple sources of data including in-class observations, student interviews and survey data of constructs related to, and predictive of, positive social interdependence.
      • Social Positioning and Consensus Building in "Board" Meetings With Disagreements

      • GB06
      • Wed 08/01, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Brant Hinrichs, David Brookes,, Jake Nass,

      • Type: Contributed
      • This talk describes a whole-class whiteboard meeting and analyzes several examples from a college calculus-based introductory physics course and junior-level E&M course taught using modeling instruction. Classes were divided into 3-6 groups of 2-4 students each. Each group created a solution to the same problem on a 2'x 3' whiteboard. The groups then formed a large circle in the center of the classroom with their whiteboards resting against their knees facing in to the rest of the group. The instructor was outside the circle and interjected rarely. Examples are given of conversations where students did and did not overcome sharp disagreements to eventually reach whole-class consensus. We examine how social positioning contributed to students either successfully examining and resolving different ideas or failing to do so. We test the hypothesis that students who "hedged" their statements seemed to "open up" the space for discussion, while those who were more direct seemed to "close" it down.
      • Summary Lecture as Delay Organizer of Knowledge? A Discipline-Culture Approach

      • GB07
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Ehud Goren, Igal Galili,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The study proposes a new educational tool – a delay organizer to support meaningful learning of physics. In particular, we emphasized a theory-based knowledge of physics and a hierarchical structure of physical theory. The instruction was embedded into a summary lecture which reviewed the major content of mechanics exemplifying nucleus, body and periphery of the theory of classical mechanics. The goal was to promote students' cultural content knowledge in this domain of school physics. The study included construction of a summary lecture and the assessment of its experimental application in high school (11th 12th grades) and educational college (pre-service science teachers of science). Some results of qualitative and quantitative assessment are presented. They indicated the efficacy of such intrusion and its positive impact on students' holistic knowledge and conceptual understanding. Besides, the instruction caused increasing of student interest to the subject matter presented in conceptual variation expanding the traditional disciplinary curriculum.
      • Refinement the Oversimplified Depiction of Nature of Science – Physics Perspective

      • GB08
      • Wed 08/01, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Igal Galili,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Our study considers the short list of nature of science (NOS) features frequently published and widely known in science education discourse. It is argued that the refinement of the claims of that list may enrich and sometimes reverse them. The refinement drawing on the history and philosophy of physics shows necessity to address a span of variation of each particular aspect of NOS, illustrate it with real historical events in order to adequately represent the subject. Another implication is the central role of physics educators who, facing various strong claims often cannot afford to identify themselves with a single stance but need a representative variation of the traditional claims regarding NOS in order to save the original spirit of physics in present educational context. Using knowledge organization in a discipline-culture structure and addressing plural scientific methodology may be helpful in actual teaching and learning of physics at schools.
      • Teacher Knowledge and their Use of Representations During Energy Instruction

      • GB09
      • Wed 08/01, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Robert Zisk, Eugenia Etkina,, Drew Gitomer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The knowledge teachers have for teaching a particular subject should be reflected in their instructional practice. In teaching of energy, representations are an important tool when analyzing energy processes and related phenomena. In this talk I will describe two teachers' understanding of the purpose and use of representations during energy instruction. I will then provide examples from the assignments and assessments that each teacher used during their unit on energy in mechanics to describe how their knowledge of representations is reflected in how they expect students to use such representations in the tasks that they design for instruction.
  • PER: Informal Settings, Accessibility, and Inclusion

      • Informal Teaching Is Integral to Shaping Physics Students' Identities

      • GA01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:10PM
      • by Brean Prefontaine, Kathleen Hinko,, Claudia Fracchiolla,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In addition to research and classes, physics students may choose to participate in informal physics teaching experiences; however, these programs are understudied as part of the physics student experience. We investigate university educators' (UEs) negotiation of physics identity after they participate in an informal program for youth as part of the Science Theatre group at Michigan State University or the PISEC afterschool program at the University of Colorado. We hypothesize that UEs' physics identity is reshaped by the interactions and experiences they have in these programs. Interviews have been analyzed with a Community of Practice framework to understand the UEs experiences as they negotiate their memberships in the outreach and scientific communities of practice. Preliminary findings indicate these experiences support students by (1) providing an outlet for teaching, (2) creating meaningful relationships within peer groups, and (3) allowing UEs to deliver physics content in an expert role with immediate feedback.
      • Determining the Landscape of Informal Physics in the United States

      • GA02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:10PM - 1:20PM
      • by Kathleen Hinko, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Physics outreach is a ubiquitous endeavor undertaken by individual physicists, physics students, and broader physics institutions. However, we currently have no means to leverage these collective efforts or to understand the full impact on participants. To do so, it is imperative that as a physics education community, we are able to systematically describe the "who, where, when, how, and why" of the informal physics programs that we engage in. To this end, we will discuss a new project that seeks to empirically determine the landscape of informal physics supported by academic and research institutions in the United States. Survey, interview, and site visit data will be collected and analyzed to 1) produce a taxonomy of informal physics programs and 2) reveal the structural and cultural practices that support these environments. We will share preliminary efforts and also put forth a call to join the project and contribute to the study.
      • Impacts of Educational Structures on Pedagogical Approaches in Informal Learning

      • GA03
      • Wed 08/01, 1:20PM - 1:30PM
      • by Michael Bennett, Brett Fiedler,, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Physicists often engage in teaching in informal environments, but researchon their means of engagement in these settings is fairly nascent. A 2016 study of CU Boulder's Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) outreach program categorized so-called "pedagogical modes" utilized by the program's "University Educators" (UEs) during teaching. Our study aims to understand the factors that contribute to UEs' tendencies towards one or more of these modes. We surveyed UEs for their pre-semester preferences towards the modes, then recorded their activity over the semester, analyzing it to determine where their stated preferences and enacted preferences were in agreement or conflict. We will discuss findings and their potential relation to the activities, norms, and structures of PISEC, exploring how the program promotes -- or constrains -- UEs' freedom of pedagogical choice. The results of this study have implications for teacher training in both informal and formal settings.
      • A Student-Driven Definition of Productivity in Informal Learning

      • GA04
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Brett Fiedler,* Paul Reynerson,, Michael Bennett,, Claudia Fracchiolla,, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Informal science environments provide unique affordances over formal settings because they are frequently structured around participants' ability to choose and control what they learn or how they engage. This freedom allows participants to navigate the subject matter in a self-directed manner and to form their own objectives for the program. Because students may set their own course, however, evaluating student productivity in these settings is not straightforward. To address this issue, we have studied student productivity by interviewing participants in the Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) outreach program. Assessment of student objectives for participation in the program from the interviews is compared to their in situ behavior. Evidence for and examples of a student-objective driven definition of productivity in PISEC and implications for outreach program design will be presented.
      • Demonstration Recognition Among 9th-12th Grade Students: A Program Effectiveness Study

      • GA05
      • Wed 08/01, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Patrick Morgan,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The Science Theatre program is a student outreach organization at MichiganState University. Since 2011, they have been visiting schools in the Upper Peninsula during the MSU Spring Break. These schools are only visited once a year, and otherwise have little or none science outreach exposure. In 2017, a survey was conducted among 157 high school students at St. Ignace Senior High School to look for any form of demonstration recognition. The goal was to find evidence that these students, who have seen the program once each year, would be able to recognize and identify some of the demonstrations. What we found was a much greater level of recognition than anticipated, along with a recognition of terminology and topics discussed, suggesting that there is a form of learning. This presentation will go over the results of this survey, what the takeaways are, and the future of this type of program.
      • Implementing Universal Design for Learning Aligned Strategies in STEM Courses

      • GA06
      • Wed 08/01, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Westley James, Jillian Schreffler,, Eleazar Vasquez III, Jacquelyn Chini,

      • Type: Contributed
      • When planning our pedagogy, it is critical that we recognize the variability amongst learners in our courses, especially those traditionally under-served, such as students with disabilities (SWDs). To support all students on the ability spectrum, instructors from Studio physics courses and inquiry-based chemistry labs were trained in the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework. These courses already implement evidence-based practices; however, accessibility based on learner preference/ability had yet to be considered and purposefully supported. The UDL framework recognizes the variability in all learners through three guiding principles: multiple means of representation, expression, and engagement. As a result of this training, instructors chose and implemented strategies specifically focused on increasing accessibility to learning. A sample of these strategies will be presented, along with how they increase accessibility through the lens of the UDL framework.
      • Using Universal Design for Learning to Prepare for Learner Variation in Postsecondary Physics

      • GA07
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Jacquelyn Chini, Erin Scanlon,, Westley James,, Jillian Schreffler,, Eleazar Vasquez,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Learners vary across multiple dimensions in the skills, needs, and interests they bring to learning. For example, 10% of undergraduate students identify as disabled and a growing proportion of undergraduate students speak English as a second language. The challenges students in these populations face in learning physics are also faced to varying degrees by their classmates. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) provides a framework for curriculum development that provides all students equal opportunities to learn. The UDL framework is composed of three overarching guidelines (Provide multiple means of representation, Provide multiple means of action and expression, and Provide multiple means of engagement) and 31 finer-grained checkpoints. As a community, physics education researchers have not frequently focused on some aspects of diversity. However, we have developed some shared goals for student-centered active learning instructional strategies. We will present likely areas of overlap and disconnect between these goals and the UDL framework.
      • Investigation of Introductory Physics Curricula Through an Accessibility Lens

      • GA08
      • Wed 08/01, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Erin Scanlon, Westley James,, Jillian Schreffler,, Eleazar Vasquez,, Jacquelyn Chini

      • Type: Contributed
      • To investigate how well we, as a community, support variations in learners' skills, interests, and needs, we analyzed reformed, research-based introductory physics curricular materials through an accessibility lens, operationalized through the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework. The UDL framework proposes three guidelines and 31 finer-grained checkpoints that support curriculum development that provides all students equal opportunities to learn. Overall, we found little alignment between the physics curricula and the UDL guidelines. This is to be expected because the curricular materials were not designed explicitly to align with the UDL framework. However, we also found ways in which the curricular materials aligned with the framework. Specifically, these curricular materials: supported planning and strategy development; fostered collaboration and community; clarified vocabulary and symbols; and highlighted patterns, critical features, big ideas, and relationships. The ways in which the curricular materials currently support diverse learners and suggestions for future curricula will be discussed.
      • Non-Traditional Approaches for Teaching Physics to Non-Traditional Students

      • GA09
      • Wed 08/01, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Russell Ceballos,*
      • Type: Contributed
      • It is extremely difficult to determine the appropriate methods and strategies required to help students who have not had the proper educational background and/or resources to compete in the cutthroat environment of higher education. In this talk I wish to address why this is particularly true for physics students, as well as what strategies seem to be advantageous. Specifically, I would like to discuss what it would look like to reform our physics and mathematics curriculum at Chicago State University so as to facilitate the success of our students using a more streamlined, yet more mathematically rigorous program of study. I find that students are more amenable to learning advanced mathematical concepts and techniques, so long as they are rewarded with an enhanced ability to understand the material at hand, as well as solve a greater variety of difficult problems.
  • PER: Instructor Support, Professional Development, Program and Institutional Change

      • The Physics Graduate Experience: Retention, Happiness, and Productivity

      • AA01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Sara Mueller, Christopher Porter,, Amber Simmons,, Alison Koenka,, Andrew Heckler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • To better understand the attrition rate of Physics PhD students, our multi-year study, still in its initial stages, aims to describe the various pathways students navigate while enrolled in the physics PhD program at Ohio State University. We distinguish students by their primary responsibility at the time of surveying and sort them into three distinct subpopulations. First-year graduate students are focused on completing core coursework. Pre-candidacy second and third year students have their attention stretched between finishing coursework requirements and beginning research activities. Whereas post-candidacy students are primarily research, thesis, and employment-oriented. We measure students' PhD satisfaction and rank their productivities by self-reported achievements of traditional graduate school milestones. Here we present preliminary results describing some of the common pathways taken by students, and present a multiple-regression model that suggests a student's sense of belonging, experienced cost, and recognition in the PhD program play critical roles in PhD satisfaction.
      • PER PhDs & Physics Bachelor's Degrees Awarded

      • AA02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Susan White, Gary White,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In the February 2017 issue of The Physics Teacher, I examined the correlation between physics departments that did and did not offer PhD with a PER specialization and their physics bachelor's degree production. We used the 2004, 2005, 2014, and 2015 print issues of GradSchoolShopper to determine whether or not a department offered the PER specialization. We found that PhD departments that had a PER specialization for 10 years produced more physics bachelor's degree recipients than PhD departments which did not, even after accounting for department size using FTE faculty members. In this talk, we will dig into the data more deeply than we were able to in a monthly column.
      • STEM DBER Alliance

      • AA03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Charles Henderson, Scott Franklin,, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is now embedded in most STEM disciplines. Situating within a discipline brings a number of important affordances to individual researchers, including access to professional member societies and integration into departments. While productive for some research questions, this approach has prevented progress on larger cross-cutting research topics that intrinsically span multiple disciplines, and prevented the formation of a broad community to establish norms and standards. The STEM DBER Alliance (DBER-A) was recently initiated and has convened two workshops that brought representatives of the STEM DBER communities together to identify common needs and cross-disciplinary research priorities. In this presentation we will discuss the need for DBER-A, outcomes of the workshops and other current activities, as well as our vision for the future. We hope to spur broader conversations within the PER community about how PER might contribute to and benefit from DBER-A.
      • Building on Institutional Efforts: Results from the TRESTLE Project*

      • AA04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The University of Colorado Boulder has benefited from decades of programs aimed at STEM education improvements, including the Science Education Initiative (SEI; 2005-2014), initiated by Carl Wieman. The SEI provided funding and training for postdoctoral fellows to partner with faculty in STEM departments on course transformation. In 2015, seven institutions joined forces to apply the SEI model across a variety of institutional contexts, creating the Transforming Education, Stimulating Teaching and Learning Excellence (TRESTLE; http://trestlenetwork.org) network. At CU Boulder, the TRESTLE project has provided a mechanism for faculty involved in the former SEI to continue to engage in educational transformation, and to involve faculty newer to this work, through course transformation awards and faculty learning communities. In this talk I will share initial results of the TRESTLE project at CU Boulder and their implications for supporting sustained faculty engagement in educational improvements. *This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1525331.
      • Capacity Building as an Orienting Goal for Departmental Action Teams

      • AA05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Joel Corbo, Gina Quan,, Courtney Ngai,, Daniel Reinholz,, Mary Pilgrim,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Much of faculty development around teaching has focused on activities likedisseminating curriculum, teaching the implementation of research-based instructional strategies, or (more rarely) cultivating reflective teachers. In our work with Departmental Action Teams (DATs), we take an alternative approach to faculty (and student and staff) development by focusing on individual and group capacity-building: we ask, "What are the ways in which DAT participants, both as individuals and as a group, need to grow in order to effect change in their departments?" Here, we define "capacity" as a collection of skills, knowledge, and other resources that are useful for accomplishing a particular outcome, which in the case of a DAT is departmental change around undergraduate education. We focus on several capacities useful for DATs that have not typically been addressed in the faculty development literature, including understanding change processes, understanding local departmental contexts, and being effective collaborators.
      • Research on University Facultys' Reasoning about how Departments Change

      • AA06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Gina Quan, Joel Corbo,, Courtney Ngai,, Daniel Reinholz,, Mary Pilgrim,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Research on institutional change says that effective change agents are able to flexibly reason with multiple models for change, depending on their local context and their goals. However, little is known about what it looks like for individuals to draw on and reason with different change models in-the-moment. Within interviews, we invited STEM faculty to discuss specific changes in their department and the process of change in general. This work is part of an ongoing study to understand how to support departmental change through Departmental Action Teams (DATs). Our preliminary analyses suggest that faculty's ideas about change are highly varied and context-dependent. This work will lead to a better understanding of how productive lines of reasoning can be leveraged in DATs and other faculty communities that are trying to create positive change.
      • The Nature of Teacher Talk in Faculty Online Learning Communities

      • AA07
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Alexandra Lau, Melissa Dancy,, Charles Henderson,, Andy Rundquist,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The New Faculty Workshop Faculty Online Learning Community (NFW-FOLC) supports approximately 10 NFW participants in the year following their participation in the workshop. Members of the NFW-FOLC meet biweekly via a video conferencing platform to hear from experienced practitioners of various teaching techniques as well as to discuss their teaching with their peers. During some meetings, participants have an extended period of time to share a "State of the Classroom" update with their cohort and gather feedback on challenges they are encountering. One of the main goals of the NFW-FOLCs is to promote sustained and high-quality implementation of Research Based Instructional Strategies. It is thus important for us to know how FOLC cohort members are talking about their teaching and responding to each other's talk. In this presentation we report on our analysis of the quality and characteristics of "State of the Classroom" updates from a selection of NFW-FOLC members.
      • Variations in Conversational Routines Across Two Faculty Communities

      • AA08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Adriana Corrales,* Chandra Turpen,, Fred Goldberg,, Meghan Clemons,, Edward Price

      • Type: Contributed
      • Across educator professional development efforts, there is significant momentum around building professional learning communities. More research however is needed on how the design and emergent norms of such communities enable or constrain particular learning opportunities for educators. In this presentation, we share a comparative analysis of the conversations unfolding in two distinct faculty communities (associated with the Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking Faculty Online Learning Community project [1]). We choose to focus on moments in their online conversations when seemingly similar issues or topics arise (e.g. concerns about pacing). By comparing these moments, we demonstrate important differences in how the instructional problem is posed and in the conversational routines across these two groups. We illustrate how these differences open up and close off opportunities to learn [2].
      • Instructional Dilemmas Around Energy Representations: Learning Potential in Faculty Communities

      • AA09
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Fred Goldberg, Chandra Turpen,, Adriana Corrales,, Ed Price,, Melissa Dancy,

      • Type: Contributed
      • There is significant momentum around building professional learning communities for educators. However, more research is needed to understand how the design and emergent norms of such communities enable or constrain learning. We analyze how university educators with varying degrees of experience teaching with the Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) curriculum enact conversational routines in professional development contexts that enable opportunities to learn [1]. Through analysis of community members' instructional dilemmas working with energy representations, we illustrate how the shared disciplinary and curricular context allows for collective interpretation to occur [2,3]. We argue that these conversations deepen educators' understanding of student learning in ways that likely have longer-term consequences for their pedagogical content knowledge.
      • An Emerging Framework for Understanding Instructional Development Teams

      • AA10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Alice Olmstead, Diana Sachmpazidi,, Charles Henderson,, Andrea Beach,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Change efforts involving teams are becoming increasingly popular at highereducation institutions across the U.S. Such teams can create higher quality outcomes and more sustained improvements than instructors working alone. But not all team-based efforts are successful, and research in this area is limited. We are developing a framework that explains how structural and contextual factors might influence teamwork processes, which are in turn closely tied to team outcomes. In this talk, we will focus on the categories in the framework that emerged from our initial interviews with project leaders. These categories include the flexibility of team boundaries, how teams form, and the nature of rewards to team members. We will discuss how research about teams in other contexts has enhanced our understanding of what project leaders have observed locally, as well as what cannot be answered without further context-specific work. We will conclude by providing recommendations for change leaders.
      • Investigating Participants' Perspectives on What Leads to Instructional Team Success

      • AA11
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Diana Sachmpazidi, Alice Olmstead,, Charles Henderson,, Andrea Beach,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Team-based change efforts are a promising model for improving undergraduate STEM instruction. However, current literature on this topic is limited. To address this gap, we are investigating the characteristics of such teams. In particular, our research focuses on understanding teamwork processes, which are closely tied to team outcomes. In this talk, we present pilot data from interviews with team members. This data represents three different types of instructional teams: interdisciplinary teams, teams initiated within single departments, and teams that are part of cross-campus, multi-discipline initiatives. We will present team members' perspectives on, for example, how their team processes were established, the nature of their collaboration, and how conflicts that emerged during their work were resolved. Finally, we will discuss how team members' perspectives enhance what we learned from our initial interviews with project leaders as described in our previous talk.
      • Instructors Support of Students' Behavior in an Upper-Division Physics Course

      • AA12
      • Mon 07/30, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by Dina Zohrabi Alaee, Eleanor Sayre,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Being involved in physics education we cannot avoid the important role of instructors. We studied the role of instructors in an advanced undergraduate E & M course using an answer-making and sense-making framing theory perspective. According to sense-making and answer-making framing, we focused on the students' behavior and how can instructors change the students' frame. Our data comes from video base observational-data and clinical interviews with instructors. We argue for a continuum from answer-making to sense-making in which students display behaviors of both and how instructors can use different kinds of problem statements and facilitation to encourage students to fall in different places in the continuum.
  • PER: Interdisciplinary Studies and Support, and Curriculum and Instruction

      • Contributing to a Web Portal for Sharing Curricular Materials*

      • BA01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Adrian Madsen, Sarah McKagan,, Mathew Martinuk,, Rachel Price,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In this talk we present our new user-friendly system for contributing yourmaterials to the Living Physics Portal. The Portal is a new web resource created by AAPT and eight colleges and universities, where physics educators can share and discuss curricular materials for teaching introductory physics for life sciences (IPLS). The Portal supports sharing of materials with grain sizes ranging from full courses, to smaller modules and collections, to individual items like homework questions. It also supports editorial review of contributions and community discussions.
      • Designing a Web Portal for Sharing Curricular Materials*

      • BA02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Sarah McKagan, Adrian Madsen,, Mathew Martinuk,, Rachel Price,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In this talk we present an overview of our research, design and testing process for the Living Physics Portal, the design challenges we encountered, and what we learned from users and how it influenced our designs. To address the many design challenges in creating an easy-to-use online system for instructors to share curricular materials, we created the Portal with a user-centered design process. This process includes research into user needs, developing personas to represent our key users, creating scenarios that will address their most important needs, designing a site focused on workflows through these scenarios, and conducting usability testing to ensure that the final product meets user needs. In this talk, we present an overview of our research, design and testing process, and discuss what we learned from users and how it influenced our designs. *Additional contributors to this work include: Dawn Meredith, Joe Redish, Chandra Turpen, Remy Dou, Lyle Barbato, and Michael Thenhaus. This work is supported by NSF IUSE #1624192.
      • Building Educational Websites -- Insights From Expert Developers*

      • BA03
      • Mon 07/30, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Raluca Teodorescu, Edward Redish,, Mark Reeves,, Sarah McKagan,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of the Living Physics Portal Project, we conducted interviews witheight developers of main physics-related educational websites (among them comPADRE, PhysPort, Science Education Initiative, LONCAPA, and Mastering Physics). The interviews focused on critical moments in the websites' development, content handling, searching capabilities, maintenance, and sustainability. We will present the lessons learned, as well as how we plan to put them in practice.
      • Assessing the Lasting Impact of an IPLS Course

      • BA04
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Jonathan Solomon, Catherine Crouch,, Benjamin Geller,, Nathaniel Peters,, Katherine Lima,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Introductory Physics for Life Science (IPLS) courses seek to equip life science students with skills and reasoning strategies that will be important for their later work in upper-level biology courses and biology research environments. To assess whether IPLS courses are actually meeting this goal, we assess the written work of students in biology courses taken after the IPLS experience. In examining these data, we look for evidence of (1) quantitative reasoning, (2) facility coordinating between biological systems and simple physical models, and (3) mechanistic reasoning. We compare these results to results from the work of students who had not experienced the IPLS environment.
      • When Epistemological Progress in Physics Doesn't Transfer: Implications for IPLS

      • BA05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Julia Gouvea,* Vashti Sawtelle,, Abhilash Nair,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Epistemology-oriented reforms have been successful in fostering more sophisticated approaches to knowing and learning in physics. A broader goal of these reforms is that epistemological progress in physics will transfer to other contexts. In this talk we present a case study of a biology major, Philip, who made epistemological progress in a year-long introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) by seeking meaning and coherence, talking through inconsistencies, and studying for understanding. Philip reported not applying these strategies in his biology courses. This result is surprising given that at the beginning of the year Philip described learning for understanding as an approach that he expected to work in both physics and biology. We argue that the major barrier to transfer was a lack of connection between the two disciplinary contexts and discuss the implications for a more holistic approach to undergraduate science education reform.
      • Got Anything non-Cartesian?: An Analysis of Multivariable Calculus Textbooks

      • BA06
      • Mon 07/30, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Chaelee Dalton,* Brian Farlo,, Warren Christensen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Upper-division undergraduate physics coursework necessitates a grasp of mathematical knowledge from students' prior coursework in mathematics. Published literature suggests that student understanding of non-Cartesian coordinate systems is weak in mathematics and physics contexts (Moore et al, 2014; Sayre and Wittman 2007). This study examines seven Multivariable Calculus textbooks as sources that can potentially enable student understanding of non-Cartesian coordinate systems. Quantitative content analysis categorized examples, definitions, and problems/exercises according to their coordinate system(s). Results demonstrated that non-Cartesian coordinate system representation was minimal. Only 21% of textbook chapters included a single instance of non-Cartesian coordinates. Of those chapters, only 73% of items coded according to their coordinate systems were Cartesian. Furthermore, these textbooks do not introduce non-Cartesian unit vectors at all. This work casts light on the significant gap that exists between the expectations for students in upper-division physics course and the content they recieve in calculus courses.
      • How do Introductory Physics and Mathematics Courses Impact Engineering Students' Performance in Subsequent Engineering Courses?

      • BA07
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Kyle Whitcomb,* Zeynep Kalendar,, Tim Nokes-Malach,, Chris Schunn,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In collegiate curricula, physics and mathematics are treated as foundations for many other disciplines including engineering. Using academic data from the cohorts of students in introductory physics since 2010, we investigate the correlation between the performance of undergraduate engineering majors in introductory physics and mathematics courses and their performance in subsequent engineering courses. We find interesting patterns of performance that can help inform curricula for engineering programs. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Using Machine Learning to Predict Integrating Computation into Physics Courses

      • BA08
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Nicholas Young, Marcos Caballero,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Computation is a central aspect of 21st century physics practice; it is used to model complicated systems, to simulate impossible experiments, and to analyze mountains of data. Physics departments and their faculty are increasingly recognizing the importance of teaching computation to their students. We recently completed a national survey of faculty in physics departments to understand the state of computational instruction and the factors that underlie that instruction. The data collected from the 1257 faculty responding to the survey included a variety of scales, binary questions, and numerical responses. We then used supervised learning to explore the factors that are most predictive of whether a faculty member decides to include computation in their physics courses. We find that personal, attitudinal, and departmental factors vary in usefulness for predicting whether faculty include computation in their courses. We will present the least and most predictive personal, attitudinal, and departmental factors.
      • Instructor Approaches to Teaching Computational Physics Problems in Problem-based Courses

      • BA09
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Alanna Pawlak, Paul Irving,, Marcos Caballero,

      • Type: Contributed
      • An increasing number of introductory physics courses are seeking to incorporate "authentic practices", and one way they are doing this is by including computational problems. Computational problems offer students an opportunity to engage with the programming practices and numerical problem solving methods used by physicists. Understanding how instructors approach teaching such problems is important for improving instruction and problem design. We conducted a phenomenographic study using semi-structured interviews with instructors in a problem-based introductory mechanics course that incorporates several computational problems. The instructors we interviewed were undergraduate learning assistants, individuals who were previously successful as students in the course. Their prior involvement as students, along with their relatively fewer experiences with programming and physics compared to the faculty instructors, give them a unique perspective on teaching in the course. We present here the results of our analysis, which describe the experiences of learning assistants teaching computational problems in this course.
      • Students' Experiences with Skills Progressions in EMP-Cubed

      • BA10
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Daryl McPadden, Paul Hamerski,, Marcos Caballero,, Paul Irving,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Projects and Practices in Physics (P-Cubed) is a two-semester sequence of introductory, calculus-based physics course that is designed to help students develop skills in problem solving, teamwork, computational modeling and reflective learning. The P-Cubed courses are flipped courses with online notes to be read before class each week, pre-/post-week homework assignments, and in-class problems designed from work in project-based learning. Every week, students complete two in-class projects (either analytical or computational) and receive individualized feedback from an instructor on their work that week. As the second semester on electricity and magnetism, EMP-Cubed is designed to build on the skills from the first semester mechanics course, with intentional progression in both computation and student feedback. In this talk, we present the students' reflections from the first iteration of EMP-Cubed on their development in computation and feedback.
      • Comparing Active Learning Environments: SQILabs and EMP-Cubed

      • BA11
      • Mon 07/30, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Emily Smith, Daryl McPadden,, Paul Irving,, N. Holmes,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Structured Quantitative Inquiry Labs (SQILabs) and the Electricity and Magnetism Projects and Practices in Physics (EMP-Cubed) are research-based curricula that aim to engage students in authentic, collaborative scientific practices. SQILabs promote students' independent decision-making in experimentation by engaging students in iterative processes to improve measurements and compare data to models. EMP-Cubed emphasizes group collaboration and modeling (both analytical and computational) through problem-based-learning projects. Though the objectives of the courses differ in several ways (e.g., content and classroom setting), many underlying goals are shared, such as encouraging students' collaborative decision making and engagement in authentic scientific practice. In this talk, we compare and contrast the learning objectives and messaging that students receive within each instructional context through materials and instruction. The aim of decomposing features of active learning environments is to identify critical components that contribute to shared learning objectives across research-based curricula.
      • Driving Change in Physics through Multi-Disciplinary Science Programs

      • BA12
      • Mon 07/30, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Jessica Rosenberg, Benjamin Dreyfus,

      • Type: Contributed
      • George Mason University is a large public research university in Northern Virginia. The retention of physics majors is an ongoing challenge. The retention challenge is not limited to the Department of Physics and Astronomy, it is one felt across the sciences. To improve recruitment, retention, and workforce development while reducing the time to degree for undergraduate students, the STEM Accelerator was founded in 2011. The STEM Accelerator resides within the College of Science and includes faculty that split their time between a science department and the Accelerator to work towards achieving these goals. I will discuss the connections between the Accelerator and the Department of Physics and Astronomy. I will also discuss the impact of the key programs including the LA program, Math Readiness Camp, and STEM Boot Camp.
  • PER: Laboratories and Experiments

      • "I'm Stuck!": Challenges of Proposing Causes for Unexpected Experimental Results

      • CA01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Laura Ríos, Heather Lewandowski,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Models are representations used to explain and predict experimental results. The process of constructing, testing, and refining models and apparatus is a common experimental practice. When physicists encounter discrepancies between observed and predicted behavior, they revise their models to be consistent with their observations, or modify their apparatus to better align with their model of the system. The Modeling Framework describes the process of matching measurements/observations to predictions. We used the Modeling Framework to develop and analyze think-aloud interviews centered on troubleshooting an inverting amplifying circuit. We observed that physics students are often unable to propose causes for an observed discrepancy. However, after modifying the circuit or measurement equipment, they then propose a cause for the original discrepancy post hoc. In this presentation, I contrast student approaches to resolving discrepancies. In one approach, students propose causes before enacting revisions; in the other, they propose causes afterward.
      • Student Understanding of Measurement and Uncertainty

      • CA02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Nuraan Majiet, Saalih Allie,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The present work is part of a broad programme aimed at understanding how students think about data obtained from measurement, including measurement uncertainty, at a more fine-grained level than that obtained from the Physics Measurement Questionnaire. More specifically, do shifts from a point to a set paradigm result from deep conceptual change or are they the result of recognizing familiar situations that can successfully be processed according to appropriate prescriptions. In order to probe these finer grained aspects a process of developing a suitable instrument was initiated. The first phase of the process involved piloting individual, specific questions. The present talk will discuss the questions that were developed and piloted with a group of students after an introductory lab course. The focus of the talk will be on the quality and usefulness of the responses that were obtained.
      • Investigating Student Design of Electronic Systems in Physics and Engineering*

      • CA03
      • Mon 07/30, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by Kevin Van De Bogart, MacKenzie Stetzer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Upper-division laboratory courses provide students with an important opportunity to learn and develop skills that are critical for experimental physics. In particular, such courses may require students to design, model, and troubleshoot a variety of systems. As part of an ongoing effort to investigate the learning and teaching of electronics, we have begun to examine student approaches to circuit design. While there is a large research base exploring the design process across several branches of engineering, very few of these studies have expressly focused on circuit design in electronics. To this end, we have conducted a series of think-aloud interviews in which students were asked to design circuits for practical, everyday applications. The resulting transcripts were analyzed to investigate the nature of student design approaches. In this talk, we present preliminary results and share illustrative examples of student work.
      • Student Learning in a Design Versus Non-design Experiment in a Second-year Laboratory Course

      • CA04
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Bei Cai,
      • Type: Contributed
      • STEM departments devote considerable resources to equipment-intensive laboratory courses, but their impact on learning is not clear. In addition, to increase the uniformity of the experience for students, instructors tend to reduce the laboratory experience to a list of set instructions that students are required to follow closely. For our second-year physics lab course, we changed an experiment previously given with a set procedure into an activity where students design their own experimental procedure. We recorded the students in the labs and their behaviors are compared to those in the non-design labs where the students were provided with a detailed procedure. The differences in student behaviors and learning will be reports in this talk.
      • The Impact of Student Behaviour in Physics Lab Classes

      • CA05
      • Mon 07/30, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Katherine Quinn, Michelle Kelley,, Kathryn McGill,, Emily Smith,, N Holmes,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While laboratory instruction is a cornerstone of physics education, the impact of student behaviours in labs on learning and performance remain an open question. In this study, we performed in-lab observations of student actions over two semesters in two pedagogically different sections of the same introductory physics course. We used a cluster analysis to identify different categories of student behaviour and analysed how they correlate with factors such as gender, lab structure, time, and performance on the Physics Lab Inventory of Critical thinking (PLIC) and the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). We report our preliminary findings.
      • What Counts in Laboratories: Developing a Practice-based Identity Survey

      • CA06
      • Mon 07/30, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Kelsey Funkhouser, Marcos Cabellero,, Paul Irving,, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Contributed
      • An essential step in the process of developing a physics identity is the opportunity to engage in authentic physics practices. Physics laboratory courses are generally structured as a place for students to gain experience with physics practices. This makes laboratory courses an ideal place to look at the impact these authentic science practices have on students' physics identity. As part of the development of a practice-based identity survey, we have interviewed students in a variety of physics lab classes, from intro algebra based to advanced lab, to gain insight into their interpretations of different commonly discussed practices. To ground our survey in students' experiences, we have asked questions about what these practices mean to the students. We present our findings on how students interpret these practices and situate themselves with respect to the practices as an indicator of their physics identity.
      • Student Ownership of Laboratory Projects and Attitudes about Experimental Physics*

      • CA07
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Dimitri Dounas-Frazer, H. Lewandowski,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Multiweek projects in laboratory courses are a promising way to engage undergraduate students in authentic experimental physics practices. In particular, projects provide opportunities for students to take control of an experiment, collaborate with peers or instructors to brainstorm solutions to problems, implement and revise their own ideas, and experience the joys and frustrations of experimentation. Thus, projects are well suited to support two different learning outcomes: developing an understanding of what experimental physics entails, and developing a sense of ownership of a specific experiment. In an ongoing investigation of the impacts of laboratory projects, we are using the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) and the Project Ownership Survey (POS) to explore connections between these two learning outcomes. In this presentation, we report results from a multiyear study in which both surveys were administered in an upper-division optics lab that culminated in multiweek projects. *This work is supported by the NSF under Grant No. DUE-1726045.
      • Adapting Measurement and Testing to Integrate Practices within Authentic Contexts

      • CA08
      • Mon 07/30, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by Anne Leak, Kelly Martin,, Erik Reiter,, Abby Rocha,, Benjamin Zwickl,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While physics educators and researchers value providing students with opportunities to meet a broad range of learning objectives such as concepts, problem solving approaches, and technical skills, it is challenging to accomplish all of these goals. Our research explores the knowledge and skills that make employees successful in physics-intensive careers and suggests strategies for how multiple goals intersect in meaningful learning and workplace contexts based on Berland's "Meaningful Use" framework. We conducted 28 semi-structured interviews with managers and recent hires at optics and photonics companies in Western New York. Our results highlight how testing and measurement integrate multiple learning goals within contexts based on client-driven parameters and constraints. Since testing and measurement are common elements of many physics courses, this research has implications for how we can adapt these activities to meet multiple goals that are meaningful to learning and reflect authentic practice.
      • Finding Reliable Design Strategies Among Research-based Labs

      • CA09
      • Mon 07/30, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Amin Bayat Barooni, Joshua Von Korff,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Research-based activities emphasize interactive engagement whereas traditional lab activities ask students to perform procedural steps passively. The objectives and goals of physics instructors who want to create new activities may not be the same as the philosophies of designers who published research-based activities. In this situation, the instructors could combine elements of different activities to create an activity that does respond to their objectives. Our research project aims to assist them in this process. Our research involves analyzing the design strategies used in research-based activities compared to the recent AAPT report on lab design, especially activities used successfully in research. We aim to find reliable codes for characterizing strategies regarding a standard set of design features or a standard taxonomy of functions. We used these codes to classify research-based design activities to make recommendations to instructors about designing activities.
  • PER: Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving

      • Some Mathematical Aspects of Physics Students' Problem-Solving Difficulties*

      • AB01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by David Meltzer, Dakota King,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Over the past three years, we have examined mathematical difficulties encountered by students in introductory physics courses and have documented a variety of issues with trigonometry, vector representation, and algebraic problem-solving. Here we wish to place our findings in the context of previous work by other investigators. In particular, Torigoe and Gladding [Am. J. Phys. 79, 133 (2011)] revealed significant and striking differences in correct-response rates on problems in introductory physics courses, depending on whether the problems were posed in numerical or "symbolic" form (i.e., with symbols replacing numerical values for mass, velocity, time, etc.). Other work in mathematics education examined specific difficulties associated with algebraic manipulations and symbolic representation [for example, Payne and Squibb (1990) and Booth et al. (2014)]. We will provide an overview of our own findings, and outline a broader framework in which findings from all of these related investigations may be reconciled with each other.
      • Exploring Physics Students' Difficulties in Solving Symbolic Algebra Problems*

      • AB02
      • Mon 07/30, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Dakota King, David Meltzer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of an investigation into students' mathematical difficulties in introductory university physics courses, we have administered written diagnostics which include multiple, high-school-level algebra problems in both their symbolic and numeric form. ("Symbolic" and "numeric" refer to the nature of the constant coefficients.) We find that symbolic algebra problems are significantly more difficult than numeric problems of the same form, for students in both algebra- and calculus-based courses. We are analyzing students' written work in detail, as well as carrying out one-on-one problem-solving interviews, in order to identify students' specific struggles in solving symbolic equations. In this talk we will report on our methods and most recent findings.
      • Unique Instructional Framework for Elevating Students' Quantitative Problem Solving Abilities

      • AB03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Edward Prather, Colin Wallace,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We present an instructional framework that allowed a first time physics instructor to improve students quantitative problem solving abilities by more than a letter grade over what was achieved by students in an experienced instructor's course. This instructional framework uses a Think-Pair-Share approach to foster collaborative quantitative problem solving during the lecture portion of a large enrollment introductory calculus-based mechanics course. Through the development of carefully crafted and sequenced TPS questions, we engage students in rich discussions on key problem solving issues that we typically only hear about when a student comes for help during office hours. Current work in the sophomore E&M course illustrates that this framework is generalizable to classes beyond the introductory level and for topics beyond mechanics.
      • Impact of Mathematical Format on Physics Problem Strategy Selection

      • AB04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Eugene Torigoe, Andrew Meyertholen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We studied the mathematical strategies used by students (N = 477) to solvefree response questions during a final exam. On one version of the final students saw a symbolic problem with no numbers, and then a different problem with numbers provided. On the other version of the final students saw analogous problems but with the mathematical format reversed. We coded the students' written work to see what equations the students used, and what quantities they isolated in their solutions. We found that there were many more strategies used in the symbolic problems, then in the numeric problems. We hypothesize that when students work on the numeric version, they are not guided by strategy, but by a mathematical structure, we call the Single Unknown Numeric (SUN) equation. Without that structure in the symbolic version without numbers, they are much more likely to choose a random variable to isolate and solve.
      • Students' Understanding of Algebraic Signs: An Underestimated Learning Challenge?

      • AB05
      • Mon 07/30, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Moa Eriksson, Cedric Linder,, Urban Eriksson,

      • Type: Contributed
      • When starting to learn about vector quantities in introductory physics, itis important that students accurately understand the intended meaning of plus and minus algebraic signs in order to appropriately solve physics problems. We present a case study of 82 introductory-level physics students from Sweden and South Africa and show that the lack of understanding of algebraic signs can result in learning challenges even in the introductory topic of one dimensional kinematics. Results of this study will be described and implications for teaching will be discussed.
      • Blending Physical Directionality and Mathematical Signs

      • AB06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Tra Huynh, Eleanor Sayre,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Expressing physics concepts and ideas in mathematical models is an important but challenging stage in the problem-solving process. Particularly in algebraic symbolization, understanding the meaning of signs and manipulating them sometimes turn out to be effort-demanding tasks, especially when more than two components in the mathematical expression could carry negative and positive signs. Our observational data from oral exams of students enrolled in upper-division electromagnetism I indicate their common struggles with the signs in an introductory-level problem. We use conceptual blending theory to construct different meanings that could associate with the signs and to investigate how students attribute these emergent meanings to signs and articulate all the signs in their algebraic expression. We argue that the difficulties the students encounter are not because of the lack of prerequisite knowledge but rather the complexity of choosing appropriate meanings for multiple signs. The results shed light on students' algebraic thinking and competence.
      • Examining Student Responses on Vector Addition Questions with Module Analysis

      • AB07
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by John Buncher, Emily Frederick,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Vector manipulation is an essential skill in introductory physics courses with which students often struggle. Difficulties with vector addition and subtraction in the arrow representation have been extensively reported. Using data collected from a first semester algebra-based introductory mechanics class we analyzed students' incorrect responses on a vector assessment involving 1D and 2D vector addition and subtraction. All vectors were represented in an arrows-on-a-grid format. We used a type of network analysis, Module Analysis for Multiple Choice Responses (MAMCR), to determine if groups of students consistently chose specific types of incorrect responses. Results and instructional implications will be discussed.
      • Exploring Student Reasoning Behind "Pattern-Matched" Position Vectors

      • AB08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by Brian Farlow, Marlene Vega,, Alden Bradley,, Michael Loverude,, Warren Christensen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • While literature on the math-physics interface is plentiful, there is relatively little PER literature about student thinking on position vectors in non-Cartesian coordinate systems. One of the few works was a 2010 PERC paper by Hinrichs. Hinrichs reported that upwards of 66% of upper-division undergraduate and graduate physics students will "pattern-match" position vectors in spherical coordinates to look like those in Cartesian coordinates, i.e., many will write spherical position vectors in a form resembling r ?=rr ?+?? ?+?? ?, a Cartesian-like form. We were able to replicate similar responses through individual think-aloud interviews and further probe student thinking to gain insight as to what resources students may be activating – or not activating – while constructing algebraic expressions for non-Cartesian position vectors. We report on some of the cognitive resources and associated resource activation patterns identified in those interviews. The presented findings will inform future curriculum development in this domain.
      • Evolution of the Vector Concept in a Math Methods Course*

      • AB09
      • Mon 07/30, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by Michael Loverude,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The vector concept broadens over the course of physics courses. In introductory courses, vectors are generally considered in terms of magnitude and direction of quantities in one-, two- or three-dimensional spaces. As students progress through a physics degree, the vector concept grows to include more abstract entities. We seek to investigate the extent to which students consider various mathematical entities as vectors and how that changes within a single course in mathematical methods. Data from several semesters of early- and post-course responses to written questions will be presented. *Supported in part by NSF grant PHY#1406035.
      • Student Interpretation of Coefficients in Fourier Series*

      • AB10
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Mikayla Mays, Michael Loverude,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As part of ongoing research in student use of math in upper-division physics, we examine student understanding of Fourier analysis. Fourier series are used in a variety of physics contexts and provide the first example of non-Euclidian vector spaces for many students. This study extends previous work in which we highlighted the procedural and conceptual difficulties students have when thinking about Fourier series. We probe how students think about the constant coefficient in front of the Fourier series representation of a function and what it means when graphing the series. We also investigate whether students use the odd or even properties of a function to eliminate terms in the Fourier series. Data were collected at a large four-year university, including nine years of written data from an intermediate-level Mathematical Physics course as well as several interviews. *Supported in part by NSF grant PHY#1406035.
      • Student Conceptions of the Ifinitesimal When Solving Electric Field Questions

      • AB11
      • Mon 07/30, 10:10AM - 10:20AM
      • by Gregory Mulder,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Mathematics education research has shown that most students who have completed a year of calculus continue to have a weak understanding of several fundamental concepts underlying integration. These mathematical reasoning issues impact learning in introductory calculus-based physics. For example, when considering distributions of mass or charge, students must often integrate contributions from small chunks of mass or charge – symbolically this means that infinitesimals such as dm or dq need to be changed to dx. In order to better understand how students address the intersection of physics concepts with their mathematical reasoning, I asked 39 physics majors to find the electric field of a bar of charge. From this I identified several categories of coordinate system reasoning that students employed when dealing with the infinitesimal of integration. I will present some of these results along with some of what mathematics education research can tell us about student understandings of the infinitesimal.
      • Visualizing Multivariable Functions with 3D Plastic Surfaces

      • AB12
      • Mon 07/30, 10:20AM - 10:30AM
      • by Jonathan Alfson, Paul Emigh,, Aaron Wangberg,, Robyn Wangberg,, Elizabeth Gire,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Many upper-division physics students have difficulty visualizing and representing functions of more than one variable. While traditional representations in multivariable calculus are useful for students, there is a demand for additional tools and activities to help students make connections between variables and understand the relationships among those variables. The Raising Physics to the Surface project is developing 3D plastic models (surfaces) of functions found in physical systems, such as those in electrostatics and thermodynamics. We will discuss how the surfaces are implemented in classroom instruction, how the students engage with those surfaces, and what benefits or disadvantages are provided by the inclusion of surfaces during instruction.
  • PER: Reasoning, Sensemaking and Modeling

      • Epistemological Stances and Mathematical Sense Making in Quantum Mechanics

      • CB01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Jessica Hoehn, Julian Gifford,, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Students in our physics courses arrive with, and develop, certain expectations and beliefs about what it means to learn physics and the role of mathematics in learning physics. These epistemological stances may influence the ways in which students engage in problem solving. In this talk, we examine an episode in which a group of students are reasoning about a quantum mechanics problem. We investigate the ways in which students' epistemological stances (both individual and collectively constructed) toward the role of mathematics relate to how they coordinate mathematical formalisms and physical meaning (or how they engage in mathematical sense-making). We discuss potential implications for research and for instruction.
      • Useful Math: Investigating Mathematical Sense-Making in Learning Quantum Physics

      • CB02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Julian Gifford, Jessica Hoehn,, Noah Finkelstein,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Coordinating and leveraging mathematical formalisms in order to better understand physical phenomenon -- sometimes called mathematical sense-making (MSM) -- can be a powerful way of conceptualizing and analyzing a physical system. Often, this coordination ties together sense-making moves in a more abstract "mathematical" frame (with no necessary connection to the physical system) and relates this abstracted formalism to the physical system of interest. We present data from two groups of Modern Physics students, exemplifying two different scenarios: one in which reasoning in a mathematical frame is productively applied to the physical system of interest (i.e. the coordination between the mathematical formalism and physical system is accurate and leads to a greater understanding of the physical system), and one where it is not. In our analysis, we showcase the conditions and epistemological stances that lead to these different applications of MSM.
      • Mathematical Sense-making Through Graphical Symbolic Forms*

      • CB03
      • Mon 07/30, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by Erin Ronayne Sohr, Ayush Gupta,, Andrew Elby,, Brandon James Johnson,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Expert as well as novice sense-making with physics equations can be modeled in terms of symbolic forms, cognitive elements in which a conceptual schema (intuitive idea) is associated with a symbolic template (piece of algebraic formalism) (Sherin, 2001). However, experts and students often reason with and about representations other than algebraic equations. By drawing from video-records of undergraduate and graduate students, we extend Sherin's symbolic form framework to a new representational focus—graphs. We show how students associate conceptual meaning with specific graphical features in the context of interpreting or generating graphs during physics problem-solving. We model students' cognition in these moments through "graphical symbolic forms," cognitive elements that have dual membership in conceptual and graphical spaces and show how these are useful for meaning-making. We draw implications for physics education research and instruction.
      • Modeling Student Equation Construction: Combining Symbolic Forms and Conceptual Blending

      • CB04
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Benjamin Schermerhorn, John Thompson,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Much of physics involves the construction and interpretation of equations.Research on students' mathematics understanding has employed Sherin's symbolic forms or Fauconnier and Turner's conceptual blending as analytical frameworks. However, previous symbolic forms analyses have commonly conflated students' in-context understanding with their conceptual schema, which was designed to represent the acontextual mathematical justification of the symbol template (externalized structure of the expression). Furthermore, conceptual blending analyses have not included a generic space to specify the underlying structure of a math-physics blend. We combine these frameworks in a model for students' construction of equations that uses the conceptual schema as the generic space and that frames the blending of symbol template and conceptual understanding. This combination complements symbolic forms analysis with contextual meaning and provides an underlying structure for the analysis of student understanding of equations. We apply this model to student construction of non-Cartesian differential length vectors.
      • Inventing with Contrasting Cases to Learn the Concept of Speed

      • CB05
      • Mon 07/30, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Eric Kuo Kelly Boden,, Quentin King-Shepard,, Timothy Nokes-Malach,, Tanner Wallace,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Inventing with contrasting cases has been shown to help students attend todeep conceptual features of mathematical relations (e.g. Schwartz, Chin, Chase, & Oppezzo, 2011). We investigated whether inventing a mathematical description for speed from a set of contrasting cases of motion would help students learn its underlying conceptual features. In 6th-grade science classes, inventing-with-contrasting-cases instruction was compared to a standard tell-&-practice approach, where students were told the formula s = d/t and were given opportunities to apply it. After additional instruction on speed, both instructional groups demonstrated equal success at learning the basic procedure for calculating speed. However, students who invented were better at recognizing the key conceptual features of speed in a new situation where the standard procedure no longer applied. This study shows how students' attempts to characterize a physical quantity on their own can help them to learn the conceptual features of that physical quantity.
      • PIQL: Physics Inventory of Quantitative Literacy

      • CB06
      • Mon 07/30, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Suzanne White Brahmia, Trevor Smith,, Alexis Olsho,, Andrew Boudreaux,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Quantitative literacy (QL) is a set of interconnected skills, attitudes and habits of mind that together support the active use of number and numerical reasoning to describe the world. Both everyday sense-making and workplace performance rely on QL, and many K-12 and higher education systems have undertaken systematic attempts to improve student performance bridging the "math world" and "real world." We argue that physics, as perhaps the most fundamental and the most transparently quantitative science discipline, can play a central role in helping students develop quantitative literacy, yet valid measures of such thinking are absent from the growing body of research-based assessment instruments in introductory physics. This talk describes a collaborative effort being undertaken by the UW, RU and WWU to develop tools for the systematic assessment of student quantitative literacy in introductory physics. We share progress made towards creating a PIQL, Physics Inventory of Quantitative Literacy.
      • Introductory Student Interpretation of Validity Checks of Expressions*

      • CB07
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Abolaji Akinyemi, John Thompson,

      • Type: Contributed
      • One expected student outcome of physics instruction is a set of quantitative reasoning skills that include evaluation of problem solutions, whether expressions or numerical results. We explored students' conceptions of and competence with conducting validity checks by asking how they would check whether an expression for the speed of a block on a ramp with friction was reasonable. Results from 214 written responses and 12 interviews suggest a mismatch between how students framed the task and researchers' expectations. Prevalent approaches included re-deriving the expression from initial conditions or seeking consistency with external sources rather than pursuing an internal, logical consistency. We analyze student approaches through an epistemic games lens, and with evidence from two graduate student interviews, propose a novel game that represents the intended activity and discuss how it is congruent with existing games. *Supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1405726.
      • Epistemic Modeling Games within Physics-Intensive Workplaces

      • CB08
      • Mon 07/30, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by Benjamin Zwickl, Dehui Hu,, Kingston Chen,, Anne Leak,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Modeling involves linking real-world situations to abstract ideas by developing external representations and using them to explain or predict. Using an epistemic games framework, we describe features for three games observed in physics workplaces that are rich in modeling and have varied motivations: understanding a natural phenomenon, designing based on customer specifications, and solving a problem in an experiment or process. While each game involves developing and using models to explain or predict, there is a rich diversity among them. In addition to highlighting the variation in starting conditions and end goals of each game, we also identify varied representations (e.g, symbolic math, blueprints), contextual features (e.g., lab environment, customer interactions, software), and particular moves leading between the start and the end. The diversity in workplace modeling games suggests ways to diversify how we approach modeling within the physics curriculum.
      • Grokking: The Endpoint of Sensemaking

      • CB09
      • Mon 07/30, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Tor Odden,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In recent years, physics educators have become increasingly interested in understanding what it means for students to make sense of physics concepts and the ways in which they do so. However, although there has been much discussion of what sensemaking looks like and how it differs from activities like plug-and-chug or answer-making, there has been less discussion of the end-point of sensemaking. In this talk, I aim to introduce a new term to this ongoing discussion, "grokking," to describe the goal of sensemaking. I will propose a definition for what it means to grok physics based on both historical and contemporary usage of the term, illustrate it with an example from introductory electricity and magnetism, and conclude by describing the importance of this idea for physics educators going forward.
      • Student's Perspectives of and Experiences with Sensemaking in Mechanics

      • CB10
      • Mon 07/30, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by MacKenzie Lenz, Kelby Hahn,, Paul Emigh,, Elizabeth Gire

      • Type: Contributed
      • An important instructional goal in physics courses is to help learners develop powerful ways of making sense of physics ideas and problems. We examine the perspectives, experiences, and sensemaking practices of four students enrolled in a post-introductory physics course that explicitly emphasizes sensemaking strategies. Our analysis includes data from homework, exams, a pre-/post- sensemaking assessment, and a series of interviews. Some of the questions we ask include: Do student find sensemaking strategies useful or tedious? How do these views impact the students' practices? What strategies are they aware of and which do they tend to use? What sensemaking activities do they report doing that are not written down on course assessments?
      • Thinking Through The Model II

      • CB11
      • Mon 07/30, 6:40PM - 6:50PM
      • by D. G. Sumith Doluweera,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Learning to solve physics problems is a challenging task for a novice physics student because it requires thinking through related models. A particular study done by the author (presented at 2017 summer AAPT meeting) focusing on Newton's laws and modified multiple choice questions to probe students' initial thinking showed that majority of students in (both calculus and algebra based) introductory physics courses understand related basic physics concepts. Also it showed that not all of those students are able to use that correct conceptual understanding to obtain correct solution. Further it showed that incorrect concept selection often leads to an incorrect choice of answer. The present study, which is an extension of the previous study, is focused on investigating (I) how conceptual understanding is challenged as the complexity of the problem increases and (II) identifying students' difficulties of obtaining correct solution. Students' answers to the selected set of questions are analyzed and results are presented.
      • Developing Fluency: A Framework for Generating Effective Representations and Tasks

      • CB12
      • Mon 07/30, 6:50PM - 7:00PM
      • by Rica French, Edward Prather,

      • Type: Contributed
      • To elevate students' levels of understanding instructors often actively engage learners with multiple tasks that have been carefully designed and sequenced to build upon their existing knowledge and intuitions. When different intellectual tasks (interpret, visualize, rank, compare, etc.) are connected to pedagogically appropriate representations (words, drawings, graphs, numerical data, vectors, etc.), learners can successfully unpack complex concepts and develop more robust and expert-like understandings. Classrooms that provide a varied and coherent set of tasks and representations afford learners the opportunity for critical discernment and the development of discipline fluency. We present a framework developed to catalog and characterize the representations, tasks, and difficulty levels employed in faculty-produced multiple-choice think-pair-share questions. Additionally we exploit this framework to generate new questions using underutilized components. The framework is easily generalized to many disciplines, instructional materials, and active-learning strategies.
  • PER: Self-efficacy, motivation, mindset and epistemology

      • Investigating Physics Self-Belief of Secondary Students

      • DB01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 8:40AM
      • by Cynthia Reynolds, AJ Richards,

      • Type: Contributed
      • There exists a shortage of students who enter an undergraduate program of study or intend to pursue a career in physics. Even more critical in this shortage is the underrepresentation of women and minority groups. The reasons for this shortage are not yet known. We have chosen to investigate the impact of students' physics self-belief on their likelihood to pursue physics as a career. We designed and administered a survey instrument to secondary level physics and physical science students. The survey was designed to help educators understand how the levels of self-efficacy of middle and high school level students change as they progress through their educational careers in the subject of physics. The survey also investigated if a student's level of self-efficacy is directly related to how a student views a potential career in physics. In this presentation we will detail the trends we found between students' physics self-belief, demographics, and likelihood to choose physics as a career.
      • Research on Natural Science Transfer Students' First Year Experiences

      • DB02
      • Tue 07/31, 8:40AM - 8:50AM
      • by Angela Little, Sarah Maestrales, , Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The College of Natural Science at Michigan State University recently received a National Science Foundation S-STEM Grant in partnership with Washtenaw Community College and Mott Community College (NSF#1742381). The grant focuses on scholarship money and holistic support for students during their time at Washtenaw and Mott as well as for students who transfer to Michigan State. The grant also includes a research program focused on transfer students' educational pathways. As part of this work, our team is interviewing current transfer students about their first year. These interviews are focused on students' experiences in math and science courses as well as with university structures and campus community more generally. In particular, we developed questions to probe two constructs key to students' experiences: self-efficacy and mindset. In this presentation, we give an overview of our study as well as preliminary findings from a set of student interviews.
      • Evolution of Students' Social Cognitive Attitudes and Beliefs in Physics

      • DB03
      • Tue 07/31, 8:50AM - 9:00AM
      • by Mike Lopez, Andrew Heckler,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Social science researchers have that shown that social cognitive factors such as belonging, interest, and self-efficacy play an important role in retention and achievement in physics, especially among historically underrepresented populations (e.g. women and underrepresented minorities). However, there is a gap in the literature about how these factors evolve per semester enrolled in physics. We present descriptive statistics on over 1000 students enrolled in a physics course at The Ohio State University in the 2nd year of our tracked longitudinal and cross-sectional study. This work aims to characterize the evolution of students' social cognitive attitudes and beliefs in over 15 validated measures such as belonging, interest, self-efficacy, and mindset. In particularly we focus on differences in the evolution of these factors by gender, ethnicity, academic year, physics vs non-physics major, and honors vs non-honors. We also report differences in outcomes including course grade, GPA, and retention among these populations.
      • The Impact of Prior Preparation and Motivational Characteristics on Learning Outcomes in Introductory Physics Courses

      • DB04
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:10AM
      • by Timothy Nokes-Malach, Zeynep Kalender,, Emily Marshman,, Chris Schunn,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Identifying factors that impact learning outcomes in physics courses is important for developing and implementing pedagogies and interventions to help students learn better. We have been collecting motivational data and performance outcomes on over 1000 students in introductory physics courses over the past several years. Here, we report on how prior preparation and motivational characteristics (such as self-efficacy) impact student performance in introductory physics courses. We also describe how prior preparation and aspects of motivational characteristics mediate effects of gender on learning outcomes. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Different Attitudes/Beliefs about Learning Physics Surveys Measure Different Things

      • DB05
      • Tue 07/31, 9:10AM - 9:20AM
      • by Andrew Elby,
      • Type: Contributed
      • A variety of "attitudes and beliefs" surveys probe students' views about learning physics, including CLASS (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) [1], MPEX and MPEX2 (Maryland Physics Expectations Survey) [2], VASS (Views About Science Survey) [3], and EBAPS (Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science) [4]. Each of these surveys, however, probes a slightly different aspect of students' views. In this talk, I tease apart those differences. These distinctions can help researchers select the survey best suited for their particular research questions.
      • Small Group Discourses and Epistemic Agency in Introductory Physics Course

      • DB06
      • Tue 07/31, 9:20AM - 9:30AM
      • by Mark Akubo, Clausell Mathis,, Cody Smith,, Sherry Southerland,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Research findings in physics education suggest that if students are supported to be more actively engaged in knowledge-construction, they demonstrate greater learning gains and develop deeper conceptual understanding. In this qualitative case study, we explore how students' interactions in small groups might influence their epistemic agency in an introductory physics course within a student-centered active learning environment for undergraduate programs (SCALE-UP). We focus on two small groups and examine observation data gathered using the classroom observation protocol for epistemic agency (COPEA) and video data. Preliminary findings suggest that the nature of small group discourses influences the level of epistemic agency that students exercise. Epistemic agency reminds us that students are not passive recipients of knowledge as mere information, transmitted from the teacher as the only authority on knowledge in the classroom. Rather, students have the capacity to take responsibility to construct knowledge more actively in the classroom community.
      • "Representational Blending": Students' Attempts at Reconciliation Across Representations of Waves*

      • DB07
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by Hannah Sabo,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The UMD PhET Project seeks to develop, test, and iteratively refine tutorials that pair with PhET Simulations, aimed at introductory physics students. Testing included video recording of small groups of students using the tutorials. Fauconnier and Turner (2003)** introduce conceptual blending, where students construct a partial match between two mental spaces. The Waves tutorial focused on reconciliation across four different representations of waves. In this presentation, I will discuss how two students talked interchangeably about (i) their "real world" perception of ripples and (ii) features of one representation in the simulation, without drawing explicit distinctions between the two, thus carrying out "representational blending." I will discuss whether this blending of representations is conceptual blending. I will then examine the affordances and constraints of "representational blending" in physics curriculum.
  • PER: Student Content Understanding, Problem-Solving and Reasoning

      • Commonly Activated Conceptual Resources for Understanding Mechanical Wave Propagation

      • BI01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Lisa Goodhew, Amy Robertson, Paula Heron, Rachel Scherr

      • Type: Contributed
      • In a resources theory of knowledge, new knowledge is constructed from existing knowledge elements—called resources—that are activated in real-time, in context-sensitive ways. These resources are thought to be derived from experience and continuous with formal physics concepts. Despite proposed benefits of instruction that builds upon student resources, little research has been done to investigate the common resources that students use as they reason about physics concepts. Our work contributes to the conversation on resources-oriented physics instruction by investigating the common conceptual resources that students use to reason about mechanical wave propagation. In this talk, we will present our analysis of written responses to conceptual physics questions that were administered to introductory physics students at multiple institutions across the United States. We will focus on the resources that are commonly activated in wave propagation scenarios, with an eye toward how our results can inform instruction that takes up and builds upon student thinking.
      • A Comparison of Visual Representations of E&M Plane Waves

      • BI02
      • Mon 07/30, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Michael Wilson, Robert Beichner,

      • Type: Contributed
      • It is well known that plane waves in electricity and magnetism (E&M) are misunderstood. Particularly, the traditional visual representation of these plane waves is misleading, and students are confused by the waves' three dimensionality. A possible improvement has been designed using an animated vector field. Graduate physics students were presented each visual representation of E&M plane waves. The students were asked to describe what each visual represents in detail. Students' reactions to those two representations is compared, and insight into the content delivered in each visualization is interpreted as well as insight into the direction of future research on this topic.
      • Improving Student Understanding of the Many-Particle Hamiltonian and Stationary-State Wavefunction for Non-interacting Identical Particles*

      • BI05
      • Mon 07/30, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Chandralekha, Singh, Christof Keebaugh,, Emily Marshman,

      • Type: Contributed
      • We discuss an investigation of student difficulties with the many-particleHamiltonian and stationary state wavefunction for a system of non-interacting identical particles. The investigation was carried out in advanced quantum mechanics courses by administering free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducting individual interviews with students. We discuss the common student difficulties related to these concepts. These findings are being used as a guide for creating learning tools to help students develop a functional understanding of concepts involving the many-particle Hamiltonian and stationary state wavefunction for a system of non-interacting identical particles. *We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Student Reasoning about Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues from a Resources Perspective

      • BI06
      • Mon 07/30, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Warren Christensen, Kevin Watson,, Megan Wawro,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Eigentheory is an important mathematical tool for modeling quantum mechanical systems. A growing body of literature exists in the Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education community on student thinking about Linear Algebra concepts, but little is known about the reasoning available to physics students about eigenvectors and eigenvalues as they transition from linear algebra courses into quantum mechanics. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of the semester with eight students enrolled in a course on Quantum Mechanics. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a resources framework by one PER and two RUME researchers. This work will highlight examples of the resources identified in physics students' reasoning about the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a real 2x2 matrix, as well as connections among these resources within and across students.
      • How Students Apply Linear Algebra to Quantum Mechanics

      • BI07
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 2:40PM
      • by Charlotte Hillebrand-Viljoen, Spencer Wheaton,

      • Type: Contributed
      • I present results from a qualitative study investigating student and expert strategies for applying mathematics to physics, and particularly linear algebra to quantum mechanics. I discuss results around three facets of this topic. The first of these describe student understanding of the usefulness of linear algebra, and how this can evolve toward greater sophistication. Second, I describe mental models of the wavefunction and discuss evidence that suggests sophisticated models of the wavefunction are underpinned by specific ways of thinking about vectors. Lastly, I consider applications of maths to physics through epistemic games, noting the importance of engaging in both physics-story and maths-story spaces to solve complex problems. I highlight some reasons that students may not play this epistemic game when solving physics problems. All these results have implications for instruction, either in the context of quantum mechanics or more broadly in physics, and I discuss these in each case.
      • How Students' Understanding of Normalization Changes After Taking Quantum Mechanics

      • BI08
      • Mon 07/30, 2:40PM - 2:50PM
      • by Kevin Watson,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Normalization is a particularly important concept within quantum mechanicsdue to the probabilistic nature of quantum systems. However, students' understanding of normalization has not been well studied in the past. In this contributed talk, I will share insights from analyzing physics students' understanding of normalization through the use of a framework for students' understanding of mathematical norms and normalization of vectors. More specifically, I will compare and contrast students' understandings of normalization before and after taking an introductory quantum mechanics course. Through the results, I will demonstrate that a majority of physics students enter quantum mechanics with a narrow or incomplete understanding of normalization, but through learning quantum mechanics content and introduction of new notational systems (i.e., Dirac notation), these students can leave quantum mechanics with a more complete understanding of normalization and its importance to physics.
      • Representational Coices When Solving Expectation Value Problems

      • BI09
      • Mon 07/30, 2:50PM - 3:00PM
      • by Gina Passante, Steven Pollock,, Homeyra Sadaghiani,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In quantum mechanics, one is often interested in the expectation value of different quantities. Expectation values are somewhat unique in the sense that they are asked for on exams throughout the course. For example, it is common to see expectation values in the context of the infinite square well, spin-1/2 particles, and the hydrogen atom. We analyze student responses to expectation value exam questions in each of these contexts, focusing on students' choice of representation and the method they use to calculate their answer.
      • How Students Narrow a Representation to Find a Partial Derivative

      • BI10
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Paul Emigh, Corinne Manogue,

      • Type: Contributed
      • At Oregon State University, we are examining how students solve problems that involve partial derivatives. This effort is part of defining a learning progression that spans undergraduate mathematics and physics courses. One area of focus is to investigate how students find partial derivatives from contour graphs, which are common in both electromagnetism and thermodynamics courses. We report results from open-ended problem-solving interviews with upper-division physics students. Our findings include that, when finding a derivative, students took a given contour graph (relating three or four variables) and "narrowed" the representation to a relationship between only two variables. We discuss how students chose which two-variable relationships to narrow to, or how they failed to narrow, and how they did or did not find a partial derivative from such a relationship.
      • Student Investigations of Variables in a Thermodynamics Transfer Problem

      • BI11
      • Mon 07/30, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Michael Vignal, Paul Emigh,, Elizabeth Gire,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Proper treatment of dependent and independent variables in middle- and upper-division thermodynamics is critical for student success. We explore the different ways in which students reason about variables while solving a thermodynamics problem. Our data comes from 12 teaching interviews with middle-division undergraduate physics majors. In these interviews, we taught students how to perform a Legendre Transformation in one setting, then we asked them to solve an analogous problem for a typical thermodynamics situation. In this talk, we discuss how students investigated and reached conclusions about dependent and independent variables during the transfer problem.
  • PER: Student Support - Peer Instructors

      • Student-Centered Teaching: Graduate Teaching Assistants' Expectations and Perceptions of Essential Pedagogical Skills

      • FB01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 5:10PM
      • by Constance Doty, Erin Saitta,, Jacquelyn Chini,

      • Type: Contributed
      • As university STEM departments implement more research-based teaching practices, graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are called into leadership of student-centered classes, recitations and laboratories. However, the GTAs possess varied prior teaching experiences, varied exposure to student-centered learning environments, and varied comfort with interacting with students. Also, models for preparing GTAs vary widely across departments and institutions. Our broader project investigates the use of a mixed-reality classroom simulator to provide targeted practice on pedagogical skills that enhance student learning in student-centered courses. Our theoretical framework of GTA professional development proposes that GTAs' prior and current teaching and learning experiences, pedagogical training, and expectations of the course design impact the effectiveness of future training. Here, we investigated the expectations and perceptions of essential pedagogical skills held by GTAs who led student-centered recitations and Investigative Science Learning Environment labs in physics and inquiry-based labs in chemistry.
      • Physics Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of a Multiple Choice Problem: Empathy for Students Overshadows Benefits of Formative Assessment

      • FB02
      • Tue 07/31, 5:10PM - 5:20PM
      • by Melanie Good, Emily Marshman,, Edit Yerushalmi,, Chandralekha Singh

      • Type: Contributed
      • In this investigation, we examined physics graduate teaching assistants' (TAs') views about an introductory physics problem posed in a multiple-choice format within the context of a semester-long TA professional development course. The TAs were asked to list the pros and cons of a multiple choice problem, rank the problem in terms of its instructional benefit and the level of challenge it might produce for their students, and describe when and how often they would use it in their own classes if they had complete control of teaching the class. Findings will be presented. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Effects of Peer-Interaction on Conceptual Test Performance and Cognitive Load

      • FB03
      • Tue 07/31, 5:20PM - 5:30PM
      • by Tianlong Zu, N.Sanjay Rebello,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Cognitive load theory (CLT) posits three types of loads: intrinsic, extraneous and germane. Each has unique implications for learning. Peer interaction has gained popularity in educational setting due to its effect of improving students' conceptual understanding. We investigated whether working in a group influenced conceptual test performance and cognitive loads of students. Cognitive loads were measured by a subjectively rated survey. We asked students to work on DIRECT individually followed by working in a group both as pre- and post-test. The cognitive load survey was administered after each test. We found that when students lacked relevant knowledge, the improvement of performance from working individually to working in groups was not as significant as when they had certain level of relevant knowledge. The cognitive load survey revealed that peer interaction affected performance mainly through affecting intrinsic load.
      • Learning Assistants and their Contributions to a Curriculum Development Project*

      • FB04
      • Tue 07/31, 5:30PM - 5:40PM
      • by Manher Jariwala, Emily Allen,, Andrew Duffy,

      • Type: Contributed
      • At Boston University, we are in the first year of an NSF-funded curriculumdevelopment project examining the effectiveness of simulations as dynamic visual representations for learning physics concepts. This study is being conducted in a multi-section, algebra-based, introductory physics class for life science students, taught in a highly interactive studio classroom. In addition to the teaching staff of this course, each section employs two undergraduate Learning Assistants (LAs) as key members of the instructional team. We have been investigating how to utilize the insights and experiences of the LAs to support traditional curriculum development methods, drawing on the expertise of the LAs to assist in the design of the curriculum as well as help in its pedagogical implementation. In this talk, we will report on our exploration of this new framework for the use of LAs for education research and course development. *Funded by NSF grant DUE 1712159.
      • The Influence of Learning Assistants' Positioning on How Students Learn and Feel in Class

      • FB05
      • Tue 07/31, 5:40PM - 5:50PM
      • by Hagit Kornreich-Leshem,* Sat Gavassa-Becerra,, Laird Kramer,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The increased use of Learning Assistants in active learning classrooms have shown to benefit students' conceptual understanding, overall course performance, retention and graduation rates. However, the implementation of active learning and LAs across disciplines varies and sometimes does not lead to students' full engagement and buy-in. In this case study, we used Hazari's holistic engagement analytical lens to examine how LAs influence students' behavioral, affective and cognitive engagement in class. To gain a deep understanding of class structure, we followed the faculty-LA course team during a five-week module and collected class documents, attended LA-faculty planning meetings, observed classes and conducted informal interviews with LAs and the faculty. Based on this understanding, we developed a student survey that looked at the effects of students' engagement on their science identity. We will discuss preliminary results and future implications to the study of effective active learning classrooms.
      • Learning Assistants' Changing Perception of Teaching

      • FB06
      • Tue 07/31, 5:50PM - 6:00PM
      • by Steven Wolf, Rohin Gawdi,, Kristine Callis-Duehl,, Daniel Dickerson,, Joi Walker,

      • Type: Contributed
      • East Carolina University has just implemented a Learning Assistant (LA) program in the past year. LAs are undergraduate student instructors that support group learning in large lecture courses, promoting active and interactive learning. One of the goals of ECUs LA program is to increase the number of science teachers. Students have many barriers to entering the teaching profession, many of them self-imposed. We have given our LAs the Perceptions of Teaching as a Profession (PTaP) survey, which is a new research tool designed to gauge students' perceptions of teaching careers. Specifically, PTaP investigates nine categories of student perception of the teaching profession. PTaP includes 55 statements that utilize a Likert scale to study these nine categories and a series of demographic questions. We gave the PTaP to N=28 students in our pedagogy course using a pre-post implementation, and will present preliminary findings.
      • Learning Assistants as Constructors of Feedback: How Are They Impacted?

      • FB07
      • Tue 07/31, 6:00PM - 6:10PM
      • by Paul Hamerski, Paul Irving,, Daryl McPadden,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Project and Practices in Physics (P-Cubed) is a flipped section of introductory, calculus-based physics, which is designed with a problem-based learning approach where students work in groups on complex physics problems. Learning Assistants (LAs) are critical to the course, where they each function as a primary instructor for four to eight students by asking questions and prompting discussion during class. LAs in P-Cubed also write individualized weekly feedback to each of their students, which is meant to offer suggestions to the student for how to improve their work in class and provide the student with a justification for their in-class grade. We conducted semi-structured interviews with LAs -- selected to portray a broad range of approaches to feedback -- to examine the ways that they construct feedback and how this impacts their own experiences as students taking classes. In this presentation, we compare the reflections and experiences of these LAs.
      • Analyzing How Faculty-LA Positioning Affects Learning Opportunities

      • FB08
      • Tue 07/31, 6:10PM - 6:20PM
      • by Hannah Jardine,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In planning meetings with faculty, learning assistants (LAs) can be positioned as instructional collaborators; they can be granted opportunities to provide feedback and evidence about student learning that faculty can use to improve their teaching. However, emerging research demonstrates that the level of LA-faculty collaboration in preparation meetings varies. In this presentation, I use discourse analysis to examine interactions during LA preparation meetings for an introductory biology course, in order to understand how LAs were positioned in this space. Patterns revealed that LAs were most often positioned as non-experts in both content and pedagogy, but occasionally as co-teachers or instructional collaborators. The research also suggests that positioning may be influenced by a variety of contextual, structural, and discourse-related factors. This presentation aims to elucidate some of the factors that may hinder or promote opportunities for faculty to gain useful feedback from LAs on pedagogy and student learning during planning meetings.
      • Using LAs for Effective and Engaging Transfer Between STEM Disciplines

      • FB09
      • Tue 07/31, 6:20PM - 6:30PM
      • by Ameya Kolarkar,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Lack of transfer of skills, knowledge, and applicability between the STEM disciplines is a common problem in STEM education. There are several proposed solutions for certain disciplines, e.g. IPLS. We are using Learning Assistants to effect transfer through dialogical discourse over multimedia channels. This approach has the potential to cover all STEM disciplines. We shall present the advantages and effectiveness of this approach compared to faculty-focused approaches.
      • Student Outcomes Across Collaborative-Learning Environments

      • FB10
      • Tue 07/31, 6:30PM - 6:40PM
      • by Xochith Herrera, Jayson Nissen,, Benjamin Dusen,

      • Type: Contributed
      • The Learning Assistant (LA) model supports instructors in implementing research-based teaching practices in their own courses. In the LA model undergraduate students are hired to help facilitate collaborative learning activities. Most of these activities have research supporting their efficacy. We investigated if the use of LAs is associated with improved student outcomes beyond the improvement caused by the introduction of these collaborative-learning activities. Using the Learning About STEM Student Outcomes (LASSO) database, we examined student learning from 112 first-semester physics courses that used either lecture-based, collaborative learning without LAs, or LA-supported instruction. We measured student learning using responses from 5,959 students on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) or Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Results from Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) indicated that LA-supported courses had higher posttest scores than collaborative courses without LAs and that LA-supported courses that used LAs in laboratory and recitation had higher posttest scores than those that used LAs in lecture.
  • PERC Bridging Session

      • PERC Bridging Session

      • PL10
      • Wed 08/01, 3:00PM - 4:30PM
      • by PERC PERC
      • Type: Plenary
  • PERTG Town Hall

      • PERTG Town Hall

      • COM00
      • Tue 07/31, 12:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by PER PER
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • PIRA

      • PIRA

      • COM12
      • Mon 07/30, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • PIRA Resource Room

      • PIRA Resource Room

      • PIRA01
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 7:00AM
      • by Billy Scannell
      • Type: Event
      • PIRA Resource Room

      • PIRA03
      • Wed 08/01, 10:00AM - 3:00PM
      • by Billy Scannell
      • Type: Event
  • PIRA Resoure Room

      • PIRA Resoure Room

      • PIRA02
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 7:00PM
      • by Billy Scannell
      • Type: Event
  • PIRA: "Demos Changed My Life!"

      • Demonstrations of Science as Entertainment

      • DH01
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by Tom Noddy,*
      • Type: Invited
      • I am not a teacher nor an academic. I'm a professional entertainer. My performances feature the remarkable things that I've taught myself to do with soap bubbles. I've been featured on national television shows throughout the world. In the 1980s I worked with Frank Oppenheimer at the Exploratorium, San Francisco's science center, to create the first ever Bubble Festival, for a weekend that drew 15,000 to the museum. I will share my "act" as presented at museums and schools. Even those with knowledge of this field find surprises in the presentation and physics involved. I will speak of a good friend and collaborator, Eiffel Plasterer, an Indiana high school teacher, who used soap bubbles in his classroom. He was an educator who became an entertainer. His work and mine are similar and different. Eiffel is gone now but I will surprise some with reports of his work and his words.
      • Magician - Musician - Student - Communicator - Facilitator

      • DH02
      • Tue 07/31, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Roger Key,
      • Type: Invited
      • "Demonstrations are for the student and not the instructor," is a wise statement from a book by Richard M. Sutton published in 1938. I am grateful for teachers in my past who understood this well. Many of us work behind the scenes, supporting what goes on in front of an audience – a noble role with seemingly little influence. I present my own history of being influenced -- and perhaps providing gentle guidance to others -- whenever aspects of science, specifically demonstrations of physics, are performed for an audience.
      • The Best Physics Demos You're NOT Doing

      • DH03
      • Tue 07/31, 9:30AM - 9:40AM
      • by James Lincoln,
      • Type: Contributed
      • In this talk I will perform as many demonstrations as I can reasonably fitinto my timeslot! Most of these are either original or rarely seen. A focus is put on demonstrations that everyone can do without buying any new equipment. That is, you probably already own these apparatus, but you are just not doing it yet. Another focus is that they are awesome demos that you will want to perform for your students. Many have appeared in youtube.com/AAPTFilms but some have NEVER BEEN SEEN BEFORE!!!
      • The Dessert Creates Space for the Meal

      • DH04
      • Tue 07/31, 9:40AM - 9:50AM
      • by John Barr, Sajalendu Dey,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Every curriculum has a checklist that should allow students to achieve mastery of a series of concepts and problems. This is difficult for most introductory physics students, and it can be tempting to sacrifice thought experiments and demonstrations in order to spend more time on the tangible. However, the contextualized concepts unveiled in demonstrations often pay dividends in student motivation. Necessary but mundane activities become more palatable when the "why" is supplied, and there is a chance of kindling a joy in understanding that is irreplaceable. Examples include explanations of the direction of beach breezes, pulling a truck from a ditch, producing beats in the classroom, and the colorful rotation of polarization by corn syrup. Students have been brought to tears for the sheer beauty and marvelous nature of the universe. Forgoing the opportunity to inspire such wonder in the service of curriculum or proficiency seems a poor bargain.
      • Taking Demonstrations for a Spin

      • DH05
      • Tue 07/31, 9:50AM - 10:00AM
      • by David Sturm,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Somewhere in a small electric motor manufacturing plant was a defining moment when a physics demonstration first captivated me. Often, the reasons we choose to do demonstrations in teaching physics is not because of an experience in a physics classroom, but experiences in our childhood. How do we understand demonstrations before we have the necessary physics? And how does this inform how we demonstrate to the public without using these "necessary" words?
      • Projectile Motion Sprinkler

      • DH06
      • Tue 07/31, 10:00AM - 10:10AM
      • by Paul Fratiello,
      • Type: Contributed
      • As a high school physics teacher I came across a photograph in a text bookshowing streams of water from a hose to demonstrate the path of projectiles fired at a variety of angles. The photograph looks like an overlay of four pictures and included no information about the angle of the streams. Several years ago I created what I call the "Projectile Motion Sprinkler" that allows the simultaneous projecting of water streams at angles of 20,30,45,60, and 70 degrees so the students can see the relationship between the angle and the projectile path. I believe every sprinkler should be a part of everybody's collection of demonstration equipment. Along with the description, I will discuss how to make one, and how it can be incorporated into your lesson.
  • PTRA Developing Women in Physics in K-12

      • Learning from the Past while Looking to the Future

      • BJ01
      • Mon 07/30, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Karen Jo Matsler,
      • Type: Invited
      • In an effort to address the needs of K-12 educators in physics and physical science, data has been collected from hundreds of PTRA institutes and workshops across the country for over 10 years. Results have exposed trends that have been useful in developing and aligning effective professional development and support, especially for those with limited content background. In order to develop women in physics, one must identify areas of content understanding and help teachers increase in confidence. Changing a culture is difficult, but this session will highlight what we learned from the past, how we are addressing those challenges now, and discuss how we are facing the future challenges.
      • Pushing Forward: The Complexity of Women in Physics in K12

      • BJ02
      • Mon 07/30, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Justine Boecker,
      • Type: Invited
      • The discrepancy between men and women in physics has been a consistent issue throughout history that is far more complex than we might expect. Beginning the semester I sat in my sophomore level physics course being one of only three women in a class of over 30, I got involved in movements to change this gender gap. I began my initiatives at the college level by forming the first Women in Physics group at my school. However, I realized the problem originates far before college. I continued seeking interventions and solutions at younger ages. With specific intervention experiences in higher education, high school, elementary and early childhood, I have developed an understanding for the complexity of the issue. There is not one strategy that will close the gap, but each effort is worth the change and opportunity of each additional woman in physics to push us forward.
      • Developing Women in Physics in K-12 Education

      • BJ03
      • Mon 07/30, 2:30PM - 3:00PM
      • by Ann Robinson,
      • Type: Invited
      • Developing Women in K-12 education is about overcoming two barriers. The first is changing their attitude about science and math. In an Attitudes Toward Science Survey all of the teachers agreed science and math are important in everyday life; however, they felt insecure and had no self-confidence about doing well in science. They must overcome the fear and dislike of science and math in order to teach these subjects. The next obstacle is helping them become comfortable with the activities and concepts in physics. Both hurdles can be jumped by using the PTRA model of workshop instruction. PTRA methodology is to help teachers not feel threatened or inadequate when confronted with new ideas and methods of teaching. When women are safe to ask questions and address misconceptions, they are free to resolve fears concerning STEM. The workshops are activity/participant centered using methods and materials the teachers will be relaxed using.
      • Developing Women Physics Teachers

      • BJ04
      • Mon 07/30, 3:00PM - 3:30PM
      • by Jill Marshall,
      • Type: Invited
      • Although the role of teacher, particularly at the pre-college level, is one that has traditionally been associated with women, this has not always been the case in the discipline of physics. As recently as 2009, only 32% of high school physics teachers were women. In states like Texas, where high school teachers are essentially required to have a major in the discipline that they teach, the problem is exacerbated by the lower numbers of women physics majors. The UTeach program addresses this need by providing special training for students to certify as Composite Science teachers, but UTeach was also instrumental in the establishment of Physics/Math and Mathematics, Physical Science, Engineering certifications in Texas. I will describe the UTeach teacher preparation training and also report on our successes in preparing women to become physics teachers.
  • PTRA Oversight Committee

      • PTRA Oversight Committee

      • COM26
      • Tue 07/31, 7:00AM - 8:30AM
      • by Jill A. Marshall
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • PTRA: Hollywood Physics

      • PTRA: Hollywood Physics

      • FJ01
      • Tue 07/31, 5:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Kenric Davies,
      • Type: Invited
      • Looking for more engaging examples for your physics classroom or curriculum? In this session, we will break down scenes from movies like Back to the Future, The A-Team, Gone in 60 Seconds, Abraham Lincoln Vampire Hunter and more! Using these movie scenes, students use physics concepts like Kinematics, Projectile Motion, Force, and Momentum while trying to answer the old movie question "is that really possible"? Participants will receive information on where to find each clip for easy use in the classroom.
  • PTRA: Integration of Literature in K-6 Science

      • PTRA Integration of Literature in K-6 Science

      • EJ01
      • Tue 07/31, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by William Reitz
      • Type: Invited
      • This miniature workshop will engage participants in cross-disciplinary hands-on physics explorations based on elementary children's literature. We will demonstrate how to use picture books, fairy tales, and elementary poetry to get young learners excited about asking authentic questions and doing 'real' physics. We will also share our collection of children's books with direct connections to classical physics content. The session may be of interest to anyone who wants to make Physics instruction more engaging, meaningful, and fun to students of all ages!"
  • PTRA: Make, Play, Do

      • PTRA: Make , Play, Do

      • AK01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 10:30AM
      • by William Reitz
      • Type: Invited
      • Join in the fun as we construct science equipment exemplifying one of the most effective ways for K-12 students to learn: Active Engagement. Our crackerjack panel will kick-off this round-robin style share-a-thon with engaging "make n take" projects complete with excellent support activities. Participants will construct their own apparatus with materials provided. Also, participants are highly encouraged to contribute their favorite classroom activities. Please bring sufficient materials and instructions to share with 25 other teachers.
  • Papersort Orientation

      • Papersort Orientation

      • COM
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by AAPT AAPT
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Paul W. Zitzewitz Award for Excellence in K-12 Physics Teaching

      • Paul W. Zitzewitz Award for Excellence in K-12 Physics Teaching

      • PL02
      • Mon 07/30, 11:00AM - 12:00PM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Plenary
      • #iTeachPhysics – Can Social Media Make Us Better Educators? - Social mediahas moved beyond status updates about breakfast and is changing how we engage in our profession as educators. Social media allows classroom teachers to connect with each other and share lesson ideas. But social media can also evoke empathy – allowing us to see the previously unknown personal and professional struggles of others. It can transform our perceptions about our students and colleagues and thus spark action to seek change within ourselves and within our institutions.
  • Peer Review and the Peer Review Process

      • Expectations and Characteristics of the Peer Review of Grant Applications

      • CI01
      • Mon 07/30, 5:00PM - 5:30PM
      • by Stephen Gallo,*
      • Type: Invited
      • Despite its use to direct billions of dollars in research funds, there is little data-based analysis in the literature regarding the peer review of grant applications. While most would agree that expectations for the process include effective and unbiased decision making, it is surprising that many operational characteristics have not been documented in sufficient detail and it is unclear whether the process is living up to expectations. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) has conducted a series of retrospective analyses of data from thousands of peer reviewed applications as well as conducted surveys of both applicants and reviewers. In these analyses, we have examined characteristics of the peer review process (including reviewer expertise, levels of reviewer participation, virtual versus onsite interaction, perceptions of criteria usage, and levels of conflict of interest) and how they relate to the expectations for peer review.
      • National Science Foundation's Merit Review Process

      • CI02
      • Mon 07/30, 5:30PM - 6:00PM
      • by Corby Hovis,
      • Type: Invited
      • The National Science Foundation's approach to peer review is often cited as the "gold standard" for evaluating research proposals and has been used as a model by other grant-making organizations. The presenter will provide an overview of NSF's merit review process and criteria, with attention to their historical development and their practical application in the making of funding decisions.
      • The Congressional Politics of Peer Review

      • CI03
      • Mon 07/30, 6:00PM - 6:30PM
      • by Mitch Ambrose,*
      • Type: Invited
      • The criteria that federal science agencies use to allocate grant funding have periodically attracted scrutiny by members of Congress. My presentation will summarize contemporary congressional debates about the peer review process, focusing on the National Science Foundation. In particular, I will discuss recent legislative proposals to modify NSF's grant review criteria.
  • PhysTEC Teacher of the Year

      • PhysTEC Teacher of the Year

      • PL02A
      • Mon 07/30, 11:00AM - 12:00PM
      • by George A. Amann
      • Type: Plenary
  • Physics Beyond the Core

      • The Capstone Experience for Physics Majors -- Learning to Communicate Physics Beyond the Core

      • GI01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by William Briscoe,
      • Type: Invited
      • A common observation of physics faculty in higher education is that undergraduate students lack STEM specific writing skills. Students have difficulties with the specific genres of physics writing such as research articles, abstracts, technical reports, review articles, and proposals. These common types of scientific writing are each governed by different conventions of grammar, format, and style, and they each serve a particular rhetorical purpose targeted for a particular audience. Additionally, students struggle to incorporate sources such as journal articles, conference proceedings, chapters, plots and graphs, or tables correctly and effectively into their writing. A collaboration between the Physics Department and the University Writing Program studies whether explicit teaching of two transfer-focused writing skills – genre awareness and source application – enhances student writing across a sequenced, upper division, undergraduate capstone course for physics majors.
      • Teaching Condensed Matter Physics at Johns Hopkins

      • GI02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Oleg Tchernyshyov
      • Type: Invited
      • Undergraduates at Johns Hopkins have an opportunity to take physics courses beyond the core requirements. At least 2 of these are required for a B.A. degree in Physics; at least 5 for B.S. Examples of such courses are Introduction to Stellar Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, and Physical Cosmology. In addition, our physics majors can take graduate-level courses such as Stellar Structure, General Relativity, Advanced Condensed Matter, Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, and Quantum Field Theory. I will share my experience teaching condensed matter physics to undergraduates.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- From Spatial to Energy Spreading

      • GI03
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Ariel Abrashkin, Ariel Steiner,, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Poster
      • Biological cells consist of molecules in aqueous solution, serving as a thermal reservoir. The analysis of such systems relies on the laws of thermodynamics, and the conceptualization of energy and its associated entropy. We suggest an instructional sequence in which thermal contact is presented in terms of energy diffusion in the system, in analogy to a more concrete context – particle diffusion involving spatial entropy and the second law. Working in a framework of non-interacting particles, having only kinetic energies, enables a simple and concise definition of temperature and thermal equilibration. To illustrate our approach, we demonstrate a simulation-based discovery activity in which students investigate thermal contact between particles occupying the same volume, relevant to biomolecules in solution. Next, potential energy arising from interparticle interactions, crucial for structure formation (e.g. membranes, vesicles), is introduced. In this context, we derive the Boltzmann factor accounting for interactions from the first and second laws.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- Paving the Way

      • GI04
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Haim Edri, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Poster
      • Central position papers present a challenging task -- the inclusion of thermal physics as part of the IPLS course. We present the first unit in an introductory science curriculum that uses computational tools to explain the random nature of multi-particle-systems, crucial in statistical physics, while taking into account students' limited prior knowledge. The unit focuses on diffusion – an important generic characteristic of ions in solution and many other biomolecules, engaging students in constructing a series of computational models intended to align the stochastic nature of random walks with their prior knowledge of Newtonian mechanics. Students analyze the development of particles' trajectories in time at different time scales. This analysis serves to justify the shift from deterministic model of the motion of one or two particles in vacuum, to a model of colloidal particle dominated by frictional and stochastic forces, resulting from the interactions with the many-particles of the solvent.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS: Goals, Dilemmas, Choices

      • GI05
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Edit Yerushalmi, Ariel Abrashkin,, Haim Edri,, Elon Langbeheim,, Ariel Steiner,

      • Type: Poster
      • The physics of mesoscale structure formation -- how do many molecules organize themselves into large-scale assemblies -- is at the heart of biological physics. We present the dilemmas and choices underlying an introductory curriculum that gradually builds the knowledge structure required to address this question. The research-based-curriculum was tested in a course for interested and capable high-school students, and refined over three implementation cycles, introducing several shifts from traditional curricula to meet students' limited prior knowledge: Dynamics presented with a focus on motion dominated by frictional and stochastic forces. The step-by-step evolution of many-particle-systems, dominated by spatial randomness, towards equilibrium, is analyzed and pictured by means of computational models. Introductory level equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is presented in the context of particle diffusion involving spatial entropy; as a precursor to analogous treatment of thermal contact. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations serve to concretize analytical models of structure formation in systems where interactions compete with randomness.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal-Physics for IPLS -- From Dynamics to Equilibrium Statistics

      • GI06
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Ariel Steiner, Ariel Abrashkin,, Sam Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Poster
      • Computational dynamical models were used in the first unit of an introductory science curriculum to concretize the shift from Newtonian dynamics to particle diffusion modeled as a random-walk. In the second unit of the course this is followed by the abstract statistical-thermodynamics treatment of non-interacting systems assuming equal probability of all microstates (spatial configurations). This unit demonstrates the superfluous nature of the random-walk model for diffusion, accounting for the time-evolution of all particle trajectories, when used to describe equilibrium. Students compare the long-time averaged density distributions of random-walk vs. Monte-Carlo simulations anchored in the equal probability assumption and realize that both lead to constant density. Students justify the assumption by examining spatial sampling in a random-walk model for the relevant measurement timescales. This analysis sets the stage for later discussions of entropy and the second law as-well-as analysis of other systems relevant to life sciences, such as polymeric macromolecules.
      • Space Weather Awareness Helps Engage and Retain Students in Science

      • GI07
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Anna Chulaki, Yaireska Collado Vega,

      • Type: Poster
      • Recent advances in the young field of space weather allow scientists to paint a picture of the daily life of the Sun and its influence on our electromagnetic environment. Using physics-based models we predict the propagation of solar storms through the solar system and their arrival at Earth, other planets and satellite missions. CCMC provides college undergraduates with an extraordinary learning experience of planetary dimensions and immense visual beauty by engaging them in space weather forecasting and forefront research via cutting edge models and tools. Young forecasters gain awareness of our wider environment, an understanding of the fundamentals of the Sun-Earth system and knowledge of the impacts of space weather on humans and technological systems. We would love to share our experience and resources and partner with teaching institutions to promote space weather awareness to younger audiences as a means to recruit and retain young people in science.
      • Educational Issues Details Pertaining to Claims about Anthropogenic Climate Change

      • GI08
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Laurence Gould,
      • Type: Poster
      • Many arguments have been made that — as a result of human activities that emit greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) — there is a dangerous trend of increasing global temperatures resulting in events such as melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and increased storms. This talk draws on topics from a one-semester freshman seminar course taught at the University of Hartford in 2009, 2014, and 2017. The course was devoted to a critical-thinking approach to the topic of Anthropogenic Climate Change. The presentation will — through an analysis that includes some of those arguments and methodologies — show how curious people can seek a deeper understanding of the issues and thus enhance their ability at scientific enquiry. The material should be of particular interest to students and educators.
      • Engineering Physics Field Session at Mines: Incorporating Open-Ended Problem Solving

      • GI09
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Chuck Stone, Vince Kuo

      • Type: Poster
      • Following their sophomore year of studies, physics majors at Colorado School of Mines enroll in a 6-week, 6 credit hour summer course, Field Session Techniques in Physics. The course introduces students to the design and fabrication of engineering physics apparatus and involves intensive individual participation in the design of machined system components, vacuum systems, electronics, optics, and applications of computer interfacing systems and computational tools. It includes supplementary lectures on safety, laboratory techniques, and professional development, along with visits to regional research facilities and industrial plants. This poster presentation will describe how the Mines Physics Department has incorporated open-ended problem solving in Field Session Learning Modules and nurtured student independence and creativity in problem-solving processes.
      • Preparing Students for Long-Term Open Inquiry Projects -- Students' Perspective

      • GI10
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by David Perl,* Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Poster
      • The advanced high school physics course is commonly directed towards a high stake exam. A three-year course, titled INQUIRY-PHYSICS, takes place in Israeli education system as an addition to the traditional physics course. It intends to bypass the difficulty of integrating open ended inquiry activities into test oriented setting. This timeframe allows for a gradual learning progression, developing inquiry practices in contexts that span from 1-2 lessons to a yearlong research project. I will describe the findings of an artifact-based interview that took place few months after the students launched their work on the research project. Student were asked to identify inquiry practices they have encountered earlier in the course and reflect on their fruitfulness. In particular, which of these practices they perceive as crucial to experience before engaging in a long term project. I will discuss these findings in view of the learning goals and design principles of the teachers.
      • Using the NSF S-STEM Grant to Improve STEM Student Success

      • GI11
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Tom Carter, Barbara Abromitis,, Susan Fenwick,, Tom Schrader, Richard Jarman

      • Type: Poster
      • The College of DuPage, a large two-year college in suburban Chicago, secured a grant from the National Science Foundation's S-STEM program in 2016. The allowed COD to award full scholarships to up to 60 students majoring in chemistry, physics, or engineering over five years. Along with the scholarship, a key goal of the program was to provide the students academic support to aid them in completing a two-year program for graduation or transferring to a four-year institution. A central feature of the project is the use of a STEM Student Success Coach who will provide individual, cohort, program-specific, and interdisciplinary guidance as a cost-effective way of addressing attrition in STEM disciplines at the community college level. Quantitative/qualitative data will inform program decisions, resulting in a replicable model, disseminated through a variety of professional outlets. A second feature of the proposal is the use of research internships that will leverage existing partnerships with four-year institutions and national laboratories.
      • The Principia's Second Law of Motion, and Euler's F=ma

      • GI12
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Ajay Sharma,
      • Type: Poster
      • Newton had given Second Law Of Motion in the Principia (1687) at page 19 as "The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed." Newton did not give any equation for the law as it was not tradition at that time. While explaining law after definition Newton did not write word acceleration (rate of change of velocity) as it was not imagined at that time ( not in known and unknown quantities) . Newton defined 'quantity of motion' mv at page 2 and expressed motion as velocity at page 9. Thus mathematical form of second law turns out to be F =m(v-u) or F =(v-u). F=ma was given by Euler and can be seen at Index no E479 at page 223 at website of MAA where Euler's original works are archived.
      • No One Became a Physics Major to Research Blocks on an Inclined Plane

      • GI13
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Richard Gelderman,
      • Type: Poster
      • Robin became a physics major to work on teleportation. Chris wants to study cosmology (though his inability to pass calculus 2 might limit him to cosmetology). So why do we keep them bogged down with the cartoon physics of the 18th or 19th century? The Western Kentucky University physics program now starts with Introductory Modern Physics, where atoms, quantum effects, and relativity are introduced without calculus. Juniors and seniors complete their required electives with fully developed lab courses dealing with astrophysics, materials science, nuclear, and/or multidisciplinary science for this millennium's Homeland Security.
      • Why Sir Isaac Newton was Sitting Under the Apple Tree…

      • GI14
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Mikhail Agrest,
      • Type: Poster
      • When Sir Isaac Newton was sitting under the apple tree thinking about the Universe an apple fell on his head and he invented the first Newton's law… Was it Newton's acceptance of Rene Descartes' "Cogito ergo sum" ? Why in the world Sir Isaac Newton was still sitting under the apple tree thinking about the Universe instead of doing something useful to feed his family. Wasn't Newton himself giving credit for his first law to Galileo for seeing that the zero net force leads to rest, or uniform motion? It is essential that in teaching physics we bring to the students' attention that Newton's approach brought physics to the level of understanding of similarity of events that look very different and differences of events looking very much similar. Sir Isaac Newton didn't "invent calculus to solve mathematical problems," but to make concepts of physics be visible through similarity and differences.
      • Computationally Concretizing Thermal Physics for IPLS -- From Energy to Complexity

      • GI15
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Elon Langbeheim, Samuel Safran,, Edit Yerushalmi,

      • Type: Poster
      • Structural complexity is quintessential to biological systems that containmany interacting molecules (e.g., cell membranes, cytoskeleton). The derivation of analytical models that explain structure formation in biological systems requires mathematical treatments of entropy and internal energy which may be beyond the reach of introductory students. Monte-Carlo computational models are an alternative path for the analysis of such biological systems. A lattice-based Monte Carlo simulation samples the configurations of the system by starting from an arbitrary configuration, and then alters the location or orientation of each component (e.g., lipid molecule) using random steps. Each step can then change the potential energy of interaction through the variation of the separation of a given component and its neighbors. The Boltzmann factor is used to calculate the acceptance probability of each step, based on the change in potential energy. We will demonstrate how students use this method for modeling processes in complex biological systems.
  • Physics Bowl Advisory Committee

      • Physics Bowl Advisory Committee

      • COM25
      • Tue 07/31, 7:00AM - 8:00AM
      • by Jon Anderson
      • Type: Committee Meeting
  • Physics Education Research

      • Visual Representations of Classroom Activity: What Captures the Essence?

      • PST1C38
      • Sun 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Adrienne Traxler, Eric Brewe,, Kelley Commeford,

      • Type: Poster
      • Decades of evidence about science education show that a strict lecture format--or any other primarily transmissionist teaching style--is an ineffective way to learn. Researchers must now develop new vocabulary to move beyond simple dichotomies such as "lecture vs. active" and to describe the diversity of teaching practice. As an early step in this effort, we present observation data from the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM (COPUS) gathered in a class using Tutorials in Introductory Physics. We contrast several representations of this data drawn from the literature, each of which highlights and obscures different features of classroom events. This work is part of a larger project to characterize several prominent active learning curricula in physics, build standardized profiles of their classroom activity, and connect these profiles to the student social network structures that emerge.
      • Motivational Characteristics of Underrepresented Ethnic and Racial Minority Students in Introductory Physics Courses

      • PST1C01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Zeynep Kalender, Emily Marshman,, Timothy Nokes-Malach,, Christian Schunn,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • Many hypotheses have been put forth to explain the under-representation and under-performance of historically marginalized racial and ethnic minority students in physics. While much research has focused on the relations between prior knowledge and performance, less work has examined the potential interactive role of student motivation. In particular, expectancy value theory posits that students' beliefs about their expectations for success (e.g., self-efficacy) and the value they associate with an academic task (e.g., intrinsic interest) influence their persistence and performance. In this study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of students' motivational characteristics in introductory physics courses by administering surveys at three points during the year. White, Asian, and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students' self-efficacy and interest in physics are reported, and implications for instruction are discussed.We thank NSF for the support.
      • PIE-C: Physicists Interviewing Engineers about Computation

      • PST1C03
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Thomas Finzell, Sameer Barretto,

      • Type: Poster
      • Computational problem solving has become a fundamental pillar across all STEM fields; it is now virtually impossible to work in research and/or design without using some form of computation. Despite the ubiquity of computation, there is a great deal of variance in how computers are used to solve problems in the different STEM fields. As part of a broader campaign to integrate computation into a large "physics for engineers" lecture course, we interviewed faculty from both physics and (several) engineering departments, to get a better understanding of their views on computation, both professionally and in the classroom. We present results from these interviews, which shed light on the differences in computational philosophies among professionals in different STEM fields. This data can be used to help inform how computation in "physics for engineers" courses can be better aligned with engineering practices.
      • Retention of Knowledge Gained in Introductory Physics

      • PST1C05
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Michael Orleski,
      • Type: Poster
      • Standardized concept inventories given as pre-tests and post-tests are a common way to measure knowledge gains by students in courses. Students participating in this study were given the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) a third time approximately one semester after their first-semester introductory physics course ended in an attempt to gauge longer-term retention of content knowledge. The normalized gain scores calculated using pre-test and post-test scores are compared to normalized gain scores calculated using the pre-test and the third attempt. At Misericordia University there are two distinct populations who take algebra-based introductory physics. Occupational Therapy students used for this study experienced an integrated, investigative curriculum called LEAP while Pre-Doctor of Physical Therapy students used a traditional curriculum with lecture and a separate lab. The study attempts to determine if there is a difference in retention between these two different teaching styles.
      • Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics: Quantitative Trends Across Courses

      • PST1C09
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Robin Gordon,* Whitney Faries,, Benjamin Dreyfus,

      • Type: Poster
      • Student attitudes and beliefs toward physics can be influenced by a variety of factors. How a student feels towards physics can contribute to their success and understanding of the course. We present quantitative data from the first and second semester of both algebra-based and calculus-based physics courses. Students in these classes took the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) at the beginning and end of the course. We analyze relationships between CLASS results and (1) course grades, (2) concept inventory scores, (3) course type and (4) student major, and contextualize these results within larger datasets from LASSO (Learning About STEM Student Outcomes). This analysis sheds light on the ways that different populations of physics students may experience a different impact from the course.
      • Student Objections to and Understanding of Non-Cartesian Unit Vector Notation in Upper-Level E&M

      • PST1C11
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Brant Hinrichs,
      • Type: Poster
      • The upper-level E&M course involves extensive integration of vector calculus concepts and notation with abstract physics concepts like field and potential. Students take what they learned in math and apply it to help represent and make sense of the physics. Previous work showed that physics majors at different levels (pre- and post- E&M course, 1st year graduate students) had great difficulty using non-Cartesian unit vector symbols appropriately in a particular context. Since then we have developed a series of problems students work on in groups and discuss as a whole class to help them confront and resolve some of their difficulties. This poster presents those problems, typical in-class group responses, and three years of post-test data. Results show that students have (i) a very strong initial negative reaction to the vagueness of the r-hat symbol, and (ii) an improved functional understanding of the notation as demonstrated by a better ability to use the symbols correctly.
      • Student Questions in Science, "Scientific" Methods, and Self-Determination Theory

      • PST1C13
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Jim Tisel,
      • Type: Poster
      • What questions do fifth-grade students pose when they undertake relativelyunstructured investigations? What patterns exist in these questions? The presenter did a within-case and cross-case analysis of 351 written and oral questions that were generated by 24 students during one 40-minute period of student investigation of pendulum motion. A framework of analysis that used the Self-Determination (Deci and Ryan, 1981) categories of autonomy, competence, and relatedness proved to be effective in understanding the motivation behind the questions and the role they played in the investigations. Key similarities and differences between the approaches used by students and the Lawson (2003) hypothetico-predictive model of science were identified. The results of this study will help educators to effectively plan inquiry instruction for students.
      • Students' Reasoning Paths Through the Lens of Dual Process Theories*

      • PST1C15
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Brianna Santangelo, Mila Kryjevskaia

      • Type: Poster
      • When faced with unfamiliar situations, students are more likely to rely onintuitive reasoning rather than formal knowledge and skills developed during instruction. In order to pinpoint specific factors and instructional circumstances that lead to productive and unproductive reasoning strategies, we have been developing sequences of questions that allow for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding, reasoning, and intuition. We used these sequences in introductory algebra-based and calculus-based Mechanics courses at a large research university. The Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning are used to interpret students' responses. Written answers, explanations, and self-reflections (viewed through the lens of DPT) reveal student approaches to reasoning: reliance on intuition, development of heuristics, use of confirmation bias, and other reasoning decisions that lead to the final answer. *This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432052, DUE-1432765.
      • Supporting Teaching Autonomy in the New Faculty Workshop

      • PST1C17
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen, Rajendra Chattergoon,

      • Type: Poster
      • Over the past 10 years, the use of active learning in physics classrooms has become more mainstream. We have noticed a possible effect of this change in our disciplinary culture through the evaluation of the New Physics and Astronomy Faculty Workshop (NFW)1, in that many faculty come to the workshop already highly interested and motivated in using active learning. We have also observed complaints from some faculty participants who feel overly "persuaded" of the utility of active learning during the course of the workshop. We interpret these results within a framework of participant autonomy: To feel intrinsically motivated, participants must feel in control of their own teaching decisions and persuasion can be seen as not autonomy-supporting. We will highlight results from the past 3 years of NFW evaluation, including participant characteristics, outcomes, and feedback, and how changes in the NFW program have better supported participant autonomy.
      • Surviving STEM: Pathways to Getting a STEM Degree

      • PST1C19
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Steven Wolf, Ryan Mezera,, Sarit Johnson,, Kevin White,

      • Type: Poster
      • There have been multiple national calls to create more STEM majors (e.g., PCAST 2014). In order to achieve this goal, STEM faculty need to understand what draws students to our discipline, and what can push them away from it. There are many factors that contribute to successfully obtaining a four-year college degree. A survival analysis will model the time to an event, in this case either dropping out or graduation. Kaplan Meier, Nelson Aalen, and Cox proportional hazard models will be used to develop survival, lifetime distribution, and hazard functions to see how different factors contribute to students progress in pursuit of STEM degrees at ECU over a four year period. Determining factors that have a high-event density will help to identify groups most at risk in order to promote retention.
      • The Effect of Giving Explicit Incentives to Correct Mistakes on Subsequent Problem Solving in Quantum Mechanics*

      • PST1C21
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by chandralekha Singh, Ben Brown,

      • Type: Poster
      • One attribute of experts is that they learn readily from their own mistakes. Physics experts are unlikely to make the same mistakes when asked to solve a problem a second time, especially if they have had access to a correct solution. Here, we discuss a study spanning several years in which advanced undergraduate physics students in a quantum mechanics course were given the same four problems in both the midterm exam and final exam. Approximately half of the students were given incentives to correct their mistakes in the midterm exam and they could get back up to 50% of the points lost on each midterm exam problem. The solutions to the midterm exam problems were provided to all students but those who corrected their mistakes were provided the solution after they submitted their corrections to the instructor. The performance on the final exam on the same problems suggests that students who were given incentives to correct their mistakes significantly outperformed those who were not given an incentive. The incentive to correct the mistakes on the midterm exam had the greatest impact on the final exam performance of students who performed poorly on the midterm exam.
      • The Nature of Teacher Talk in Faculty Online Learning Communities

      • PST1C23
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Alexandra Lau, Melissa Dancy,, Charles Henderson,, Andy Rundquist,

      • Type: Poster
      • The New Faculty Workshop Faculty Online Learning Community (NFW-FOLC) supports approximately 10 NFW participants in the year following their participation in the workshop. Members of the NFW-FOLC meet biweekly via a video conferencing platform to hear from experienced practitioners of various teaching techniques as well as to discuss their teaching with their peers. During some meetings, participants have an extended period of time to share a "State of the Classroom" update with their cohort and gather feedback on challenges they are encountering. One of the main goals of the NFW-FOLCs is to promote sustained and high-quality implementation of Research Based Instructional Strategies. It is thus important for us to know how FOLC cohort members are talking about their teaching and responding to each other's talk. In this poster we report on our analysis of the quality and characteristics of "State of the Classroom" updates from a selection of NFW-FOLC members.
      • Transforming to Three-Dimensional Learning Across Institutions

      • PST1C25
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Lydia Bender, James Laverty,

      • Type: Poster
      • There have been many attempts to transform physics courses in sustainable ways, but little research on how to effectively make change. Three-dimensional learning (3DL) is currently being implemented in several college classrooms with varying levels of success. This suggests that the different environments and cultures have an effect on the implementation and sustainability of 3DL. We are working to understand the barriers that hinder the transformation to 3DL-courses. This research is centered on members of a faculty learning community that investigates and discusses implementing 3DL in their classrooms. The purpose of this work is to determine what factors encourage and discourage faculty from adopting 3DL frameworks, and how adopting this framework changes student outcomes across institutions. Identifying these factors will help us understand how cultures and classrooms can be efficiently transformed to 3DL.
      • Truly Representative Samples for Conceptual Evaluation Instrument (CFI) Development

      • PST1C27
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Rebecca Lindell, Dawn Meredith,, James Vasenka,, Daniel Young,

      • Type: Poster
      • While developing the methodology to create the Fluid Motions Conceptual Evaluation Instrument (FMCIE) for use with the introductory physics for life science (IPLS) courses, we realized that to produce a reliable, valid, and fair conceptual evaluation instrument, we needed a truly representative sample of students from IPLS courses throughout the country at both private and state schools. We needed a sample that represented the variety of different students taking such a course, as well as where they took the course. In this poster, we will outline the methods utilized to create this representative sample to ensure representation of the different populations who take IPLS across the country.
      • Undergraduates Learning of Basic Physics Curriculums and Influence Factors Correlation

      • PST1C29
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Shihong Ma, Chenlu Shen,

      • Type: Poster
      • This paper tracks the performance of freshmen in the process of undergraduate basic physics course, including a pretest of physical concepts at the beginning of the first semester and periodical tests to continuously examine students' level of curriculum knowledge and teaching gains. The test results reflect gender differences and regional characteristics. We analyze the correlation of influence factors on learning of content knowledge. Detailed research on regional characteristics of students is conducted through comparing senior high school textbooks and syllabus from different areas, especially focus on the analysis of course content differences among Shanghai, Zhejiang and Shandong, as well as the corresponding test results and gains of undergraduate students from the three provinces. The result comes out that freshmen's periodical test score is positively related to their background of content knowledge to some extent, however, it shows no significant relevance with subsequent physics learning gains.
      • Unique Assessments in the BLiSS Physics Course for Life Sciences

      • PST1C31
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Vashti Sawtelle, Kathleen Hinko,

      • Type: Poster
      • Creating a physics course by blending elements of research-based transformations requires a strategic approach to assessment. At Michigan State University we have developed an introductory physics sequence for life science students with goals of connecting the disciplines of physics, biology, and chemistry and building positive relationships with physics. To achieve these goals, we employ a Modeling Instruction physics curriculum in a studio-style classroom format, and we incorporate both computational simulations and experimental data analysis of complex biological phenomena. The unique learning environment created by the blending of these curricular, structural, social, and physical elements necessitates that we consider our assessment of students very carefully. In this poster we present on our overall approach to assessment in this course and how it aligns with our learning goals and course activities. We also describe several modifications to typical assessments in transformed classrooms, including video lab reports and Twitter whiteboard meetings.
      • Using Grounded Cognition to Improve Physics Diagrams

      • PST1C33
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Amber Sammons, Jacob Cermak,, Raymond Zich,, Rebecca Rosenblatt,

      • Type: Poster
      • Diagrams are ubiquitous in STEM. These diagrams vary from problem solving tools (like force diagrams) to ways to visualize concepts (like fields) or understand the math (like graphs). While a fair amount of research has been done on student difficulties with these diagrams, only a small amount of research has been done on ways to improve these diagrams. In this study, we used grounded cognition theory to explore modifications to physics diagrams so that students naturally perceive the correct physical concepts when viewing the diagrams. Specifically, we investigated how color variations to motion maps affected student ability to rank velocity and acceleration at different times and what illustrations of pipe fluid dynamics can best improve student understanding of the Venturi effect, i.e. the pressure and speed relationship. Findings indicate that these modified images are not easier as pre-test items but yield better student learning when paired with feedback.
      • Variations in Conversational Routines Across Two Faculty Communities

      • PST1C35
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Adriana Corrales,* Chandra Turpen,, Fred Goldberg,, Meghan Clemons,, Edward Price,

      • Type: Poster
      • Across educator professional development efforts, there is significant momentum around building professional learning communities. More research however is needed on how the design and emergent norms of such communities enable or constrain particular learning opportunities for educators. In this presentation, we share a comparative analysis of the conversations unfolding in two distinct faculty communities (associated with the Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking Faculty Online Learning Community project [1]). We choose to focus on moments in their online conversations when seemingly similar issues or topics arise (e.g. concerns about pacing). By comparing these moments, we demonstrate important differences in how the instructional problem is posed and in the conversational routines across these two groups. We illustrate how these differences open up and close off opportunities to learn [2].
      • Views about Experimental Physics in a Large Introductory Laboratory Course

      • PST1C37
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Benjamin Pollard, H. Lewandowski,

      • Type: Poster
      • Laboratory courses are key components of most undergraduate physics programs. In addition to reinforcing physics concepts, these courses often aim to achieve some or all of the following learning outcomes: developing students' experimental skills, engaging students in authentic scientific practices, and inspiring students' interest and engagement in physics. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) is a research-based assessment that measures students' views about strategies, habits of mind, and attitudes when doing experiments in lab classes. During a complete transformation process of the large introductory laboratory course at the University of Colorado Boulder, we collected over 600 student responses per semester to the E-CLASS survey both before and after implementing the course transformation. We report on changes in E-CLASS responses before and after instruction from both the traditional and the transformed course.
      • Visualizing Changes in Conceptual Understanding Through Patterns in CSEM Responses

      • PST1C39
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Ryan Tapping, G. Peter Lepage,, Tomás Arias,, N. Holmes,

      • Type: Poster
      • The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) has been utilized to measure learning gains in electricity and magnetism (EM) physics courses, where students' overall scores on the CSEM are typically used for analysis. However, such comparisons do not identify particular content or concepts that are learned or misunderstood by students from the course. To address this issue, we have generated network-like graphs for each question, where responses at pre-test and post-test are represented by nodes connected with edges to display how student answers changed before and after instruction. We will present preliminary data from CSEM responses from over 1600 students in Cornell University's introductory EM physics courses across five years (10 semesters) of both traditional and active learning classrooms. We visualize and quantify patterns in responses showing how specific concepts are understood and applied by students, and what potential misconceptions may be prevalent even after instruction.
      • What Counts in Laboratories: Developing a Practice-based Identity Survey

      • PST1C41
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Kelsey Funkhouser, Marcos Caballero., Paul Irving,, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Poster
      • An essential step in the process of developing a physics identity is the opportunity to engage in authentic physics practices. Physics laboratory courses are generally structured as a place for students to gain experience with physics practices. This makes laboratory courses an ideal place to look at the impact these authentic science practices have on students' physics identity. As part of the development of a practice-based identity survey, we have interviewed students in a variety of physics lab classes, from intro algebra based to advanced lab, to gain insight into their interpretations of different commonly discussed practices. To ground our survey in students' experiences, we have asked questions about what these practices mean to the students. We present our findings on how students interpret these practices and situate themselves with respect to the practices as an indicator of their physics identity.
      • Who Declares a Physics Major? – A Study of Physics Pathways

      • PST1C43
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Cabot Zabriskie, John Stewart,

      • Type: Poster
      • Most physics programs graduate very few students annually and improving these numbers is critical to both meeting societal needs for physics degree holders as well as for the long-term survival of physics departments. Understanding the pathways into, through, and out of a physics major is a necessary step toward improving retention of physics students to graduation. In this study, we investigate the demographic makeup of students at West Virginia University who have declared a physics major at any point in the past 15 years. In our analysis a number of distinct pathways are identified leading to multiple outcomes ranging from successful completion of a degree in physics to attrition out of the university. Categorization of these pathways and the properties of students who take each path can be used to adapt the physics program to the needs of students with different academic backgrounds and identify areas of program weakness.
      • Writing in Physics as a Mediator for Conceptual Change

      • PST1C45
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Antoinette Stone,
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster reports the essay analysis of a targeted writing assignment, designed to examine how well physics students developed a more complex conceptual framework regarding models of friction and to the extent the task mediated critical thinking to achieve that framework. The assignment directed students to write an essay that examined the results of other student's misconceptions about friction, by reading research articles that reported classroom dynamics involving these students and their misconceptions. This study linguistically examines sentence structure and use of lexicon, to evaluate learning as modeled by conceptual change through negotiation of conceptual conflict and misconception.
      • Adaptation-validation Inventory of Metacognitive Skills with Adolescents who Study Physics

      • PST1C47
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Oscar Jardey Suarez, Luz Divia Rico Suarez

      • Type: Poster
      • The main point of this article is to socialize the result of the adaptation and validation of the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) to be used with adolescents who are studying physics in Middle School (High School) in Bogotá-Colombia. The MAI, initially proposed by Schraw & Denninson for youth and adults, is composed of two Supercategories: Knowledge of Cognition (Declarative Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge and Conditional Knowledge) and Regulation of Cognition (Planning, Organization, Monitoring, Debugging and Evaluation) ; another Super Category called affective (Anxiety) has been added. The expanded context of the MAI was focused on the area of physics, each item took its domain on a Likert scale between 1 and 7 and validation of statistical order was compared with the results of Huertas, Vesga & Galindo finding comparable values in the different super categories as well as their components, obtaining a total alpha of 0,941.
      • Archimedes Principle After 2268 Years

      • PST1C49
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Ajay Sharma,
      • Type: Poster
      • Although Archimedes principle is confirmed, yet its qualitative applications in rising, falling and floating bodies in natural state ( when no other forces than buoyancy and gravity act) are painstakingly analyzed. Here equations involve only densities of body and medium; and compared. Other factors like shape of body, viscosity of medium, magnitude of medium and body, surface tension etc. are neglected. In theoretical derivation of principle (u=VDg), body is regarded as symmetric, there is no role of above factors. Under one feasible condition (when density of sheath , medium filled in floating artifact is equal to density of medium in which it floats) , then volume of medium filled in artifact becomes indeterminate, from principle. If principle is generalized, i.e. upthrust is proportional to weight of fluid displaced, U=C VDg ), then exact results are obtained. 'C' also accounts for elusive factors and can be confirmed in precise experiments.
      • Assessing Students in Planning Investigation

      • PST1C51
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Hien Khong, James Larverty,

      • Type: Poster
      • Assessing students' learning plays an important role in education. The "Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol" (3D-LAP) has been introduced as a way to support the development of assessment tasks in physics that assess both the process and concepts of physics. Engaging students in planning investigations is an important practice in the process of physics that we need to assess. In order to figure out how to assess this scientific practice, we first identified the steps that go into planning investigations in physics. From this, we have identified the products that are observable in written assessments that could be used as evidence that students are able to plan investigations. We are using these observable products to design physics assessment tasks that align with the practice. This research will inform the development of new assessments focused on how well students can do physics, not just what they know about physics.
      • Assessment of Hybrid Flipped Classroom Teaching

      • PST1C53
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by Steven Wild, Heather Yu,

      • Type: Poster
      • Many instructors have adopted flipped classroom teaching to some extent. We have implemented in our introductory physics courses a hybrid flipped-lecture approach. Students in our class are required to watch videos for selected topics and complete an online quiz before coming to each class. Class periods consist of mini-lectures, which then provide students more time for questions and discussion. To assess the effectiveness of our hybrid flipped classroom teaching, we first compared the percentages of correct answers for questions with and without flipped teaching. Second, we track student responses to some similar questions at various points in a semester. Our findings about the effectiveness of flipped classroom teaching in preparing students for class discussions and in improving learning skills as well as retaining knowledge are presented.
      • Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, and Learning in Several Introductory Physics Tracks

      • PST1C55
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by James Wu, Catherine Crouch,, Benjamin Geller,

      • Type: Poster
      • We examine survey data on student attitudes, self-efficacy, demographics, and learning in Swarthmore's three different introductory physics tracks (for life science students, engineers, and prospective majors). We report how these variables relate to student learning in these different contexts, with a particular focus on seeking beginning-of-semester information that might help identify students who are likely to struggle, and whether that information suggests any possible interventions. We also examine which students demonstrate improvements in attitudes and self-efficacy, and which stay the same or decline.
      • Coulomb's Law: Not a One-on-One Game to Students

      • PST1C57
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30PM - 9:15PM
      • by David Maloney,
      • Type: Poster
      • We investigated students thinking about the interaction of two positively charged objects when other charges or objects were introduced between them. We constructed a sequence of five tasks where a variety of spherical shells were placed around one of the two charged objects. The students were asked to compare each variation to the base case on the push one of the positively charged objects exerted on the other. We pre-tested and post-tested students in an algebra-based college general physics course and found that the majority of the students think the interaction between two charges changes when external objects are around. We found clear patterns in the way students thought about the different variations. And we were able to identify several common mechanisms the students think are responsible for the changes. Instruction was found to produce only a moderate change in students' thinking.
      • Network Analysis of Language Used in Quantum Mechanics.

      • PST1C02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Christopher Oakley,
      • Type: Poster
      • Students and faculty at a large research university were interviewed abouttheir expectations of an undergraduate quantum mechanics course. interview questions focused on preparatory content and content to be covered in the course. Network analysis methodologies have been applied to the interview responses to identify words commonly used together for faculty and student responses. From the quantitative data, we look for common themes in expected preparation and course content.
      • Researching Experiences in a Cohort Program to Influence Transfer Self-Efficacy

      • PST1C04
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Laura Wood, Angela Little,, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Poster
      • There remains a great deal of research to do on improving the transfer experience for students transitioning from two-year colleges to four-year colleges. In this presentation we will describe data collected from interviewing current students at Michigan State University who are members of a cohort program that will be adapted for transfer students to join starting fall 2018. This cohort program is designed to give first-year students – intending to major in the natural sciences, and from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds – support in academics, research experiences, and the social experience of integrating into the university. The interview protocol elicited discussion of these students' self-efficacy to complete their science degrees, navigate the academic requirements, and continue in their chosen life paths, specifically drawing out mastery, vicarious learning, and social persuasion experiences. We will discuss how key elements of student experiences in the cohort program may support developing self-efficacy in the transfer process.
      • Social Positioning and Consensus Building in "Board" Meetings With Disagreements

      • PST1C06
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Brant Hinrichs, David Brookes,, Jake Nass,

      • Type: Poster
      • This poster describes a whole-class whiteboard meeting and analyzes several examples from a college calculus-based introductory physics course and junior-level E&M course taught using modeling instruction. Classes were divided into 3-6 groups of 2-4 students each. Each group created a solution to the same problem on a 2'x 3' whiteboard. The groups then formed a large circle in the center of the classroom with their whiteboards resting against their knees facing in to the rest of the group. The instructor was outside the circle and interjected rarely. Examples are given of conversations where students did and did not overcome sharp disagreements to eventually reach whole-class consensus. We examine how social positioning contributed to students either successfully examining and resolving different ideas or failing to do so. We test the hypothesis that students who "hedged" their statements seemed to "open up" the space for discussion, while those who were more direct seemed to "close" it down.
      • Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics: How Students Experience Physics Courses

      • PST1C08
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Whitney Faries,* Robin Gordon,, Benjamin Dreyfus,

      • Type: Poster
      • Quantitative instruments such as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) are one tool to assess student views about physics, but the interaction between course environments and student responses can be complex. We look at two different sets of classes – algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics – and examine the changes in student attitudes about physics, commitment to physics, and interest in the subject over the two-semester sequence. The survey data (obtained at different points during the year) are supplemented by focus groups and individual interviews with students to examine the elements of the instructional environment that have impacts on students' attitudes.
      • Student Attitudes on Group Exams in STEM Courses

      • PST1C10
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Steven Wolf, Erik Carr,, Timothy Sault,

      • Type: Poster
      • Administering group examinations is a teaching technique that has been gaining traction in recent years, and many faculty implement and assess group exams in different ways. It is not well-understood how students react to each of these faculty choices. Moreover, we want to uncover how students believe group exams affect them, aside from receiving a better grade. To accomplish this we have developed a semi-structured interview protocol, and are interviewing students who have taken group exams with different STEM faculty. We will present preliminary findings from these interviews.
      • Student Outcomes Across Collaborative-Learning Environments

      • PST1C12
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Xochith Herrera, Jayson Nissen,, Benjamin Dusen,

      • Type: Poster
      • The Learning Assistant (LA) model supports instructors in implementing research-based teaching practices in their own courses. In the LA model undergraduate students are hired to help facilitate collaborative learning activities. Most of these activities have research supporting their efficacy. We investigated if the use of LAs is associated with improved student outcomes beyond the improvement caused by the introduction of these collaborative-learning activities. Using the Learning About STEM Student Outcomes (LASSO) database, we examined student learning from 112 first-semester physics courses that used either lecture-based, collaborative learning without LAs, or LA-supported instruction. We measured student learning using responses from 5,959 students on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE) or Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Results from Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) indicated that LA-supported courses had higher posttest scores than collaborative courses without LAs and that LA-supported courses that used LAs in laboratory and recitation had higher posttest scores than those that used LAs in lecture.
      • Students' Attention Patterns in Solving Synthesis Physics Problems*

      • PST1C14
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Bashirah Ibrahim, Lin Ding,

      • Type: Poster
      • Synthesis problems are tasks comprising two or more distinct concepts thatare typically from different chapters and are separated in the teaching timeline. We use eye tracker to explore freshmen physics students' attention patterns when they solve sequential and simultaneous synthesis tasks. Sequential problems require successive applications of multiple concepts, while simultaneous problems involve concurrent applications of different concepts. We found that regardless of the type of synthesis problems, the students spent more time reading the text (50%-90% of fixation time) than reading diagrams. Between the two synthesis types, the students allocated more attention to the diagrams in sequential problems (29%--79% of the fixation time) than to those of simultaneous problems (1%--19%). Further, the students tended to focus more on aspects of the diagrams requiring interpretation and derivation of information for the sequential tasks as opposed to the simultaneous ones. *This work is partially sponsored by NSF and OSU EHE/ACH Seed Grant.
      • Students' Use of Mathematics While Working on Physics Assessments

      • PST1C16
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Amali Priyanka Jambuge, James Laverty,

      • Type: Poster
      • Exams and homework are the most common ways of assessing students' knowledge. These assessments often focus only on assessing physics concepts. With the introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), there is growing interest in assessing not just what students know, but what students can do with their knowledge. The Three-Dimensional Learning Assessment Protocol (3D-LAP) is a tool developed to help people design college assessment tasks that align with NGSS. The purpose of this study is to investigate how well such tasks can assess students' abilities with the scientific practice "using mathematics". We developed an exam with questions based on the 3D-LAP and the exams were given to students in an interview setting using a think-aloud protocol. This poster will focus on some interesting aspects of students' responses to the questions. This work will inform the development of future college level physics assessments.
      • Supporting Undergraduate Physics Students who are the Guardians of a Minor

      • PST1C18
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Rose Young,
      • Type: Poster
      • Parents or guardians who are pursuing an undergraduate degree in physics have many barrier to their success. In this poster, I explore the possibility of extending the standard notions of student support systems to include classroom practices which have enabled undergraduate students to succeed and thrive while pursuing their degree. I ask: Can physics departments be supportive of students with dependent children, and if so, how? By studying students who have/ are thriving in physics, engineering, math and computer science undergraduate degree programs around the United States, the author examines strategies that administrators and faculty use to make their departments supportive and inclusive for student parents. The poster describes the non-traditional challenges physics undergraduates who are the guardians of minors can face, as well as the support systems that may be created, and policies and practices that ensure their success.
      • Teaching about Racial Equity in Physics Classrooms

      • PST1C20
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Elizabeth Schoene, Abigail Daane,, Sierra Decker,, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Poster
      • It may seem daunting to broach the subject of racial inequity in a physicsclassroom. After all, the idea of a (often White) instructor in power tackling a sensitive topic such as social justice can be scary in any classroom. That physics is typically viewed as a "culture with no culture" compounds the issue. However, ignoring the striking underrepresentation of ethnic/racial minorities and women in the physics classroom and the field at large is a great disservice to all our students. We take the position that the persistence of representation disparities in physics is evidence that culture plays a role in who and what is involved. Instructors have an opportunity to explicitly address the absence of equitable circumstances and highlight the obstacles that contribute to the disparity. We describe a pathway for integrating an equity unit into a college physics classroom and share some students' reflections about their experiences.
      • Transforming Modeling Instruction in a Large Classroom Environment

      • PST1C24
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Idaykis Rodriguez, Geoff Potvin,, Laird Kramer,

      • Type: Poster
      • In the past four years, FIU has expanding its offering of modeling instruction (MI) for introductory physics from a 30-student classroom to one that accommodates up to 100 students using multiple teaching resources and implementing several structural changes. MI is a studio-based, active learning curriculum that is derived from social constructivist theories of learning. This expanded classroom has been found to consistently support student learning with strong conceptual learning gains across at least four different instructors. In this talk, we discuss the development of the larger classroom offering, including the strategic use of LAs, the coordination of multiple discussion circles, preparatory meetings with an instructional team spanning multiple sections, and detailed curricular modifications that supported the expansion of MI.
      • Triads, Transitivity, and Group Formation in Student Networks

      • PST1C26
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Timothy Sault, Hunter Close,, Steven Wolf,

      • Type: Poster
      • Actor level social network measures give information that is useful for analyzing the members of a network as well as attributes of their interactions. However, to understand the development of the network as a whole as well as the formation of group collaboration, a different kind of measure is required. Ironically, to understand the macroscopic interactions of a network, one only needs to examine three people at a time. When a single person forms a strong bond with two people, it is likely that these two people will also form a bond with each other. This 'friend of my friend is my friend' concept is called transitivity, and it is intimately linked to group formation. Triads can also show us the formation of status levels within a network through structural hierarchy. We will examine the development of structural hierarchy and transitivity over the course of a semester in the context of group physics exam student networks.
      • Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Eclipses

      • PST1C28
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Craig Wiegert, Matthew Parker,

      • Type: Poster
      • Research literature on conceptual understanding of the mechanisms of solarand lunar eclipses, and more generally lunar phases, has tended to focus on middle-school and high-school student populations. Taking advantage of the excitement surrounding the Great American Solar Eclipse of 2017, we surveyed undergraduate STEM and non-STEM majors on their conceptual understanding of eclipses. We report on the results of this survey and its implications for undergraduate general science education.
      • Understanding Model Revision as Changes in Mechanistic Reasoning about Systems*

      • PST1C30
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Michael Wittmann, Lauren Barth-Cohen,

      • Type: Poster
      • Recent science teaching standards have highlighted the role of model revision as a scientific practice and there is common agreement that models should incorporate scientific mechanisms. Yet, there is little agreement in the literature about what model revision entails and how to scaffold students' model revision. Model revision happens at different time scales, different grain sizes, and in many different ways. We propose the use of a framework that looks at the role of mechanistic reasoning in the models being revised. We present four episodes from a ninth grade classroom activity using Energy Theater to model the roughly steady state temperature of the Earth. We look at the entities, actions, and other elements of the model, and show that the ways in which they change are consistent with Russ's framework of mechanistic reasoning.
      • Using Machine Learning to Predict Integrating Computation into Physics Courses

      • PST1C34
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Nicholas Young, Marcos Caballero,

      • Type: Poster
      • Computation is a central aspect of 21st century physics practice; it is used to model complicated systems, to simulate impossible experiments, and to analyze mountains of data. Physics departments and their faculty are increasingly recognizing the importance of teaching computation to their students. We recently completed a national survey of faculty in physics departments to understand the state of computational instruction and the factors that underlie that instruction. The data collected from the 1257 faculty responding to the survey included a variety of scales, binary questions, and numerical responses. We then used supervised learning to explore the factors that are most predictive of whether a faculty member decides to include computation in their physics courses. We find that personal, attitudinal, and departmental factors vary in usefulness for predicting whether faculty include computation in their courses. We will present the least and most predictive personal, attitudinal, and departmental factors.
      • Vectors in Math and Physics Courses: An Instructional Gap

      • PST1C36
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Brian Farlow, Chaelee Dalton,, Warren Christensen,

      • Type: Poster
      • A research collaboration seeking to develop a research-based curriculum for a math methods course has found that upper-division physics students struggle with some vector concepts in non-Cartesian coordinate systems. The findings indicated a need to further explore what students are being taught about vectors and coordinate systems before they take courses such as intermediate mechanics and electromagnetism. An analysis of textbooks commonly used in Calculus III courses shows an overwhelming emphasis on Cartesian coordinates and mostly surface-level instruction, if any at all, about non-Cartesian coordinate systems (see Dalton et al). An analysis of commonly used textbooks in upper-division mechanics and E&M courses also reveals several gaps between how students learn about vectors and coordinate systems in math courses and how they are expected to use them in physics courses. We report on these gaps and discuss possible implications for instruction and curriculum design for physics courses.
      • Weekly Online Quizzes Outperform Written Quizzes

      • PST1C40
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by David Pritchard, Byron Drury,, Sunbok Lee,, Chandra Singh,, Michelle Tomasik,

      • Type: Poster
      • Starting with standard concept inventories by Singh and others, we createdsingle topic online assessments taking ~½ hour by evening the coverage across subtopics, and including some questions requiring symbolic response. We administered these weekly along with ½ hour on-paper quizzes graded with partial credit in a remedial introductory mechanics course. Optimum reliability of the online quizzes occurred when weighting 1.0 (0.7) for first (subsequent) attempt correct. Both quiz averages correlated well with the traditional hand-graded long problems on the final exam (~0.8), and with the Mechanics Baseline Test online post-test (0.7) [1], but the online quizzes correlated much better with both the concept questions on the final exam and the Mechanics Reasoning Inventory [2]. We conclude that online quizzes are a better measure of overall student ability in mechanics, likely due to the combination of research-developed questions, selection of high discrimination questions, and absence of grading error.
      • What Makes Instructional Development Teams Successful?

      • PST1C42
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Diana Sachmpazidi, Alice Olmstead,, Charles Henderson,, Andrea Beach,

      • Type: Poster
      • Team-based change efforts are a promising model for improving undergraduate STEM instruction. However, current literature on this topic is limited. To address this gap, we are investigating the characteristics of such teams. Our research focuses on understanding teamwork processes, which are closely tied to team outcomes. We will show our emerging framework that explains how structural and contextual factors influence team processes. This framework is based on interview data from project leaders and pilot data from team members for a subset of teams in our dataset. We will also explore team members' perspectives on, for example, how their team processes were established, the nature of their collaboration, and how conflicts that emerged during their work were resolved. We will show how these perspectives informed the initial framework developed primarily from interviews with project leaders. We will present recommendations for practitioners and researchers.
      • Who Declares an Engineering Major – A Study of Engineering Pathways

      • PST1C44
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Seth DeVore, Cabot Zabriskie,, John Stewart,

      • Type: Poster
      • Engineering majors make up a large percentage of students moving through many introductory physics sequences. This being said, understanding the pathways that these students take to enter, exit, or maintain their path through engineering degree programs is an important step in increasing the number of STEM graduates generated. In this study, we examine 15 years worth of institutional data from one Eastern land-grant university to identify common pathways leading to successful degree completion, as well as departure from the engineering program. A better understanding of the commonalities of students on these pathways may lead to targeted interventions to prevent unnecessary departures from engineering programs.
      • Academic Performance of on-Campus and Online Physics Students

      • PST1C46
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by John Long, Purna Poudel,

      • Type: Poster
      • Online education in science has increased dramatically in the past 15 years. In spite of this, there are still relatively few online university physics courses. For 20 years, Deakin University in Australia has delivered physics education to engineering students both online and on-campus, two simultaneous sections of the same course: SEP101, Engineering Physics. We present a statistical analysis of the students' academic performance over a 20-year period. We examine all the assessment associated with the course – assignments, lab, and the exam, for over 4000 on-campus and online students. Overall, as far as numerical grades are concerned, we found no statistically significant difference between the academic performance of on-campus and online students. Some significant differences were observed in individual years. This work shows that in an introductory university physics course, it is possible to teach both on-campus and online students, producing the same learning outcomes for both cohorts.
      • Algebraic Signs in Introductory Kinematics: A Redundant Educational Issue?

      • PST1C48
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Moa Eriksson,
      • Type: Poster
      • This poster reports on a case study involving 82 students drawn from Sweden and South Africa regarding how students think about, and consequently use, plus and minus algebraic signs in introductory-level kinematics. The results indicate that coming to appropriately understand the use of these signs presents a significant learning challenge to many students. The results are presented in terms of four qualitatively different categories, which are used to suggest there is a need for a new set of tutorials, which could be used to effectively enhance the functional understanding of the use of plus and minus algebraic signs in kinematics.
      • Assessable Learning Objectives: Collaborative Development, Implementation, and Evaluation

      • PST1C50
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Charles Ruggieri, Debbie Andres,, Eugenia Etkina,, Suzanne White Brahmia,

      • Type: Poster
      • Large enrollment physics courses for engineers at Rutgers include many components, with a team of faculty responsible for content. Course leaders change every few years and often modify materials based on their own experiences. To address this multifaceted and dynamic course administration environment, we initiated the Assessable Learning Objectives Project, which has helped inform the transformation of a large-enrollment calculus-based electricity and magnetism course. Faculty and PER researchers collaborated to construct learning objectives based on published goals from several sources. We analyzed course components (lecture, lab, workshop, quizzes, homework, and exams), determined in which components student engage with the desired objectives, and then coupled objectives with existing assessments to evaluate if the objectives are being met. In this poster, we address the learning objective development process, provide examples of assessable learning objectives, and discuss objectives that are not easily coupled with an assessment.
      • Assessing the Effectiveness of Enhancement in Content and Pedagogy Made to an Algebra-based Physics Course

      • PST1C52
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Sithy Maharoof,
      • Type: Poster
      • There is an increasing need for teaching physics courses with the goal of helping students build multi-discipline scientific competencies. As part of fulfilling this need, a substantial amount of research has been done in 4-year institutions on transforming Introductory Physics for Life-Sciences (IPLS) courses to incorporate interdisciplinary content. However, there exists little to no information on the use of reformed IPLS courses in 2-year institutions. Hence my research focused on two 2-semester sequence of algebra-based physics courses at Carroll Community College. These courses serve students with life-science background and with a broad spectrum of career goals, such as physical therapy, sonography, nuclear medicine, MRI specialist, radiography, sports medicine, and pre-pharmacy. In this poster presentation, I will describe the designing, teaching, and assessing an IPLS model in the first of the two algebra-based physics courses described above, and I will share preliminary results from CLASS and FCI assessments along with several IPLS learning modules created as part of this project.
      • Attitudes and Perceptions of Math Used in Physics-Intensive Careers

      • PST1C54
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jessica Hathaway, Anne Leak,, Erik Reiter,, Kelly Martin,, Benjamin Zwickl,

      • Type: Poster
      • Students' perceptions and attitudes toward math have been linked to physics identity and persistence in STEM, particularly in K-20 education, yet attitudes of new employees in physics-intensive careers are less understood. We interviewed 25 new hires and managers to understand the attitudes and perceptions of mathematics done in physics workplaces. Using an emergent qualitative coding process and value coding we explored how employees valued math on the job, perceived the difficulty of math they used, and their confidence in their math abilities. Employees perceived the math they used as easy and were generally confident in doing math for their job, yet some perceptions reflected a fixed mindset toward learning math. These findings suggest that when math is embedded in a concrete physics context and is routinely used, learners may develop higher feelings of confidence and lower perceived difficulty than while learning mathematics in school.
      • Beliefs and Performance: Male and Female Engineers in Introductory Physics

      • PST1C56
      • Mon 07/30, 9:15PM - 10:00PM
      • by Jennifer Blue, Amy Summerville,, Brian Kirkmeyer,

      • Type: Poster
      • As part of a larger study, we examined the effects of gender on performance and self-perception in a calculus-based physics course. This course is a prerequisite for our engineering majors and often proves to be a gatekeeper course for them. We surveyed students on their self-efficacy and their mindset, asked them about their exam scores, and then asked them about their affective and cognitive regret concerning their exams. Although self-reported exam scores were equivalent in each study, at times the beliefs of men and women differed. In Study 2, women had more of a growth mindset than men after the first exam. In both studies, men had higher self-efficacy at the start of the course, though the gap closed after the exams were returned in Study 2. And in Study 1, women reported more affective (but not cognitive) regret than men did.
  • Physics Education Research II

      • Building on Institutional Efforts: Results from the TRESTLE Project*

      • PST2C01
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Stephanie Chasteen,
      • Type: Poster
      • The University of Colorado Boulder has benefited from decades of programs aimed at STEM education improvements, including the Science Education Initiative (SEI; 2005-2014), initiated by Carl Wieman. The SEI provided funding and training for postdoctoral fellows to partner with faculty in STEM departments on course transformation. In 2015, seven institutions joined forces to apply the SEI model across a variety of institutional contexts, creating the Transforming Education, Stimulating Teaching and Learning Excellence (TRESTLE; http://trestlenetwork.org) network. At CU Boulder, the TRESTLE project has provided a mechanism for faculty involved in the former SEI to continue to engage in educational transformation, and to involve faculty newer to this work, through course transformation awards and faculty learning communities. In this poster I will share the approach used at CU Boulder, initial outcomes of the project, and implications for supporting sustained faculty engagement in educational improvements.
      • Comparatives About Beginnings of the Teaching of Physics in Latin America

      • PST2C03
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Jhonny Alexis Medina Paredes, Mario Humberto Ramírez Díaz,

      • Type: Poster
      • In the Latin American region from colonial times with ecclesiastical institutions, especially the teaching of science in general and physics in particular has had great importance in the training of scientists and engineers. However, each country since its independence has given a particular importance to some physics themes in function of their national characteristics, an example is the minery in Colombia or wood in Chile. In this work we show a comparative between some Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Chile and México) and their first efforts to introduce the physics in schools and develop a scientific culture around this discipline until the formation to the first physics schools in the region.
      • Comparing Student Performance Across Closed-Response and Open-Response Assessments

      • PST2C05
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Cole Walsh, Katherine Quinn,, N.G. Holmes,

      • Type: Poster
      • Closed-response diagnostic assessments are often developed from open-response versions, where students' responses are used to generate the closed-response options. Similarities in student performance between the two versions are typically used as a measure of validity. The Physics Lab Inventory of Critical thinking (PLIC) was developed in the same way, using a "select multiple responses" closed-response assessment. This format reflects the fact that students and experts expressed multiple possible correct answers to many of the questions. A previous study on the Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics Diagnostic (CUE) reported no significant differences in student performance and completion time between an open-response version and a "select multiple responses" version of their assessment. However, in our analysis of the PLIC, we have found noticeable differences between the two versions. We'll discuss possible explanations for these differences in terms of the validity of the assessment and student thinking, as well as implications for efficient evaluation of students' critical thinking.
      • Connecting Three Pivotal Concepts in K-12 Science State Standards and Maps of Conceptual Growth to Research in Physics Education*

      • PST2C07
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Christian Schunn,

      • Type: Poster
      • We describe three conceptual areas in physics that are particularly important targets for educational interventions in K-12 science. These conceptual areas are force and motion, conservation of energy, and waves which were prominent in the US national and four US state standards that we examined. The four U.S. state standards that were analyzed to explore the extent to which the K-12 science standards differ in different states were selected to include states in different geographic regions and of different sizes. The three conceptual areas that were common to all the four state standards are conceptual building blocks for other science concepts covered in the K-12 curriculum. Since these three areas have been found to be ripe with deep student conceptual difficulties that are resilient to conventional physics instruction, the nature of difficulties in these areas is described, along with pointers towards approaches that have met with some success in each conceptual area. *We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Culture and Ideology in How LAs "See" (In)equity in Student Groups*

      • PST2C09
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Hannah Sabo, Chandra Turpenbe,, Ayush Gupta, Jennifer Radoff,, Andrew Elby,

      • Type: Poster
      • Learning Assistant (LA) programs have emerged within PER as an effective model for curricular and cultural transformation in undergraduate learning environments. At UMD, adapting from the CU-Boulder model, we started an LA program with two novel and interlinked foci: (1) LAs all mentor teams of engineering students in a team-based first-year engineering design course, and (2) we scaffold the LAs in fostering equitable team dynamics and collaboration. In this poster, we analyze LAs' interpretations of teamwork troubles and instructional responses. We show that LAs' actions and responses more frequently embodied ideological assumptions foregrounding individual merit and responsibility, treating individuals as autonomous agents divorced from their settings, and significantly backgrounding relational dynamics and systems-based analysis of teamwork troubles. These assumptions reflect aspects of broader STEM culture. These observations help us identify gaps in the design of the pedagogy seminar that we hope to address in future iterations.
      • Demonstration Recognition Among 9th-12th Grade Students: A Program Effectiveness Study

      • PST2C11
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Patrick Morgan,
      • Type: Poster
      • Since 2011, the Science Theatre program at Michigan State University (MSU)has been visiting schools in the Upper Peninsula during the MSU Spring Break. These schools are only visited once a year, and otherwise have little or none science outreach exposure. In 2017, a survey was conducted among 157 high school students at St. Ignace Senior High School to look for any form of demonstration recognition. The goal was to find evidence that these students, who have seen the program once each year, would be able to recognize and identify some of the demonstrations. What we found was a much greater level of recognition than anticipated, along with a recognition of terminology and topics discussed, suggesting that there is a form of learning. These results, as well as the 2018 follow-up survey, will be presented and discussed.
      • Designing a Dashboard to Evaluate Student Engagement with PhET Simulations

      • PST2C13
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Diana Berenice López-Tavares, Sam Reid,, Katherine Perkins,, Carlos Aguirre-Velez,

      • Type: Poster
      • Do you assign PhET simulations for homework? Do you wonder how your students are engaging with the simulations outside of class? In this poster, we present prototypes of a new dashboard design that aims to provide teachers with useful information about the level of student engagement that their activities generate with PhET Interactive Simulations. We utilize PhET-iO simulations, which are enhanced with the ability to capture and record students' mouse activity as they interact with the simulation. The dashboard uses several approaches to visualize the students' mouse activity data, showing individual student interaction patterns with the simulation as well as the aggregated information of an entire group. We invite you to review and feedback on these dashboard designs with your ideas for improvements.
      • Developing and Validating a Conceptual Survey to Assess Introductory Students' Understanding of Thermodynamics*

      • PST2C15
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Chandralekha Singh, Ben Brown,

      • Type: Poster
      • We discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey called the Survey of Thermodynamic Processes and First and Second Laws (STPFaSL) suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common student difficulties with these concepts and the incorrect answers to the multiple-choice questions were designed based on the common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, the final version was administered at six different institutions and the performances of the same type of students, e.g., calculus-based introductory students, from different institutions are similar. In particular, the survey was administered to introductory physics students in various traditionally taught calculus-based and algebra-based classes in paper-pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students for bench marking and content validity and compared their performance with those of introductory students for whom the survey is intended. We find that although the survey focuses on thermodynamics concepts covered in introductory courses, it is challenging even for advanced students. Findings will be presented. *We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Do I Belong Here?: Understanding Participation and non-Participation in a Contentious "Board" Meetings

      • PST2C17
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Jared Durden, Brant Hinrichs,

      • Type: Poster
      • In University Modeling Instruction, students work in small groups on a problem and then hold a large-group discussion to develop whole-class consensus. While such interactive-engagement can help students learn, evidence suggests not all students share the same experience or feel equally included. We have developed a preliminary coding scheme based on Wegner's framework from "Communities of Practice", which identifies student modes of belonging through participation and non-participation. In this poster, we code and analyze reflective student writing assignments on a particularly contentious mid-semester large group discussion and individual end of the semester interviews with each student about the course structure itself. Using this lens, we identify students' varying perceptions of the large group discussion and how it influenced their participation. By developing a descriptive model of student engagement, we seek to develop a predictive model to inform professional development for instructors who teach in student centered classrooms.
      • TA Performance at Identifying Student Difficulties in Electricity and Magnetism

      • PST2C19
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Nafis Karim, Alexandru Maries,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • We discuss research involving teaching assistants' knowledge of introductory students' alternate conceptions in electricity and magnetism as revealed by the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM). For each item on the CSEM, the TAs were asked to (1) identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students and (2) predict the percentage of introductory students who would answer the question correctly in a post-test. We used CSEM post-test data from approximately 400 introductory physics students, as in the original CSEM article, to assess the extent to which the TAs were able to identify the alternate conceptions of introductory students related to electricity and magnetism. We find that the TAs struggled to think about the difficulty of the questions from introductory students' perspective and they often underestimated the difficulty of the questions. We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Who Should Study Harder, and When?

      • PST2C21
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Zhongzhou Chen, Geoffrey Garrido,, Andrea Tama,, Michael MIkulec,, Kyle Whitcomb,

      • Type: Poster
      • When is it a good idea to ask students to "spend more time studying"? Correlating learning behavior and effort with students' learning outcome at scale has always been a challenging question. Mastery-based online instructional design significantly improves our ability to answer this question by integrating formative assessment into the learning process. By analyzing data collected from multiple online learning modules using the UCF Obojobo platform, we're able to suggest the optimum amount of time that students should spend on studying each module, as well as identify those students who are probably spending an insufficient amount of time studying. In addition, it also identifies students who spend too much time and is likely struggling with the content. The results of this research could in the future lead to an automated system that provides students with personalized learning guidance.
      • Embodying the Abstract or Abstracting from the Body

      • PST2C23
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Elias Euler, Elmer Rådahl,, Bor Gregorcic,

      • Type: Poster
      • Some discussions of kinesthetic learning activities include a distinction between (1) activities that involve students' bodies as symbolic representations and (2) activities that incorporate students' bodies as sensors for experiencing things such as forces and torques. In this poster, we go beyond this binary distinction to propose a theoretical interpretation of how the body can be included in physics learning. We then use our interpretation in discussing an example from a learning activity where a pair of students spontaneously recruited an embodied metaphor as part of their reasoning about binary stars.
      • Enhancing the Resolution of Learning Assessment through Online Modularized Instructional Design

      • PST2C25
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Kyle Whitcomb,* Zhongzhou Chen,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • Online learning technology can greatly extend the boundaries of traditional assessment by providing new types of tasks and collecting a richer variety of data. We present a case of assessment design using a sequence of three online learning modules, presenting students with a transfer task, a worked example and a second transfer task in sequence. This new design enables us to measure students' immediate knowledge gain and near transfer ability, as well as "preparation of future learning" effects, after studying an online problem solving tutorial. In addition to learning outcomes, data from the assessment also sheds light on students' motivations, learning habits and learning strategies, which provides instructors with a more holistic picture of each individual student.
      • Examination of Epistemic Agency Due to Implementing Culturally Relevant Practices

      • PST2C27
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Clausell Mathis, Mark Akubo,, Sherry Southerland,

      • Type: Poster
      • This qualitative case study examines how implementing culturally relevant practices in the classroom activates students' epistemic agency. A revised physics curriculum is developed in order to use students' cultural resources as a pedagogical tool. Teachers enacted classroom lessons where content was problematized to address social inequities in the classroom. A developed instrument - the classroom observation protocol for epistemic agency (COPEA) will be used to document and examine instances of students' epistemic agency. We analyze video data in pursuit of exploring how the implementation of culturally relevant practices may relate to the quality of epistemic agency exercised by students. it is important to search for insights into instructional strategies that draw upon students' cultural resources, foregrounding shared-authority and supporting their taking of responsibility for the construction of knowledge in the classroom community. This may reveal insights into long term affordances and constraints for diversity in physics.
      • Exploring Students' Understanding of the Motion of Rigid Body*

      • PST2C29
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Min-Fan Hsieh, Shih-Yin Lin,

      • Type: Poster
      • One topic typically discussed in an introductory mechanics course is the motion of rigid body. However, our anecdotal experiences suggest that many students do not have a good understanding of the motion of rigid body, especially when rotation is involved. For example, few students know that any pair of particles on a rigid body doesn't have relative velocity toward or away from each other. In addition, students may not realize the constraints of choosing a reference point for torque and moment of inertia in the rotational equations of motion. In this study, a set of problems about the motion of rigid body and relevant rotational equations of motion is developed and administered to a group of students who have taken introductory mechanics course. Findings from the study will be presented. *Supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan under grant No. MOST 106-2511-S-018-003-MY2.
      • Gateways ND: Investigating Professional Development at North Dakota State University*

      • PST2C31
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Alistair McInerny, Mila Kryjevskaia,, Jared Ladbury,, Paul Kelter,

      • Type: Poster
      • A North Dakota State University professional development program is designed to facilitate and improve the use of active learning pedagogies at the college level. Over the course of two years participants attend four 2-day workshops and regular Faculty Learning Communities. While evaluation of the program is being approached from many angles, the research presented here discusses our use of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Retrospective-Pretests. We will talk about the link between participants' beliefs and intentions as well as their actions in the classroom (as measured by COPUS). We will show that our use of the retrospective-pretests allows us to detect changes in the impact of the program on its participants that traditional pre-tests would fail to capture. *This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DUE-1525056.
      • How to Train Ethical Behavior in Research: Fixing Confirmation Bias

      • PST2C33
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Martin Stein, N Holmes,, Emily Smith,

      • Type: Poster
      • In Intro Physics Labs we have seen students engaging in questionable research practices that seem to arise from a confirmation bias. In our labs, students are free to change the experimental setup and are not graded on the correctness of their results. Analyzing video and audio recordings, as well as lab books, we observed some students skillfully manipulating the experimental setup, and data that contradicted a presented model, to yield the expected result. While some students did not record these practices in their write-ups, we were surprised by other students accurately documenting questionable research behavior. A subsequent discussion revealed the inadequacy of the model. Towards the end of the semester, some students provided unsolicited reflections on their biases, indicating that they remember and value such an experience in their scientific education. We hope this experience serves them as a preparation for learning about the responsible and ethical conduct of research.
      • Identifying and Scaling Up What Helps Women of Color Thrive

      • PST2C35
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Rose Young, Elizabeth Mulvey,, Vanessa Webb,, Apriel Hodari,, Angela Johnson,

      • Type: Poster
      • Researchers from Eureka Scientific, Inc. and St. Mary's College of Maryland are conducting in-depth, mixed-method investigations of out-performing STEM departments in the United States and England in which women of color are thriving. The project identifies shared approaches across these departments; developing a body of tested, practical elements of success that STEM departments can adopt; and a set of measures that will let the departments monitor the success of their transformation process. The project will advance research-based knowledge to promote systemic change in STEM education and will provide a clearer understanding about factors that promote success for young women of color in a variety of institutional contexts. The project will culminate in a meeting with participants from 11 institutions who will examine the applicability of the findings at their home institutions including: doctoral universities, master's universities, baccalaureate colleges, open enrollment, public and private institutions. This poster will examine the quantitave data analysis conducted during this research.
      • Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law*

      • PST2C37
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Chandralekha, Singh, Jing Li,

      • Type: Poster
      • We discuss an investigation of the difficulties that students in a university introductory physics course have with Coulomb's law and Gauss' law and how that research was used as a guide in the development, validation, and evaluation of tutorials on these topics to help students learn these concepts. The tutorial uses a guided inquiry-based approach to learning and involved an iterative process of development and evaluation. The final version of the tutorial was administered in several sections of a calculus-based introductory physics course after traditional instruction in relevant concepts. We discuss the performance of students in individual interviews and on the pre-test administered before the tutorial (but after traditional lecture-based instruction) and on the post-test administered after the tutorial in three sections of the introductory physics course. We also compare student performance in several sections of the course in which students worked on the tutorial with another section in which students only learned via traditional lecture-based instruction. We find that students who used the tutorial performed significantly better compared to those who learned the material only via traditional lecture-based instruction. *We thank the National Science Foundation for support.
      • Instructor Approaches to Teaching Computational Physics Problems in Problem-based Courses

      • PST2C39
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Alanna Pawlak, Paul Irving,, Marcos Caballero,

      • Type: Poster
      • An increasing number of introductory physics courses are seeking to incorporate "authentic practices", and one way they are doing this is by including computational problems. Computational problems offer students an opportunity to engage with the programming practices and numerical problem solving methods used by physicists. Understanding how instructors approach teaching such problems is important for improving instruction and problem design. We conducted a phenomenographic study using semi-structured interviews with instructors in a problem-based introductory mechanics course that incorporates several computational problems. The instructors we interviewed were undergraduate learning assistants, individuals who were previously successful as students in the course. Their prior involvement as students, along with their relatively fewer experiences with programming and physics compared to the faculty instructors, give them a unique perspective on teaching in the course. We present here the results of our analysis, which describe the experiences of learning assistants teaching computational problems in this course.
      • Investigating Grading Beliefs and Practices of Graduate Student Teaching Assistants Using a Rubric

      • PST2C41
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Emily Marshman,, Charles Henderson,, Chandralekha Singh,, Edit Yerushamli,

      • Type: Poster
      • Physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading. Findings of physics education research (PER) suggest that instructors should use grading practices that place the burden of proof for explicating the problem-solving process on students to help them develop problem-solving skills and learn physics. However, TAs may not have learned effective grading practices and may hesitate to take off points if the final answer is correct but the problem-solving process is not explicated. This case study investigated whether TAs apply a PER-inspired grading rubric similar to PER experts and TAs' stated pros and cons of using such a rubric. We also examined whether discussions within a TA professional development course about the benefits of using such a rubric helped TAs shift where they place the burden of proof. Analysis of TAs' written responses, class discussions, and individual interviews suggest that a one-semester intervention was insufficient to change where the TAs placed the burden of proof. We thank the National Science Foundation for their support.
      • Investigating Reasons for Why Self-Paced Interactive Electronic Learning Tutorials Express a Challenge for Engaging Students

      • PST2C43
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Edana Wilke, Alexandru Maries,, Zhongzhou Chen,

      • Type: Poster
      • While the use and availability of electronic self-paced learning tools hasbeen growing in recent years, research suggests that many students do not engage with the learning tools as intended, resulting in less than desirable transfer of learning. A critical issue then remains how to design the implementation of electronic self-paced learning tools to encourage students to engage with them properly from them. We conducted an investigation in which students in an introductory physics course used self-paced, interactive, electronic learning tutorials as an extra aid in preparing for exams. The tutorials were designed around a challenging problem, similar to what students may encounter in an exam. The tutorial divided the problem into a series of subproblems which take the form of multiple-choice questions, with the goal of guiding students to use effective problem-solving strategies. We investigated a potential approach to motivate students to actively engage with the tutorials. Students were divided in two groups, one which was required to attempt the tutorial problem (by submitting an answer) before being allowed to move on to the guided subproblems (referred to as the RQ group). The other group, NRQ group, was given an option to skip the tutorial problem and move on to the guided subproblems. We found evidence students in the RQ group were slightly more likely to learn from the tutorial than the NRQ group, suggesting that requiring students to initially think about the problem may force them to be more active in the tutorial. We also discuss other possible interventions based on our study.
      • Investigating Student Resources in Integrated Computational Science Courses

      • PST2C45
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Odd Petter Sand, Marcos Caballero,, Christine Lindstrøm,

      • Type: Poster
      • Using the resources framework, the PER community has gained valuable insights into the cognitive nature of how students learn physics, and these insights are in turn helping to transform physics education. Our goal is to similarly investigate student resources in a computational setting and develop an analytical framework for how students use computation in a scientific setting. Ideally, building computation into science courses not only teaches students to use valuable tools, but also assists in a deeper understanding of the science itself. We present here initial findings from interviews and observations of first-year biology students learning computation in a course where programming, mathematics and biology concepts are deeply integrated.
      • Know-Why in Determining Cross Product Directions in Introductory Electromagnetism

      • PST2C47
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Liang Zeng, Yi Zeng,

      • Type: Poster
      • Vectors and cross products play a fundamental role in determining the directions of vectors in electromagnetism in introductory algebra-based physics course. Research studies have shown that students have a great deal of difficulty with vector operations in general and particularly with physics problem-solving related to vector cross products. General physics textbooks normally present physical mnemonic techniques (various left-hand rules and right-hand rules) to teach students how to determine the directions of the unknown vectors involved in cross products. Because knowledge includes both the "know-how" and "know-why," this paper argues that we need to teach students not only how to use the hand rules, but also why we use these hand rules by conceptually introducing the directional relationship among vectors in cross products to improve knowledge transfer skills.
      • Learning Assistants as Constructors of Feedback: How Are They Impacted?

      • PST2C49
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Paul Hamerski, Paul Irving,, Daryl McPadden,

      • Type: Poster
      • Project and Practices in Physics (P-Cubed) is a flipped section of introductory, calculus-based physics, which is designed with a problem-based learning approach where students work in groups on complex physics problems. Learning Assistants (LAs) are critical to the course, where they each function as a primary instructor for four to eight students by asking questions and prompting discussion during class. LAs in P-Cubed also write individualized weekly feedback to each of their students, which is meant to offer suggestions to the student for how to improve their work in class and provide the student with a justification for their in-class grade. We conducted semi-structured interviews with LAs -- selected to portray a broad range of approaches to feedback -- to examine the ways that they construct feedback and how this impacts their own experiences as students taking classes. In this presentation, we compare the reflections and experiences of these LAs.
      • LGBT+ in STEM: The Transgender Experience

      • PST2C51
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Vanessa Webb,
      • Type: Poster
      • It has been widely reported that youth are more accepting of LGBT+ identities, and an increasing number of colleges and universities allow students to use gender-neutral pronouns. Yet, research on how inclusive STEM educational cultures are of sexual identity and gender fluidity is meager. According to a survey by the Human Rights Campaign, 75 percent of LGBT+ youth report that most of their peers have no problem with their LGBT+ identity, yet 4 in 10 say the community in which they live is not accepting (HRC, 2012). STEM cultures are configured within this broader context, and little is known about the LGBT+ acceptance and inclusion within them. In this poster we present interview results on the lived experiences of transgender undergraduates in physics, mathematics, and computer science, asking whether institutions that are more inclusive by gender and race, compared to that of other institutions, are more inclusive for them.
      • Participation and Performance on Paper-based vs. Computer-based Low-Stakes Assessments

      • PST2C53
      • Wed 08/01, 9:30AM - 10:15AM
      • by Manher Jariwala, Jayson Nissen,, Eleanor Close,, Ben Van Dusen,

      • Type: Poster
      • Research-based assessments (RBAs), such as the Force Concept Inventory, have played central roles in transforming courses from traditional lecture-based instruction to research-based teaching methods. To support instructors in assessing their courses, the online Learning About STEM Student Outcomes (LASSO) platform simplifies administering, scoring, and interpreting RBAs. Reducing the barriers to using RBAs will support more instructors in objectively assessing the efficacy of their courses and transforming their courses to improve student outcomes. We investigate the extent to which RBAs administered outside of class with the online LASSO platform provided equivalent data to traditional paper and pencil tests administered in class. We used an experimental design to investigate the differences between these two test modes with 1,310 students in three college physics courses. Analysis conducted with Hierarchical Linear Models indicates that the online LASSO platform can provide equivalent data to paper and pencil tests in terms of student participation and performance.
      • Comparative Experiments: Investigating Student Reasoning with Pictorial and Graphical Data

      • PST2C02
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Jacob Cermak, Rebecca Rosenblatt,, Raymond Zich,, Amber Sammons,

      • Type: Poster
      • In this study, we performed several comparative experiments exploring changes to students' response patterns and reasoning due to task variations. Students worked on tasks reasoning with sets of graphed and pictured data. We explored the effects of graph style (scatter vs. bar), graph data (numerical vs. percentage), question wording (presence vs. absence of a "none-of-the-above" answer), data change (countable vs. non-numerical variation), and time spent (required wait time vs. no wait time). These comparative studies showed several aspects of student reasoning with data. While most students will create a numerical bar graph when asked to make a graph, there is no disparity in students' skills interpreting other graphs. The absence of a "none-of-the-above" answer causes lower consistency of responses. Student correctness and reasoning improves when students are required to spend longer with a set of data. Lastly, some students struggle reasoning with pictured data that does not numerically change.
      • Comparing Methods for Addressing Missing Data for Concept Inventories

      • PST2C04
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Jayson Nissen, Robin Donatello,, Ben Van Dusen,

      • Type: Poster
      • The most common method for addressing missing data in the PER literature is complete case analysis, where researchers only analyze matched samples. However, many statisticians recommend researchers use multiple-imputation (MI) to address missing data. We used simulated datasets to compare estimates of student learning using complete case analysis and MI. We based the simulated datasets on grades and concept inventories from 1,310 students in three physics courses and grade distributions from 192 STEM courses. We created missing data in the simulated datasets based on participation models from Jariwala et al. (PERC, 2017). Results showed that complete-case analysis tended to overestimate scores with a larger effect on the posttest but that MI only slightly overestimated scores. To improve the accuracy, precision, and utility of pre-/post-CI measurements, we recommend that researchers use MI and that researchers report descriptive statistics for both the participants and non-participants in their studies.
      • Conceptual Difficulties Faced by College Students in Understanding Hydrodynamics

      • PST2C06
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Arturo Marti, Alvaro Suarez,, Sandra Kahan,, Genaro Zavala,

      • Type: Poster
      • The physics of ideal fluids is studied at the introductory level in first-year university courses. An in-depth understanding of this topic requires, in addition to a knowledge of the basics of classical mechanics (statics, kinematics and dynamics), knowledge of the specific concepts to fluids such as current lines, pressure, propulsion, and conservation of different physical quantities. Physics education research shows that the conceptual difficulties to understand the phenomena associated with fluids have received relatively uneven attention. Here we describe a study on the conceptual difficulties faced by college students in understanding hydrodynamics of ideal fluids. This study was based on responses obtained in hundreds of written exams complemented with several oral interviews, which were held with first-year Engineering and Science university students. Their responses allowed us to identify a series of misconceptions. The most critical difficulties arise from the students' inability to establish a link between the kinematics and dynamics of moving fluids, and from a lack of understanding regarding how different regions of a system interact.
      • Course Reform vs. Lab Reform: Impact on Student Development

      • PST2C08
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Marina Malysheva, Joshua Rutberg,, Eugenia Etkina,

      • Type: Poster
      • Traditional physics labs have been shown to have little effect on student learning when it comes to both knowledge of physics and scientific abilities. Reformed labs, such as ISLE-based lab, have been shown to significantly improve student scientific abilities when used in conjunction with trained TAs and a course emphasizing the ISLE framework in all its components. We reformed a lab course for second-year engineering students to implement ISLE labs without reforming lectures and recitations. The TAs in the course were undergraduates who were trained in ISLE during one three-hour meeting. We examined lab work done by students, observations of students working in a lab and their performance on course exams to determine whether using ISLE only in the labs with minimally trained TAs allows us to replicate the results from previous studies.
      • Demonstration Recognition Among 1st-6th Grade Students: A Program Effectiveness Study

      • PST2C10
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Patrick Morgan,
      • Type: Poster
      • Since 2011, the Science Theatre program at Michigan State University (MSU)has been visiting schools in the Upper Peninsula during the MSU Spring Break. These schools are only visited once a year, and otherwise have little or none science outreach exposure. In March of 2018, an adapted Draw-A-Scientist-Test (DAST) was conducted among several elementary schools. This test was looking for any evidence of demonstration recognition among grade school students, who have been seeing this program once each year since 2013. The results of this survey will be presented and discussed, as well as any notable trends or patterns.
      • Denoting Leadership Actions/Traits in Group Work

      • PST2C12
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Kristina Griswold, Daryl McPadden,, Marcos Caballero,, Paul Irving,

      • Type: Poster
      • P^3 is an introductory mechanics based physics class at MSU that replaces lectures with a PBL learning environment. To promote the development of group based practices, students all receive group and individual feedback at the end of each week. The groups are comprised of four students, one of which often takes on the role of being the group's "leader". Developing leadership-based skills is a specific learning goal of the P^3 learning environment and the goal of this research is to examine what actions/traits students in P^3 demonstrate while working in their group. The initial phase of this study examines multiple pieces of literature to identify possible characteristics and behaviors that may present themselves in potential leaders. In this poster, we present the initial phase of our code book and a preliminary example of how it can be used to denote leader(s) and followers in our case study.
      • Developing and Evaluating a Tutorial on the Double-Slit Experiment

      • PST2C14
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Ryan Sayer, Alexandru Maries,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Interactive tutorials that build on students' prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with the quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in various situations. Here we discuss the development and evaluation of a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) which makes use of an interactive simulation to improve student understanding. We summarize common difficulties and discuss the extent to which the QuILT is effective in addressing them in two types of physics courses. We thank the National Science Foundation for their support.
      • Do Students Buy-in to Studio Physics Classes?: Survey Analysis

      • PST2C20
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Matthew Wilcox, Jacquelyn Chini,

      • Type: Poster
      • In studio physics classes, instructors may use reformed instructional strategies that students might not expect when they register for the class. As a result, instructors might experience student resistance to these strategies, and that resistance may discourage their continued use of the research-proven strategies. We hypothesize that instructors could reduce student resistance through discussions with students about expectations for the class format and why students should agree with the format. We are investigating how well students agree with the studio format, how their agreement affects their performance in class, and what instructors do to gain student agreement. Two surveys were created that measure student agreement and instructor methods to achieve student agreement. We report on the results of these surveys, finding that student agreement varies greatly within a class but is fairly consistent across physics classes. Additionally, we find that instructors tend to use student-centered methods to discuss student-centered activities.
      • Research Exploring Relevance with a Systems View of Students' Lives

      • PST2C22
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Abhilash Nair, Vashti Sawtelle,

      • Type: Poster
      • Physics reasoning and content knowledge are positioned as being relevant to students earning a degree in STEM. Meanwhile, research has documented that students often leave the classroom stating that physics is less connected to the world than when they started the course. Students' negative responses are often interpreted as students not perceiving the relevance of physics to different facets of their lives: the real world, their everyday life, their personal interests, or their future careers. We present work furthering our understanding of the relevance of physics by taking a systems view to characterize connections and relationships between physics and students' lives. Utilizing case studies of students in an introductory physics for the life-sciences course we present an expanded view on relevance. We discuss how this systems view develops a richer account of the ways in which students may find physics relevant.
      • Engaging Students in Developing and Using Models through Assessments

      • PST2C24
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Katherine Ventura, James Laverty,

      • Type: Poster
      • Recent national reports have elevated learning how to do physics to the same level of importance as learning the concepts of physics. By making these "scientific practices" more prominent in assessments, we hope to see a shift in students' focus toward the process of solving physics problems. Assessing scientific practices is important to determining if we, as educators, are facilitating students' abilities to engage in the process of science. We are investigating how assessments can be designed to engage students in the practice of Developing and Using Models. Using a think-aloud protocol we interviewed students while working on these assessments and analyze the interviews using Grounded Theory. We are looking at two questions: do students engage with the practice and do students get the problem correct? Observing students' engagement informs us how to develop assessments to engage students and how well we can assess practices.
      • Evidence for Effective Group Work in Studio Physics

      • PST2C26
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Trever Bench, Robynne Lock,, Melanie Schroers,, N Gentry,

      • Type: Poster
      • Group work in environments such as studio physics, or SCALE-UP, has been promoted as a method of improving students' conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. However, strategies for creating effective groups and teaching students to work together effectively in university physics classes have not been sufficiently tested. In order to study these strategies, we must first determine what constitutes an effective group and what constitutes an ineffective group. We recorded video of groups in the introductory calculus-based physics sequence at Texas A&M University-Commerce over the course of several semesters. Groups were recorded completing tutorials, problem-solving activities, and labs. In each class section, the instructor suggested a "good" group and a "bad" group to be recorded. Video data has been coded using epistemological framing, and social network analysis has been conducted. We present evidence for what constitutes effective group work.
      • Examining Student Tendencies to Explore Alternate Possibilities*

      • PST2C28
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by J. Caleb Speirs, MacKenzie Stetzer,, Beth Lindsey,

      • Type: Poster
      • As part of a multi-year, multi-institutional effort, we have been investigating and assessing the development of student reasoning skills in introductory calculus-based physics courses. Research in cognitive science suggests that there may be a link between student ability to consider alternative possibilities and student performance on physics problems –– particularly problems in which salient distracting features appear to prevent students from accessing relevant knowledge. We have piloted new tasks designed to measure student ability to consider multiple possibilities when answering a physics problem. These tasks measure the relative accessibility of a mental model (or possibility) as well as student ability to recognize whether or not this model is consistent with given problem constraints. An overview of these tasks will be provided and preliminary results will be discussed. * This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1431857, DUE-1431541, DUE-1431940, DUE-1432765, DUE-1432052, and DRL-0962805.
      • Exploring Trends in Context Dependence on the QMCA

      • PST2C30
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Adam Quaal, Gina Passante,, Steven Pollock,, Homeyra Sadaghiani,

      • Type: Poster
      • The Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment (QMCA) was developed to gauge theeffectiveness of different curricular approaches to upper-division quantum mechanics (Sadaghiani & Pollock, 2015). Due in part to the increased popularity of a spins-first instructional approach to teaching quantum mechanics, we modified several QMCA questions to a spins context. For example, a question about time evolution for a particle in an infinite square well was modified to a question about time evolution for a spin-1/2 particle in a magnetic field. In this work, we compare student responses to analogous questions in the spins and wave functions contexts. Data is taken from several administrations of the QMCA in spins-first classes at three institutions. These results will help inform an updated version of the QMCA.
      • Graduate Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of a Context-Rich Introductory Physics Problem

      • PST2C32
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Melanie Good, Emily Marshman,, Edit Yerushalmi,, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • Posing the same physics problem scenario in different ways can emphasize learning goals for students, such as developing expert-like problem-solving approaches. In this investigation, we examined graduate teaching assistants' (TAs') views about a context-rich introductory physics problem within a semester-long TA professional development course. The TAs were asked to list the pros and cons of a context-rich problem, rank the problem in terms of its instructional benefit and the level of challenge it might produce for their students, and describe when and how often they would use it in their own classes if they had complete control of teaching the class. We find that TAs did not find the context-rich problem to be instructionally beneficial and were unlikely to use it in their own courses. Many TAs expressed their concerns as being due to the problem seeming to be unclear or excessively challenging and time-consuming for their students. These findings suggest that there is a discrepancy between the TAs' perception of a context-rich problem and the benefits of problems posed in this manner according to the physics education research literature.
      • I Just Did What? An Evaluation of Student Self-Assessment

      • PST2C34
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Danielle Bugge, Eugenia Etkina,

      • Type: Poster
      • Within high school classrooms, first-year physics students engage in investigations that focus on the development of scientific abilities. Students in ISLE classrooms are provided with scientific ability rubrics as tools to assist with their experimental design procedures and written laboratory reports. These rubrics contain elements of the science practices that students should consider when planning, designing, carrying out, and analyzing their investigations. When writing up their findings, students self-assess themselves. They are expected to cite specific evidence within their report of where they meet criteria for performance for each of the abilities outlined on the rubric. Over the course of a school year, we tracked student progress with self-assessment on their written laboratory reports. We looked at whether or not their self-evaluations of and proficiency with varying abilities improved over the school year taking into account multiple exposures to the abilities, feedback, and the opportunity to revise their work.
      • Impact of Teaching Methods on Heterogeneity

      • PST2C36
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Claudia Schaefle, Elmar Junker,, Silke Stanzel,

      • Type: Poster
      • We report experiences from a five-year implementation project during whichteaching formats fostering active learning methods have been introduced at the University of Applied Sciences Rosenheim, Germany for engineering students in the first year in physics. We investigate the increasing heterogeneity in the previous knowledge as well as the learning gain in different courses by force concept inventory (FCI), exams and evaluation of students' feedback. Our results show, that: 1. The previous knowledge depends strongly on the type of school graduation. 2. The FCI-Pretest-results are nearly the same for students today and 15 years ago. 3. The learning gains with active learning methods (Just-in-Time-Teaching, Peer Instruction and Tutorials after McDermott et al.) are significantly higher than with traditional lecture. 4. Students appreciate active learning methods and spend more time on the subject. 5. Even with active learning methods the heterogeneity cannot be resolved after one year of study.
      • Instructional Dilemmas Around Energy Representations: Learning Potentials in Faculty Communities

      • PST2C38
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Chandra Turpen, Fred Goldberg,, Adriana Corrales,, Edward Price,, Melissa Dancy,

      • Type: Poster
      • There is significant momentum around building professional learning communities for educators. However, more research is needed to understand how the design and emergent norms of such communities enable or constrain learning. We analyze how university educators with varying degrees of experience teaching with the Next Generation Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (Next Gen PET) curriculum enact conversational routines in professional development contexts that enable opportunities to learn [1]. Through analysis of community members' instructional dilemmas working with energy representations, we illustrate how the shared disciplinary and curricular context allows for collective interpretation to occur [2,3]. We argue that these conversations deepen educators' understanding of student learning in ways that likely have longer-term consequences for their pedagogical content knowledge.
      • Inventory of Academic Stress in Students Studying Physics in Engineering

      • PST2C40
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Oscar Jardey Suarez, Alejandro Hurtado Marquez,, Oscar Antonio Pulido Cardozo,

      • Type: Poster
      • The main purpose of this paper is to disclose the results obtained after adapting and validating the Academic Stress Inventory ASI (initially proposed by Hernández, Polo y Pozo in 1996) with students studying physics in engineering. Academic stress, understood as the cognitive and physiological responses to the activities that oppose learning proper to the physics course. The validation is obtained through the reliability index of Cronbach's alpha, the exploration of the data is made from the Principal Component Analysis PCA. The ASI was increased from 23 to 28 items, with an extension of the domain in the Likert scale response from 1 to 7, Cronbach's alpha for typed items is 0.858. The PCA the sample adequacy measure of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.733. The PCA yields 7 categories (individual work, physiological response to the physics class, peer interaction, insufficient time for activities, teacher support, stress-generating participation, peer competition).
      • Investigating Physics Self-Belief in Secondary Students

      • PST2C42
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Cynthia Reynolds, AJ Richards,

      • Type: Poster
      • There exists a shortage of students who enter an undergraduate program of study or intend to pursue a career in physics. Even more critical in this shortage is the underrepresentation of women and minority groups. The reasons for this shortage are not yet known. We have chosen to investigate the impact of students' physics self-belief on their likelihood to pursue physics as a career. We designed and administered a survey instrument to secondary level physics and physical science students. The survey was designed to help educators understand how the levels of self-efficacy of middle and high school level students change as they progress through their educational careers in the subject of physics. The survey also investigated if a student's level of self-efficacy is directly related to how a student views a potential career in physics. In this presentation we will detail the trends we found between students' physics self-belief, demographics, and likelihood to choose physics as a career.
      • Investigating Student Perceptions of Learning Assistants

      • PST2C44
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Virginia Coghlan, James Laverty,

      • Type: Poster
      • The Physics Department at Kansas State University recently initiated a Learning Assistant (LA) program. Previously, the studios of the department's two-semester calculus-based physics course were run by a lead instructor (faculty member or advanced graduate student) assisted by a TA (upper level undergraduate or new graduate student). The department replaced the TA in some studios with two LAs. We are conducting interviews with students who completed a studio with a TA and a studio with LAs. We are investigating the similarities and differences in the students' view of TAs versus LAs. This research will help us understand student perceptions of the LAs they encounter and to observe the impacts of the near-peer relationships between students and LAs.
      • Investigating the Effects of Modified Equipotential Diagrams on Student Interpretation

      • PST2C46
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Rebecca Rosenblatt, Jacob Cermak,, Amber Sammons,, Raymond Zich,

      • Type: Poster
      • In this study, the effect of a visual change to equipotential diagrams is investigated. Equipotential diagrams are often drawn with a uniform color and thickness to each equipotential line. The values of each equipotential are usually not given and students must infer the "size" of the equipotential from the density of the lines and/or the sign of the point charge(s). Here we present the results from modifying equipotential diagrams to use color variation and line thickness to indicate the sign and amount of the potential. These changes -- which are consistent with theories of grounded/embodied cognition -- exploit students' innate ability to perceive color and line thickness variations to communicate the variation of the electric potential. Students' were randomly assigned to the traditional or modified diagrams and asked to compare electric potentials for indicated points on given diagrams. Preliminary results indicate that these modified color diagrams are helpful for instruction.
      • Laboratories' Assessment in Terms of Flow Theory

      • PST2C48
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Anna Karelina,
      • Type: Poster
      • One of the difficulties in designing an inquiry-based lab course is finding a balance between the tasks' difficulty and students' skills. Also, the clarity of tasks should leave a room for students' creativity and exploration. In this study, we used the flow theory [1] as a framework to create a tool for finding this balance. We developed a Likert scale survey with 7 questions related to the conditions of flow and students' attitude towards the developed labs. We analyzed students' answers to this survey to find connection between the conditions of flow [1] and students' attitude towards the labs. This survey can be used as a helpful tool for labs' assessment and improvement.
      • Let's Talk About Equity -- Two-Year College Students and Physics Culture

      • PST2C50
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Abigail Daane, Elizabeth Schoene,

      • Type: Poster
      • We taught a week-long equity unit in an introductory calculus-based physics course, focusing on the effects of race and culture on the physics community. The demographics of these two-year college courses look vastly different than those of the physics field; students of color outnumber white students. Given this reversal of representation, our aim was to increase awareness of the racial inequity that is present in the rest of the physics community and to facilitate the development of support systems to move forward in STEM careers. We collected and analyzed written student reflections from these classes to better understand the views students of color bring to the equity conversation. We identified themes in their ideas about equity in physics and we argue that their responses indicate a need for explicit discussions in physics classrooms and the greater community.
      • Relationship Between Stereotype Threat and Standardized Test Performance in Physics*

      • PST2C52
      • Wed 08/01, 10:15AM - 11:00AM
      • by Alexandru Maries, Chandralekha Singh,

      • Type: Poster
      • Prior research has shown that interventions even as small as requiring a test-taker to indicate his/her gender can activate stereotype threat in situations in which there are stereotypes about performance of males and females. We have conducted an investigation in which we used various interventions described in the literature as promoting or inhibiting stereotype threat and investigated the extent to which the interventions result in changes in the test-takers' performance on a standardized conceptual physics assessment. We also identified whether students themselves endorse the predominant stereotype (that in physics males outperform females) and the extent to which these beliefs are correlated with their performance. For example, do female students who endorse the stereotype perform worse than those who do not endorse it? This along with other questions are explored in detail. * Work supported by the National Science Foundation
  • Physics Identity in Informal Programs

      • Physics Identity in Informal Programs

      • DG
      • Tue 07/31, 8:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Katie Hinko
      • Type: Panel
      • Informal activities offer opportunities for teachers and learners that formal learning environments do not offer and are often designed with the explicit goal of building physics/ science identity in its participants. There are a growing number of researchers in the PER community whose focus is on identity; however, identity is most often discussed from the perspective of formal learning environments. Additionally, facilitators of informal learning settings may be looking for tools to study identity (and its intersection with other constructs like interest and content learning) in their programs. In this panel we will explore research-based ideas on the design of informal environments to promote physics identity and the use of identity frameworks to study informal learning settings. We propose a dynamic panel session that will bring together researchers and practitioners. Speakers will each give a short presentation, ~18 minutes in length, which should be designed to engage the public (i.e. minimal powerpoint). After each speaker there will be 2 minutes for clarification questions. After all speakers’ introductory presentations there will be a panel discussion about the different ideas presented, with questions taken from the audience as well as prepared in advance by the moderator. The moderator and presenters will discuss their ideas in advance of the meeting, encouraging fluidity of ideas and informed discussion on areas of common interest. We will invite speakers from different perspectives, including both researchers and practitioners as well as U.S. and international speakers, who can collectively broach topics including: understanding the impact of participation in informal physics programs on identity at different levels from graduate students to undergraduates to youth differences and connections between informal and formal settings the diversity of types of informal programs such as school settings or public-facing campaigns Potential panelists are Shane Bergin (Trinity College Dublin), Claudia Fracchiolla (University of Galway and University of Colorado), Zahra Hazari (Florida International University), and John Falk (Oregon State University). Katie Hinko (Michigan State University) will moderate.
  • Physics Laboratories in the NSF IUSE Program

      • Physics Laboratories in the NSF IUSE Program

      • GK
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 3:00PM
      • by Kevin M. Lee
      • Type: Panel
      • This 2-hour panel session will begin by each panelist delivering a 15-minute overview presentation on the work of their NSF IUSE award. The presider will then lead a panel discussion of issues surrounding undergraduate physics laboratories at all levels allowing questions from the audience. The panel discussion is anticipated to probe recommended instructional practices, the skills and conceptual knowledge we wish to impart to students, appropriately assessing these skills and knowledge, and dealing with the constraints and taking advantage of the affordances of laboratory settings and formats. Panelists include Sean M. O’Malley of Rutgers University, Brian R. D’Urso of Montana State University, Natasha G. Holmes of Cornell University, and Heather J. Lewandowski of the University of Colorado - Boulder.
  • Physics Majors: Middle School to Doctorate

      • Finding My Balance

      • GL01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:10PM
      • by Kathleen Willard,
      • Type: Contributed
      • For the first time in 15 years, my school district required me to teach 7th grade science. There were many challenges and frustrations along the way. I had to re-evaluate what were reasonable expectations. Many of the things that I expect students to know by the time I have them in class were now the things that I needed to teach them.
      • Introduction of Observer Dependent Concepts into Middle School Physics Teaching

      • GL02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:10PM - 1:20PM
      • by Ben Stein,* Igal Galili,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Physics curricula of middle school and high school avoid dealing with the concept of observer (frame of reference). This tradition apparently draws on the assumption that school students are incapable of learning observer dependent concepts since they require multiple values valid for different observers. We empirically checked this convention. Our experimental teaching comprised 15 meetings with 9th grade students and addressed concepts from kinematics and dynamics. We examined students' success in elaborating chosen concepts in different frames of references in context of regular physics teaching. We found that 9th grade students succeeded in applying frame of reference dependence in their graphical accounts of displacement, distance, and velocity as time dependent for different observers. Operationally defined force allowed introduction of inertial forces and non-gravitational weight valid for non-inertial observers. We argue that teaching observer dependence of concepts is a powerful tool for achieving mature and genuine knowledge of classical mechanics.
      • Effectiveness of PBL in the Academic Performance of Physics Students

      • GL03
      • Wed 08/01, 1:20PM - 1:30PM
      • by Fatih Ilhan,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Harmony Public Schools have built up a STEM educational modules that fuse project-based and request based learning titled STEMSOS "STEM Students on the Stage (SOS) ™". Students practice PBL project at different levels at Harmony Public Schools. Level I is a classroom implemented and targets 21st-century aptitudes inside the setting of the educational modules. Level II and Level III are long-term interdisciplinary project associating STEM educational modules to the humanities through rich, significant, and thorough cross-disciplinary and multi-tactile project that permit the application and improvement of basic 21st-century abilities. I will demonstrate a few cases of PBL Level II sites and video that were made by my students last school year. You may see some examples on the tables.
      • AP Physics in a Chinese School

      • GL04
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 1:40PM
      • by Igor Proleiko,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Chinese students taking AP classes in Chinese schools are famous for a high degree of academic rigour and exceptional mathematical background. However, certain practices in Chinese education require adjustment in AP Physics classes, especially when experimental work and open end questions are concerned. I will share the experience of overcoming these obstacles with the Chinese student and preparing them for pursuing their education in Western cultural and academic environment.
      • Learning Assistant Program Impact for Non-Traditional Transfer Physics Majors

      • GL05
      • Wed 08/01, 1:40PM - 1:50PM
      • by Patrick Chestnut,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Rowan University, a public school located in southern New Jersey, serves ahigh number of non-traditional transfer students. Almost half of all upper-division students within the Department of Physics and Astronomy are transfer students, and one-tenth are over age 24. This population often faces unique challenges compared to traditional students matriculating directly from high school. Our team will present findings from interview data with transfer students who serve the department in the role of learning assistants within introductory physics courses. Analysis of interview data provides insights into challenges and opportunities this population faces and manners to which the LA program has been beneficial to student development.
      • Understanding the Choice of Studying Physics in Higher Education

      • GL06
      • Wed 08/01, 1:50PM - 2:00PM
      • by Kelvin Au,* Richard Hechter,

      • Type: Contributed
      • An investigation into why physics is an uncommonly chosen field of study is explored. Many individuals find physics to be a fascinating subject and demonstrate some capacity of interest in physics-related content matter, but do not choose it as a focus of study in and beyond undergraduate education. Variables that may contribute toward decisions of whether or not to pursue studies in physics include: 1) interests; 2) attitudes; and 3) beliefs. An analysis into the possible connections between these three variables is performed, and further analysis into each variable is conducted to understand how interests, attitudes, and beliefs toward and surrounding physics might have originated.
      • Engaging Undergraduates in Original Research in Their First College Course: Logistics and Impact

      • GL07
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:10PM
      • by Kristine Lang,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Undergraduate research is an integral part of science education; however, many students begin college with no clear idea what research is or how to get involved. In this talk I describe a First-Year Experience course in which students work on an original research project that is part of an ongoing physics-biology interdisciplinary research program. During the course, students participate in every aspect of research from reading background journal articles and designing the experiment, through data collection and analysis, and they finish by using their own original data to write a scientific journal article. Here I describe the "nuts and bolts" of the course structure. In addition, I present an assessment of the course impact on students. The data shows that students in this course engage in subsequent research at a much higher rate and for more total time than students who took similar science-oriented FYE courses without a research component.
      • Concept Cartoons for Student Engagement and Critical Thinking*

      • GL08
      • Wed 08/01, 2:10PM - 2:20PM
      • by Kausik Das,
      • Type: Contributed
      • This presentation discusses student engagement strategies in physics by: 1) encouraging students to interact with their peers through group learning, 2) using visualization and humor as an engagement tool through concept cartoons, and 3) integrating the concept cartoons to clicker questions for real-time, in-class feedback and assessment of learning outcomes. The goal is to creating a pool of concept cartoon-based clicker questions to enhance both engagement and critical thinking. We expect that implementation of these changes will significantly affect students' learning outcomes, help them to excel, boost their confidence and achievement levels, and in turn, improve overall undergraduate STEM retention. *K.D. would like to thank Department of Education (grant # P120A70068) and National Science Foundation (grant # 1719425) for partial financial support.
      • Becoming Cultural Navigators in a Graduate Physics Community*

      • GL09
      • Wed 08/01, 2:20PM - 2:30PM
      • by Deepa Chari, Geoff Potvin,

      • Type: Contributed
      • Graduate students who enroll in APS Bridge Program have a unique experience in the first one to two years of graduate school, as they perceive themselves to be neither undergraduates nor "typical" graduate students during these bridging years. In this study, we aim to understand what institutional and individual practices are considered important by bridge students for the successful completion of bridging years. We applied a communities of practice framework and examined 14 Bridge students' first year experiences. Particularly, we studied the development of a "course-takers" community to better understand the practices that support students' transition through bridging years. We report on how graduate students not only develop this course-takers communities, but also become cultural navigators for subsequent cohorts in interacting with the broader graduate community in their departments.
  • Physics and Product Innovation

      • What Good is an Electro-Magnetic Wave? Patents and Strategies in the Early Development of Radio, 1860-1920

      • AJ01
      • Mon 07/30, 8:30AM - 9:00AM
      • by W. Bernard Carlson,*
      • Type: Invited
      • While we often narrate the development of radio as a straightforward path from Maxwell's prediction of electromagnetic waves in the 1860s to the introduction of radio broadcasting circa 1920, the actual path from the laboratory to the marketplace was much more convoluted, and indeed, more interesting. This paper explores how physicists, inventors, and engineers all had different ideas about how to create new technology that employed electromagnetic waves. In particular, I will discuss the rivalry between Nikola Tesla and Marconi, with side glances at Michael Pupin and Lee De Forest. Overall, the paper will reveal the creative energy needed to link discovery to commercialization.
      • Neglected Stories of African Americans in Science and Invention

      • AJ02
      • Mon 07/30, 9:00AM - 9:30AM
      • by Gregory Good,
      • Type: Invited
      • All science teachers know that African Americans are underrepresented among scientists and engineers. Policy people want to increase these numbers. What can history of science uniquely offer to catch the attention of a student of an underrepresented minority? History offers, quite simply, stories. Through identifying many African Americans who have been scientists and inventors and through exploring their challenges, their successes, and their science and innovation, historians can provide images that young African Americans can identify with. This talk will introduce the more than 50 lesson plans on the AIP Center for History of Physics website – under Teaching Guides on Women and Minorities – and in the AIP History of Science Web Exhibits. The focus of this talk will be to help teachers explore the stories of African Americans who have contributed to science and innovation.
      • The Protective Rights of Intellectual Property Ownership

      • AJ03
      • Mon 07/30, 9:30AM - 10:00AM
      • by Zandra Smith,*
      • Type: Invited
      • The protective rights of intellectual property ownership can provide safeguards against competitor infringement, ensure brand recognition and distinguish the brand from all other goods and services offered to customers nationwide. Learn the basics of patents, trademarks, and copyrights with an in-depth discussion relating to all aspects of the patenting process. The presentation will provide an overview of the types of patents, parts of a patent applications, the examination process, claim analysis with respect to novelty and obviousness, and the understanding an office action.
      • Trademarks -- Keys to Commercialization for Any New Inventions

      • AJ04
      • Mon 07/30, 10:00AM - 10:30AM
      • by Craig Morris,*
      • Type: Invited
      • Protecting an invention is one thing---and critical. But commercializing that invention, that is, successfully taking it to market, is another important step. This program highlights how trademarks are critical "keys" in that overall process." It starts by discussing what trademarks are and how they differ from domain names and business name registrations. It then explains the importance of selecting a strong mark, that is, one that is both federally registrable and legally protectable. It highlights factors important when choosing a mark, such as the possibility of a likelihood of confusion, and explains the importance of searching and whether to use an attorney. Finally, it establishes what may happen if another trademark owner believes it has stronger rights in a mark and issues a "cease-and-desist" letter. It concludes with information on how to avoid "scams" perpetrated by companies that request fees for services that the USPTO does not require.
  • Physics for Refugees & Distant Education

      • Constituting Effective Learning Environments for Non-traditional Students

      • GJ01
      • Wed 08/01, 1:00PM - 1:30PM
      • by Cedric Linder, Johan Larsson,

      • Type: Invited
      • The constitution of effective learning environments in introductory physics takes on special significance when the participating students have a traumatic and/or deprived socio-economic background. In this presentation reflections on two such learning environments will be presented, one situated in South Africa and the other in Sweden. In so doing, Alfred Whitehead's notion of educational rhythm and Paul Hewitt's advocated communicative practice (use of semiotic resources) will be used to frame story-lines of accomplishment and on-going challenge.
      • Physics for Refugees in Cologne: Introduction and the Refugee Center

      • GJ02
      • Wed 08/01, 1:30PM - 2:00PM
      • by Florian Genz, Sara Lotfipour,, Dan MacIsaac,, Kathleen Falconer,

      • Type: Invited
      • We start with an introduction to the German Physical Society's (DPG) physics for refugees program Physik für Flüchtlinge (PfF), including history, motivation, prevalence and formal materials from their website. Next we briefly describe the transition refugee center administered by the Red Cross and the refugee children there who participated in weekly PfF afternoon classes. Then we will present and describe the PfF activities we have carried out to date at the center at length and with commentary.
      • Physics for Refugees 2: Grade School and Lessons Learned

      • GJ03
      • Wed 08/01, 2:00PM - 2:30PM
      • by Daniel MacIsaac, Michael Resvoll,, Florian Genz,, Kathleen Falconer,

      • Type: Invited
      • We start with an overview of the (Junior and Senior High School) Stadt Gymnasium Köln at Thusneldastraße physics class dedicated to Physics for Refugees (PfF), including history, motivation, and a description of the school, teachers, non-refugee student assistants (Helferin*innen) and a lengthier description of the Thesnuldastraße refugee students. We will include details about the support materials and efforts provided to refugees, particularly to those support materials and concepts focusing on language and interrupted learning. Further, we present and describe PfF activities carried out to date at the Gymnasium. A lengthy discussion of lessons learned including focus, strategies, and advice to others working with refugee children learning physics will end the presentation.
  • Plenary - A Conversation with Shirley Malcom

      • Plenary - A Conversation with Shirley Malcom

      • PL03
      • Mon 07/30, 4:00PM - 5:00PM
      • by Mel Sabella
      • Type: Plenary
      • In this plenary session we have invited four members of the diverse AAPT community to participate in a discussion with Dr. Malcom. Shirley Malcom is Head of Education and Human Resources Programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The directorate includes AAAS programs in education, activities for underrepresented groups, and public understanding of science and technology. AAPT members participating in this conversation represent students, high school teachers, two year college faculty, and four year college and university faculty. Representatives from each group will ask Dr. Malcom pressing questions from their unique perspectives about the state of science education. In this setting we leverage the expertise of Dr. Malcom, as well as the expertise of AAPT members, in developing a better understanding of the science education landscape. Participants in the conversation: Shirley Malcom, Director, Education and Human Resources Programs (EHR) American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Facilitator: Bethany Johns, American Institute of Physics Student representative: Eleanor Hook, Rhodes College High School representative: Alice Flarend, Bellwood-Antis High School Two Year College representative: Arlisa Richardson, Chandler-Gilbert Community College Four Year College and University representative: Scott Franklin, Rochester Institute of Technology
  • Plenary - David Cash

      • Plenary - David Cash

      • PL06
      • Tue 07/31, 4:00PM - 5:00PM
      • by Mel Sabella
      • Type: Plenary
      • Dispatch from the Front Lines: Confessions of a Science Teacher, Researcher and Government Bureaucrat - In the last year, scientists have taken to the streets in two national marches for science, science curricula in a number of states are under fundamental review, and federal rules that govern the use of science in the US Environmental Protection Agency are being revised. These are just a few of the data points that show that science, scientific research, the science-policy interface, science education and scientific literacy are being defined, re-defined, re-cast, transformed, re-imagined, and re-conceived. This presentation will explore the turbulent world we as science educators and practitioners find ourselves in.
  • Post-deadline Abstracts I

      • Another Look at Surprising Facts about Earth's Population

      • HA01
      • Wed 08/01, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by A. James Mallmann,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Information about Earth's past rate of population growth is often incorrectly presented. Many people would find that the mathematical facts about that rate of growth is surprising. Moreover, there are arguments that Earth's current population is not large enough to cause concern. Simple arithmetic can be used to show a surprising flaw in those arguments.
      • Experimental Design: Cookbook to Inquiry Pathways Students Embark On

      • HA02
      • Wed 08/01, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Abigail Mechtenberg, David McKenna,

      • Type: Contributed
      • At the University of Notre Dame, our introductory labs implemented an experimental design approach over three years with 300+ students/term and 24+ TAs/year. This ED pedagogy uses three thought spheres of doing science: measurements, calculations, and variations. The first thought sphere focuses on what is and how is it measured. It requires understanding the measurement sensors' engineering manual and apparatus drawing. The second sphere is vital to explain in detail what is going to be calculated and how it is going to be calculated (derivation or regression). The third sphere has to do with statistics: what will be varied and how will it be varied. Together there are two analysis pathways: derivation-based (with percent error or error propagation) and regression-based (with RMSE). Using google classroom to document over 20,000 grading comments, 2000 lab reports, 1,500 lab finals and 2,000 evaluations, we define a potential action pathway from novice to approaching expert.
      • Game-ification of Resistors: Resistance Is Futile

      • HA03
      • Wed 08/01, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by James O'Brien, Greg Sirokman,, Franz Rueckert,, Derek Cascio,

      • Type: Contributed
      • In recent years, gamification of education has proven to be an effective paradigm in modern pedagogy. Following the success of the author's previous work with "Sector Vector," they now present a new interactive game based laboratory to highlight the basic manipulation and calculation of resistors in circuits. In Resistile, the lesson of basic resistor combinations is delivered in a game based exercise in which a circuit continually evolves. Students are exposed to the creation of a modular circuit which does not always conform to a standard view as might be expected in textbook examples. Together, in an interactive fashion, they must evaluate and analyze a potentially complex overall circuit diagram. Results of student engagement and concept retention have been shown to increase due to the dynamic environment and competitive nature established in the gaming environment. In this talk, we discuss both the concept of the lab-based game itself, as well as the pedagogical implications of the implementation of this gaming medium vs. the traditional resistor combination laboratory exercise.
      • 9th Grade Physics Students' Views on Physics Stereotypes

      • HA05
      • Wed 08/01, 3:40PM - 3:50PM
      • by Johan Tabora,
      • Type: Contributed
      • This investigation took place in a 9th-grade physics class in a selective-enrollment high school where a "Physics & Society" theme was implemented to study societal issues like gender and race from a physics lens. Students were given assignments asking them about their identities and physics stereotypes. The research questions that this investigation sought to address were: (1) How do 9th-grade students view the role of women and people of color in physics? (2) How do they view society's capacity to change these stereotypes? The findings showed that students recognize stereotypes and that these need to be addressed. Further studies need to be performed to determine who the students think bears the responsibility for these changes.
      • Connecting Demonstration Apparatus to the Real World

      • HA06
      • Wed 08/01, 3:50PM - 4:00PM
      • by Don Balanzat,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Demonstration and experimental apparatus' bridge the theoretical parts of physics to various external stimuli. In doing so they inspire curiosity, inform of practicality, and bring life and appreciation into what can sometimes be mundane curricula. In this talk, I would like to recount my experiences with various apparatus' and how they eventually led me to a degree in physics and a career in designing, maintaining, and performing physics demonstrations. I discuss an ever-increasing list of resources for those who are interested in apparatuses, my list of particularly entertaining demonstrations, and the impact of their performance in various settings, academic or otherwise.
      • LabEscape!

      • HA07
      • Wed 08/01, 4:00PM - 4:10PM
      • by Paul Kwiat
      • Type: Contributed
      • Based on APS seed money, we have set up what we believe is the world’s first science-based escape room: LabEscape. By interacting with physics components in the room, the participants uncover clues that allow them to solve the mystery of missing quantum physicist Professor Alberta Schrodenberg, and escape! We now have two scenarios operating, each with ~ten different puzzles, all based on physics phenomena, including polarization, refraction, induction, lasers, etc. The room is operated by undergraduate STEM students, and most of the puzzles were created by them as well. Our goal is to show that science can be useful and accessible (no prior background is assumed), as well as beautiful and even fun! To date we’ve had over 3000 ‘agents’ participate, and received near perfect reviews. We’re now exploring ways to expand to an even wider audience, e.g., in other cities, science centers, etc. For more information, see LabEscape.org.
      • Pre-Service Teachers' Physics Content Knowledge and Teaching Efficacy

      • HA08
      • Wed 08/01, 4:10PM - 4:20PM
      • by Mamta Singh,
      • Type: Contributed
      • It is important for elementary pre-service teachers to have strong sciencecontent knowledge. If pre-service teachers lack a firm knowledge and understanding of any science topic he or she is teaching, it may lead to development of misconceptions which is one of the major issues in elementary science teaching and learning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate elementary pre-service teachers' science content knowledge and teaching readiness. Content knowledge pre-post-tests based on three science domains: Life Science, Physical Science, and Earth, Space Science along with developing lesson plan in three science domains to measure the research objectives. The results indicated that the participants increase their knowledge at the end of the semester and also their teaching efficacy was improved in the post survey. However, results also revealed that participants were more comfortable in designing life science and earth and space science domains' lessons compared to physical science domain lessons.
      • Physics Night Study Hall at New Mexico Military Institute

      • HA09
      • Wed 08/01, 4:20PM - 4:30PM
      • by Yang Yang,
      • Type: Contributed
      • New Mexico Military Institute is the only state-supported co-educational college preparatory high school and junior college institution in the United States. NMMI's military boarding school environment requires cadets to develop strong academic skills while they are living in the military framework with tight class schedules starting 7:55 am to 3:30 pm. College physics class usually meets three to four times a week plus two hours of lab section on Tuesday or Thursday. NMMI started a physics club, Physics Night Study Hall, meeting twice a week from 7:00 pm to 9:30 pm supervised and led by professors since 2009. During the physics NSH, homework, exercises, test review problems are discussed and project ideas are shared. Dr. Yang or Dr. Tang will answer questions or conduct review sections during the NSH. The physics NSH is a successful program at NMMI that helps the cadets to reach their academic goals.
  • Post-deadline Abstracts II

      • Pseudolongitudinal Investigation on Chinese Students' Categorization of Kinematics and Mechanics Problems

      • HB01
      • Wed 08/01, 3:00PM - 3:10PM
      • by Qingwei Chen,
      • Type: Contributed
      • Students' categorization of physics problems reflects their expertise in problem solving. We conducted a pseudolongitudinal study to investigate the development of students' categorization ability. Over 250 Chinese students from grades 10 to 12 were asked to categorize 20 problems of kinematics and mechanics into suitable categories based on the similarity of solutions. We compared the categories made by the students in different grades and found that, although students in all three grades performed as novices, their expertise in categorization gradually developed. The results also suggested that the training in problem solving may affect students' categorization, especially for those in grade 12.
      • Recent Study of Rising Seas---What Should We Share with Students and Society?

      • HB02
      • Wed 08/01, 3:10PM - 3:20PM
      • by Celia Chow,
      • Type: Contributed
      • The important issue or problem facing us NOW is the Climate Change, whether you think it is man-made or not! My study of sea water rising maybe shared with physics/science teachers, their students and general public.
      • Professional Development linked to AP Redesign

      • HB03
      • Wed 08/01, 3:20PM - 3:30PM
      • by Arthur Eisenkraft
      • Type: Contributed
      • In 2014, the College Board, based on recommendations of a 2002 NRC report,revised the AP Physics B course. Over five thousand AP teachers had to change what they had taught and how they taught it if they wanted their students to succeed on the new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams. We surveyed those teachers to see how they came up to speed on these changes. We explored whether any of these professional development choices or combinations of choices correlated with gains in student AP scores. We will discuss the range of professional development opportunities that teachers were offered, how they selected the ones they participated in, and how these findings contribute to the accepted model of professional development. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation through the Discovery Research PreK-12 program (DRK-12), Award 1221861. The views contained in th